Feature Bundle Dictionary
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Classifying words in terms of syntactic features.

Classifying words in terms of syntactic features.

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Feature Bundle Dictionary Presentation Transcript

  • 1. A feature bundle dictionary Babel 2 Presenter: Rasika Saikia
  • 2. How far does a dictionary help?
    • Words have their idiosyncrasies. Though a language can be assigned a set of generalized structures, it is permeated with irregularities.
    • “ It is widely accepted-both among linguists and in general – that the dictionary is the place to put irregular properties of particular words.” [Kilby pg:11]
  • 3. The structure of a conventional dictionary:
    • The word level categories of a word.
    • Meanings
    • Sentences
    • Formal and informal usages.
  • 4. Things that we take into account while using a particular word in a sentence:
    • Meaning
    • Grammatical category
    • Grammatical properties of a particular word.
    • Idiosyncrasies
    • Collocations
  • 5. The causes of some common word choice errors
    • Overgeneralization
    • Substitution
    • Dialectal variations
    • Low frequency in usage
  • 6. Lets think about it.
    • A) “If there is any situation or issue that needs to be informed ( communicated) to others, the chat features make it easier.”
    • Let us look at the dictionary entry of the word informed. .
    • Will this entry help us explain why the word is incorrect in the sentence?
    • The inclusion of structures in which “informed” appears will definitely resolve this issue.
    • Also indicating the possible prepositions that come along with a word will reduce confusions in the usage of prepositions.
    • For example: We need to be informed+ of +something
    • to be informed+ of something
    • It needs to be communicated + to + somebody
    • To be communicated+ to somebody
  • 7. Infinitive or gerund
    • I want to complete my work in time.
    • I like completing/to complete my work in time.
    • I know swimming.
    • I know completing the work.
    • I know how to swim.
    • I know how to complete the work in time.
    • Want, know and like are all transitive verbs but their structure vary while taking objects.
    • Want: Subject+ V+ infinitive
    • Like: Subject+ V+ infinitive/gerund
    • Know: Subject+ V+ gerund/how+ infinitive
    • The inclusion of these structures will help avoid the confusion on the usage of infinitives and gerunds after verbs.
  • 8. Transitive or intransitive?
    • The salesman talked Bill into buying a car.
    • The salesman talked to Bill.
    • Verb+ Object [To persuade someone to do something]
    • Verb+ Preposition [To converse with somebody]
  • 9.
    • The passenger squirmed in the bus.
    • The passenger squirmed his way out of the bus.
    • The dictionary describes ‘squirmed’ as intransitive. Given that entry, how do we explain the second sentence?
  • 10. Proposition A feature bundle dictionary Syntactic features Meaning Idiosyncrasies
  • 11.
    • In this paper, I have focused on verbs and listed all the usual syntactic features that verbs appear in. I have also tried to give some entries on verbs as they should appear in a feature bundle dictionary.
  • 12. Syntactic features of verbs :
    • Tense :V1, V2, V3,Progressive (be+ Verb+ ing)
    • Third person singular subject: Vs/es
    • Subjunctive : It +VP+important/+that/+subject+v1
    • [It is recommended that she consult a doctor]
    • Subject+ verbs of urgency+that+Subject+v1
    • Infinitival : to+v1
    • Gerund/Participle (-be+ Verb+ ing)
    • Transitive : Verb+ Object
    • : Verb + noun phrase.
    • [Dave amazed his friends by suddenly getting married.]
    • : Verb+ infinitive [I hope he remembers to buy the stamps.]
    • : Verb+ gerunds [I don’t remember buying the stamps.]
    • : Verb+ that/what/how/where clause
    • : Verb+ NP (Oi)+ infinitive (Od) [ The teacher asked him to work on the project.]
    • Intransitive : verb-noun phrase (no object)
    • Stative : Verbs- ing
  • 13.
    • Dynamic : be (forms) +verb+/ ing
    • Link : subject+ verb+ adjective [He acts innocent.]
    • Subject+ verb+ as if/as though [She looks as if she is going to faint.]
    • Causative verbs : subject+ make/have/get (Cv)+ O+ V1
    • [Mrs. Lee made her son clean his room.]
    • [‘Mrs. Lee made her son to clean his room.’ is incorrect.]
