Advertising includes all forms of paid, non-personal communication and
promotion of products, services, or ideas by a specified sponsor.
Advertising appears in such media as print (newspapers, magazines,
billboards, flyers) or broadcast (radio, television).
Is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating
communication, and delivering value to customers and for managing
customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its
Or noise: when many messages compete for attention, so viewers
become confused and often misidentify the product;
Items that easily evoke consensually held meanings within a culture or
The symbol used to identify a company and its brands, helping to convey
the overall corporate image.
When consumers are aware of the brand, have it in their consideration
sets, regard the product and brand as a good value, buy it or use it on a
regular basis, and recommend it to other.
A set of brand assets that add to the value assigned to a product.
The identification of specific purchasing groups based on their needs,
attitudes, and interests.
Specifically, represents information about the audience’s behavior in
o Past purchase behavior
o Online search activity in a particular product category or set of
VALS (Values Attitudes and Lifestyles) Segmentation
a psychographic segmentation developed to explain changing values and
lifestyles. Also, it enhances the ability to predict consumer behavior.
There are several categories: innovators, thinkers, believers, achievers,
strivers, experiences, makers, and survivors.
The process of creating a perception in the consumer’s mind about the
nature of a company and its products relative to the competition. It is
created by the quality of products, prices charged, and methods of
distribution, image, and other factors
The key idea that encapsulates what a brand is intended to stand for in
its target market’s mind and then consistently delivers the same idea
across all media channels.
Problem of over-positioning
Extreme positioning on one benefit will reduce the number of interested
Problem of under-positioning
Fails to make a clear differentiation with competitors.
Consumer Processing Model (CPM)
From a consumer-processing perspective (CPM), information processing
and choice are seen as rational, cognitive, systematic, and reasoned.
Hedonic Experential Model (HEM)
The hedonic, experiential perspective, on the other hand, views
consumer processing of marcom messages and behavior as driven by
emotions in pursuit of fun, fantasies, and feelings.
Maslow’s Theory Hierarchy of Needs
Does not reflect the company’s goods and services, but instead,
something that is unique, different, and memorable.
Try to capture the essence of the idea behind the brand (eg. Google)