Semantic Copyright Expression Options

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Creative Commons offers a more permission URL, however this does not contain any useful machine readably information for double licensing of works. Hence we suggest to integrate a semantic copyright ontology into RDFa.

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Semantic Copyright Expression Options

  1. 1. Which route should we follow, when representing CC+ ? 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  2. 2. Where are we now? • osAlliance is running two registries – digital timestamping as key asset – storage – certificates – double licensing, including payment clearance • osAlliance business model – co-operative with 46 IT / media / design consultants – Open Source / Open Content / Open Innovation – We mainly do consultancy in complex 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works environments
  3. 3. 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  4. 4. 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  5. 5. 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  6. 6. Intermediaries collect and distribute • Rights Collecting • Revenue Sharing Societies Providers • Cultural Flat Rate • CCplus Do you remember the Creative Commons slogan: Skip the Intermediaries? But: CC non-commercial license options still dominate! CC-nc: 67,5% in 2006 (http://wiki.creativecommons.org/License_statistics) 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  7. 7. 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  8. 8. International Standard Recording Code http://www.ifpi.org/content/section_resources/isrc_handbook.html The ISRC system is the key to royalty collection for recordings in the digital information age. • ISRC is a unique, reliable, international identification system. • ISRC provides a unique tool for the purpose of rights administration. • ISRC is a useful identification tool in the electronic distribution of music. • ISRC coding is compatible with standards developed in the field of consumer electronics and is readable by hardware already used in the recording industry. • ISRC is cost effective - it can be put into operation 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works without requiring special investment in equipment or
  9. 9. CC+ in CC Rights Expression Language • ccREL – Creative Commons Rights Expression Language (ccREL) is a proposed metadata language for descriptive metadata to be appended to media that is licensed under any of the Creative Commons licenses. According to the draft submitted to the W3C, it is to come in the forms of RDFa for (x)HTML pages and XMP for standalone media. • RDFa – RDFa (or Resource Description Framework - in - attributes) is a set of extensions to XHTML which is now a W3C Recommendation. RDFa uses attributes from Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at XHTML's meta and link elements, and generalises them <a rel="cc:morePermissions" so that they are usable on all elements. This allows href="http://www.registeredcommons.org/grid/RC-01-LIZ0000000829-8">Registered Commons</a>. annotating XHTML markup with semantics. 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  10. 10. Limitations with ccREL • ccREL used by Creative Commons schema – enough for CC licenses – but does not scale to CC+ scenarios – CC Schema (18 classes, 10 properties) • XML approaches (ODRL, MPEG-21 REL,...) – XML limited expressivity, just formal syntax – Internet/Web is open and heterogeneous – Copyright is a complex domain – Requires high level of abstraction (not bits or pixels) 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  11. 11. Semantic approaches • ODRL – The Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) Initiative is an international effort aimed at developing and promoting an open standard for rights expressions. http://www.w3.org/TR/odrl/ • RDF/OWL – The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies, and is endorsed by the W3C. http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-ref/ 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  12. 12. Idea • Profit from the greater expressive power of Web Ontologies: – formal models for Creative Commons and CC+ – expressive enough for Private Copy,… – put it into play in a Semantic Copyright Management System – reuse Semantic Web reasoning support in order to facilitate implementation – model ODRL using RDF/OWL and then plug ccREL to it using RDFa • Use Copyright Ontology building blocks… – CopyrightOnto (99 classes, 42 properties) – http://rhizomik.net/ontologies/copyrightonto 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  13. 13. Let's define “root” semantic elements first Copyright MPEG-21 “Adapt” Reproduction Right ODRL “Duplicate” Copy CC “Reproduction” 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  14. 14. Copyright Ontology Creation, Rights and Actions Models 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  15. 15. CopyrightOnto Creation Model Abstractions Goethe’s Faust Work Objects Processes Manifestation Performance Fixation Communication Instance
  16. 16. CopyrightOnto Rights Model RentalRight DistributionRight ImportationRight FixationRight SoundRecordRight ReproductionRight MotionPictureRight EconomicRights PublicPerformanceRight BroadcastingRight CommunicationRight MakingAvailableRight TransformationRight AdaptationRight TranslationRight AttributionRight IntegrityRight Copyright MoralRights DisclosureRight WithdrawalRight PermorfersRights RelatedRights ProducersRights BroadcastersRights
  17. 17. CopyrightOnto Action Model Connect building blocks with actions Abstractions transform Work manifest improvise Objects Processes Manifestation perform Performance distribute reproduce retransmit Fixation fix reproduce communicate Communication Instance
  18. 18. CopyrightOnto Action Model • Actions governed by Economic Rights: – Reproduction Right: copy – Distribution Right: distribute; sell, rent, lend – Public Performance Right: perform – Fixation Right: record – Communication Right: communicate; retransmit, broadcast, make available 3 CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works rd – Transformation Right:
  19. 19. CopyrightOnto Action Model • End-user actions, to use a… picture, sculpture – manifestation: buy book, CD, DVD – instance: buy projection, recital, exhibition – performance: assist TV channel, radio station – communication: access web page, stream • broadcast: tune • something made available: access