    • Modifier : Verb+ adverb
    • Adverb+ verb
    • Verb+ when clause
    • Verb+ wherever clause
    • Verb+ prep phrase
    • Verb+ so that clause
    • Verb+ infinitive
    • Verb+ prep+ gerunds
    • Passive : ±have/had+ be(forms)+V3
    • Auxiliarie s:
    • Primary auxiliary : Subject+ be/have/do (forms)+ AP/NP
    • : Subject+ be/have/do(forms)+V(ing/past participle/bare)+Predicate
    • Modals : Subject+ modals+ V(bare form)
  • 14. Know I have known her for 20 years. [ Meaning to be familiar.] I am knowing you [Incorrect.] I know him. I know that he is your brother. I know what he said. I know. I would like to know her better. [Incorrect] I would like to get to know her better. [Correct] V1=know/knows, V2=knew, V3=Known Knows -ing +Object [=NP/Clause] Meaning ‘I empathize/understand.’ About, of As far as we/I/you know to get to know +Tense +Third person singular +Stative +Transitive +Intransitive +Passive +Prepositions +Adverbial Idiosyncrasies
  • 15. Imbibe Children imbibe the traditions of their family . [Correct] Parents imbibe in their children the values of the family . [Incorrect] Light drinkers imbibe without taking in extra calories. I can never bear to imbibe. V1=imbibe/imbibes V2=imbibed V3=imbed, + ing=imbibing V1+s/es=imbibe/imbibes To+ imbibe Imbibing Imbibe+ NP /what, whatever [meaning: to be influenced by ideas, values. Beneficiary =Actor] -Object [meaning: to drink especially alcohol] ±have (forms) +be (forms) +imbibed + Tense +Third person singular +Infinitive +Gerund +Transitive ±Intransitive +Passive
  • 16. Instill We have tried to instill good manners in our children from an early age. Our school aims at instilling confidence into our students. Good manners should be instilled in children at an early age. V1=Instill, V2=Instilled, V3=Instilled, +ing Instills/instill To+ instill Instilling Instill+ NP [Actor≠ Beneficiary] NA ±have (forms)+ be (forms)+ instilled +in/into +Tense +Number +Infinitive +Gerund +Transitive +Intransitive +Passive +Prepositions
  • 17. Ooops a mistake!
    • I am always doing this mistake.
    • I do writing everyday.
    • I was just saying to Frank that he’d do well in the regular army.
    • I was just telling Frank that he’d do well in the regular army.
    • Joe began me thinking about the problem.
    • Joe started me thinking about the problem. [Joe made me start thinking about the problem.]
    • [Joe caused me to start thinking about the problem.]
  • 18. Do Vs Make
    • +Tense V1:do V2:did V3:done
    • Third person singular : does
    • ± stative This will do for the day. [+ only to mean something will be enough or acceptable]
    • +subjunctive: It is important he do well.
    • +Transitive : I have done my homework. [to perform an action]
    • I did French in school
    • +Intransitive : I am sure you will do well. You will get a promotion depending on how you are doing. [related to success or better performance.]
    • +Auxiliary:
    • + Passive: This project was done by us.
    • +Tense V1:make V2:made V3:made
    • Third person singlr : makes
    • -stative: She is making a video./a documentary
    • +subjunctive : I suggest he make them work on their own.
    • Bare infinitive : I made her cry.
    • +Transitive : Please teach me how to make a paper castle. [to produce] I made breakfast for all. [prepare]
    • Link verb : I'm sure you will make a very good teacher.
    • Passive : The ring is made of gold.
    • Prepositions : from, of, by, for
    • Phrasal verbs : made up, made out
  • 19. Idiosyncrasies
    • Do
    • do drugs=take drugs
    • do dishes=wash dishes
    • do good=work for the benefit of others
    • do it in time=complete something in an allotted time
    • do history= study, read
    • Make
    • Make drugs=products of a chemist
    • Make dishes=create dishes from ceramics, etc
    • Make good= to become successful and rich after being poor
    • Make it in time= arrive or finish something at an appointed time
    • Make history = create
  • 20. Conclusion
    • This dictionary can be used as an effective tool in teaching English.
    • It can be used as a handout for people who get confused in the usage of words that are within the same semantic domain.
    • We can create similar feature bundles for nouns, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions.
    • Please see if we can use this in teaching English to advanced learners and give your feedback. 