CONFLICT MANAGEMENTCOURSE OUTLINE: I. Conflict Defined A. Causes of Conflict B. Types of Conflict C. Stages of Conflict D. Reaction to Conflict II. Resolution to Conflict A. Approaches to Conflict Resolution B. Conflict Management C. Strategies for Conflict Resolution D. ElementsOBJECTIVE: At the end of the lesson, students will be able to identify,classify, relate, apply and resolve concepts on: • Types, Causes, Stages and Reactions to Conflict • Approaches to Conflict Resolution • Conflict Management • Strategies for Conflict Resolution • Elements
What is a Conflict? • A state of disharmony between incompatible or antithetical persons, ideas, or interests; a clash. • Opposition between characters or forces in a work of drama or fiction, especially opposition that motivates or shapes the action of the plot. • A psychic struggle between opposing or incompatible impulses, desires, or tendencies.Causes of Conflict:1.Security2. Inability to control self and others3. Respect between parties4. Limited Resources5. FrustrationsTypes of Conflict:1. Intrasender – conflict originates in the sender who gives conflicting instructions2. Intersender – arises when a person receives conflicting messages from one or moresources.3. Interrole – occurs when a person belongs to more than one group.4. Person-role – result of a discrepancies between internal and external role.5. Interperson – between people whose positions require interaction with other personswho fill various roles in the same organization or other organizations.6. Intragroup – occurs when a group faces new problem, when new values are imposedon the group from outside, or when one’s extragroup role conflicts with one’s intragrouprole.7. Intergroup – common when two groups have different goals and can only achieve theirgoals at the other’s expense.8. Role Ambiguity – condition where an individual do not know what is expected ofthem.
9. Role Overload – individuals cannot meet the expectations placed on them.Stages of Conflict 1. Latent conflict – phase of anticipation It exists whenever individual, groups, organization or nations have differences thatbother one or the other but those differences are not great enough to cause one side to actto alter the situation. There is not yet an outright conflict present but a number of factorsexist that create the conditions that could result in a conflict.2. Perceived conflict – indicates cognitive awareness of stressful situation It exists when there is a cognitive awareness on the part of at least one party that events have occurred or that conditions exist favorable to creating overt conflict. Groups recognizes that a conflict is emerging and starts to look for possible explanation. 3. Felt conflict – presence of affective states such as stress, tensions, anxiety, anger, hostility. Organization, groups or individual become more internally cohesive. Other group inthe organization are viewed with suspicion as outsider. Us versus them mentality beginsto really take hold.4. Manifest conflict – overt behavior resulting from the above three stages.At this stage the conflicting parties are actively engaging in conflict behavior which isusually very apparent to non-involved parties. Feelings of conflict are now translatedinto actions and words which could either be constructive obstructive to problem solvingprocess.Reactions to conflict1. Sublimation- a defense mechanism by which the individual satisfies a socially prohibited instinctive drive through the substitution of socially acceptable behavior.2. Vigorous physical exercise3. Increase efforts4. Identification- a persons association with or assumption of the qualities, characteristics or views of another person or group. – attribution to yourself ( consciously or unconsciously) of the characteristicof another person.5. Re-interpret goals6. Substitute goals – setting another goal7. Rationalization- a defense mechanism by which your true motivation is concealed by explaining your actions and feelings in a way that is not threatening.8. Attention getting
9. Reaction formation- a defense mechanism by which an objectionable impulse is expressed in an opposite or contrasting behavior.10. Flight into fantasy11. Projection- the attribution of one’s own attitudes, feelings or desires to someone or something as a naïve or unconscious defense against anxiety or guilt.12. Displacement- unconscious defense mechanism whereby the mind redirects emotion from a dangerous object to a safe object.13. Fixation- a strong attachment to a person or thing especially such an attachment formed in childhood or infancy and manifested in the immature or neurotic behavior that persists throughout life.14. Withdrawal- detachment as from social or emotional involvement.15. Repression- the classical defense mechanism that protects you from impulses or ideas that would causes anxiety by preventing them from becoming conscious.16. Conversion- repressed ideas conflicts or impulses are manifested by various bodily symptoms, such as paralysis or sensory deficits that have no physical cause. - a change in which one adopts a new religion, faith or beliefs. Approaches to Conflict Resolution 1. ACCOMMODATING - the person neglects personal concerns to satisfy the concerns of others. It is cooperative but unassertive. 2. COMPROMISING – the individual attempts to find mutually acceptable solutions that partially satisfy both parties in reflects assertiveness and cooperation 3. COLLABORATING – the individual attempts to work with others toward solutions that satisfy the work of both parties it is both assertive and cooperative 4. COMPETING – the person pursues personal concerns at another’s expense. It is a power oriented mode that is assertive but uncooperative. the competition is aggressive and pursues one’s own goals at another’s expense. Conflict Management Negotiation – is a strategic process used to move conflicting parties toward an outcome. PROCESS/PHASES OF NEGOTIATION: PHASE 1 Establishing the issue and agenda PHASE 2 Advancing demands and uncovering interests PHASE 3 Bargaining and discovering new options – inflict resolution to both parties; options to resolve
PHASE 4 Working out an agreement PHASE 5 Aftermath – is the period following an agreement in where parties are expending the consequences of their decisions. Collaboration – is achieved through a developmental process. It is sequential yet reciprocal and characterized by seven strategies and activities. 1. Awareness – makes a conscious entry into a group process, focus on goals of convening together, generate definition of collaborative process and what it means to team members 2. Tentative exploration and mutual acknowledgement a. Exploration – disclose professional skills for the desire process; disclose areas where contribution cannot be mace, disclose values reflecting priorities; identify roles and disclose personal values, including time, energy, interest and resources. b. Mutual acknowledgements – clarify each members potential contributions; clarify member’s work style, organizational supports and barriers to collaborative efforts. 3. Trust building – determines the degree to which reliance on others can achieved; examines congruence between words and behaviors; set interdependent goals; develop tolerance for ambiguity. 4. Collegiality – defines the relations of the members with each other; define the responsibilities and tasks of each; defines entrance and exit conditions. 5. Consensus – determine the issues for which consensus; determine the process for reevaluating consensus outcomes. 6. Commitment – realize the physical; emotional and material actions directed toward the goal; clarify the procedures for reevaluating commitment in light of goal depends and group for deviance. 7. Collaboration – initiate process of joint decision making reflecting the synergy that results from combining knowledge and skills.Strategies of Conflict Resolution1. Win Lose a. Position Power b. Mental or Physical Power c. Failure to respond
d. Majority rule e. Railroading2. Lose-lose a. Compromise b. Bribes c. Arbitration d. General Rules3. Win-win a. Consensus b. Problem-solvingElements1. Research – more powerful tool in generating knowledge.2. Participation – democracy (people power) - involves social trained researcher to guide to people - involve stakeholders3. Action – Stakeholders will initiate the action done by the peopleCOPAR – community organizing participatory action research