  20. 20. CopyrightOnto Action Model • License building primitives: – Event Patterns: to state what is obliged, permitted or prohibited • Built from actions and case roles Person All copy events agent performed by any Copy person who copies result any instance getting Instance aim theme a copy instance and whose aim is private private Instance 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  21. 21. CopyrightOnto Action Model • License building primitives: – Agree: model permissions • theme points to the permitted event pattern Agree theme Person agent Copy result aim theme Instance private Instance 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  22. 22. CopyrightOnto Action Model • License building primitives: – consequence: model obligations • Points to the obliged event pattern – condition: model a priori conditions • Points to the condition event pattern – Disagree: model prohibitions • theme points to the prohibited event pattern – Other concepts: • Transfer: models interchanges, commercial or not. • Time/Location • Rules (provide named variables) • ... 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  23. 23. CopyrightOnto Scenarios CC by-sa license using CopyrighOnto: Agree theme theme theme A B Copy ⊔ Copy ⊔ Distribute ⊔ Distribute ⊔ C Derive Communicate ⊔ Communicate ⊔ MakeAvailable MakeAvailable theme condition condition theme result MyManifestation Attribute NewManifestation isManifestationOf recipient A: copy, distribute, communicate and me newWork make available manifestations of “myWork” if attribution theme isDerivationOf isManifestationOf C: authorise derivations of the work B: the same terms for derivations theme myWork 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  24. 24. CopyrightOnto Scenarios Private Copy using CopyrightOnto: Agree theme Person ?x isDirectlyRelatedTo Person agent Copy agent result Instance ?y theme Use aim theme theme private Instance Agree 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  25. 25. Conclusions • Concentrate on semantics • Ontology, more expressivity – formalise CC licenses but also CC+ ones • Facilitates implementation and interoperability – reasoners for license checking • Easy to integrate with ccREL – based on RDF/OWL so expressive as RDFa 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  26. 26. Copyright Ontology Implementation 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  27. 27. CopyrightOnto Implementation • One conceptual model, many implementations • Semantic Web implementation with OWL • OWL-DL variant + expressivity – enables tractable and decidable reasoning OWL Full OWL DL OWL Lite for use-license checking, scalability - complexity 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  28. 28. CopyrightOnto Implementation • Rights and License Patterns Copyright implemented as Classes – Copyright, Reproduction Right, Reproduction Copy, CopyPattern,... Right • Uses Copy implemented as Instances – u Copy Pattern • if u ∈ Copy Pattern then ? license pattern authorises u u
  29. 29. CopyrightOnto Implementation • License Pattern Class built from constraints on kinds of actions, agents, time points, locations, etc. • OWL Building Blocks – Classes for actions (e.g. Copy) – Logical operators (AND, OR, NOT) – OWL Restrictions, constraints on case roles (e.g. agent all values from PublisherSubscribers) 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  30. 30. CopyrightOnto Implementation • Copy pattern restricted to: – digital object (theme ) – group of users (agent ) .. • or 2/. Copy 03 0 .1 – non-commercial (aim ) i:1 do = ag me en t= t he Pu bli she rS • depending on ub scr ibe aim = Non-Commercial rs – time range (pointInTime ) po int In Tim e ≥2 /3 0 ] 20 07/06 00 7/ 1/01- 07 [2 0 07/0 / 01 In Time copy theme doi:10.1032/… point licensed actions 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  31. 31. CopyrightOnto Implementation • Patterns permitted by Agree actions and prohibited by Disagree ones Agree Agree Copy Disagree all copy actions Pattern 2 Pattern 1 Pattern 2’ Allowed 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  32. 32. CopyrightOnto Implementation • OWL-DL reasoners services: Pattern A – Satisfiability: consistency, license verification Pattern B – Subsumption: compute subclasses • License interactions • License search Pattern – Instance Checking: class an individual belongs to • Check uses against licenses Use – Other: • Debugging, justifications for reasoning 3rd conclusions CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  33. 33. Overview on Semantic Web 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  34. 34. • Semantic Web proposal – Web + Knowledge Representation – Web wide formal semantics • RDF: semantic net, graph model • RDF Schema: classes, inheritance,… • Web Ontology Language (OWL) – OWL-DL: scalable (decidable and tractable) • Semantic Web Rules 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  35. 35. Graph model • RDF provides graph model: Album title "..." release contains item_1 title List Song "..." author MusicGroup author item_2 Song title "..." • Graph can model: – trees (XML) – tables (DBs) 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  36. 36. • RDFSchema: OOP-like primitives – type – class, property a RD chem – subclass, subproperty Class – domain, range Audio F FS RD subClassOf Class Song type domain http://music.org Property Property /song1 attribute title type subPropertyOf range title Class type Literal “...” 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  37. 37. • Web Ontology Language (OWL) – Logic reasoning – Primitives for semantic interoperability • Equivalent classes and properties equivalentClass, equivalentProperty • Disjoint classes disjointWith • Inverse, transitive, symmetric properties inverseOf, TransitiveProperty, SymmetricProperty • Cardinality maxCardinality, minCardinality • Unique value properties FunctionalProperty • Identificative properties 3rd InverseFunctionalProperty CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  38. 38. Where do we arrive with a semantic web approach? •Compatibility with ccREL •Ability to express public domain •Represent moral rights •Track revocations •Connectors to intermediaries 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  39. 39. Help content manage users or help users manage content? Simply leave commercial exploitation in the dust? How shall we handle dead pointers to more permission URLs? How can we represent dual licensing properly? 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works
  40. 40. Contact Roland Alton ras@osAlliance.com +43 664 1547588 Roberto Garcia roberto@rhizomik.net 3rd CC Tech Summit Torino 26 June 2009: Roland Alton - Options for Expressing More Permissions Licenses in Creative Works

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