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  • Plato: Ability to reason appears in adolescence Aristotle: Ability to choose is the hallmark of maturity Middle Ages: Adolescents viewed as miniature adults Rousseau: Restored the belief that being a child or an adolescent is not the same as being an adult.
  • The end of the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century saw the invention of the concept we now call adolescence. Educators, counselors, and psychologists began to develop norms of behavior for adolescents. G. Stanley Hall: Father of scientific study of adolescents Storm and stress view. Margaret Mead: Nature of adolescence is not biological, but sociocultural. Inventionist View: Adolescence is a sociohistorical creation. Further Changes: 1920s to 1950s, adolescents gain more prominence 1960s to 1970s, radicalism replaced by upward mobility and material interests The late twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century involves the dramatic increase in the use of media and technology by adolescents.
  • Stereotyping of adolescents is so widespread that adolescence researcher Joseph Adelson (1979) call it the adolescent generalization gap. During most of the twentieth century, adolescents have been portrayed as abnormal and deviant rather than normal and non-deviant. Daniel Offer and his colleagues (1988) found that at least 73% of adolescents studied have a healthy self-image, were happy most of the time, valued work and school, and showed positive feelings toward their families.
  • Media portrayals of adolescents as rebellious, conflicted, faddish, delinquent, and self-centered—Rebel Without a Cause in the late 1950s and Easy Rider in the 1960s. Consider the image of the stressed and disturbed adolescent—Sixteen Candles and The Breakfast Club in the 1980s, Boyz N the Hood in the 1990s.
  • Stereotyping of adolescents is so widespread that adolescence researcher Joseph Adelson (1979) call it the adolescent generalization gap. During most of the twentieth century, adolescents have been portrayed as abnormal and deviant rather than normal and non-deviant. Daniel Offer and his colleagues (1988) found that at least 73% of adolescents studied have a healthy self-image, were happy most of the time, valued work and school, and showed positive feelings toward their families.
  • In a cross-cultural study, Daniel Offer and his colleagues (1988) found no support for such a negative view. The researchers assessed the self-images of adolescents around the world—in the United States, Australia, Bangladesh, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Taiwan, Turkey, and West Germany—and discovered that at least 73 percent of the adolescents had a positive self-image.
  • Best: longer life expectancies and luxuries inconceivable less than a century ago. Worst: High divorce rates; High adolescent pregnancy rates; and increased geographic mobility of families contribute to this lack of stability. U.S. rate of adolescent drug use is world’s highest. Contexts: Today there is more emphasis on how contexts influence adolescents’ behavior
  • Introduce the concept of generational inequity. Should the young have to pay for the old? Is the older population using up resources that should go to disadvantaged children and adolescents?
  • Cultural differences among adolescents have by no means disappeared (Berry, 2010; Larson & Wilson, 2004; Saraswathi, 2006).
  • Cultural differences among adolescents have by no means disappeared (Berry, 2010; Larson & Wilson, 2004; Saraswathi, 2006).
  • Class discussion: Imagine what your development would be like if you grew up in another culture
  • The transition from childhood to adolescence involves a number of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes. In sum, the transition from childhood to adolescence is complex and multidimensional, involving change in many different aspects of an individual’s life
  • The transition from adolescence to adulthood is determined by cultural standards and experiences.
  • Jeffrey Arnett (2006) recently concluded that five key features characterize emerging adulthood.
  • The lack of structure and support that often characterizes emerging adulthood can produce a downturn in health and well-being for some individuals (Schulenberg & Zarrett, 2006).
  • The lack of structure and support that often characterizes emerging adulthood can produce a downturn in health and well-being for some individuals (Schulenberg & Zarrett, 2006). Reaching adulthood involves more than just attaining a specific chronological age (Cohen & others, 2003).
  • Development is not all nature or all nurture, not all continuity or discontinuity, and not all early experience or all later experience.
  • The lack of structure and support that often characterizes emerging adulthood can produce a downturn in health and well-being for some individuals (Schulenberg & Zarrett, 2006). Reaching adulthood involves more than just attaining a specific chronological age (Cohen & others, 2003).
  • Development is not all nature or all nurture, not all continuity or discontinuity, and not all early experience or all later experience.
  • It is unwise to take an extreme position on these developmental issues. Nature and nurture, continuity and discontinuity, and early and later experience all affect our development throughout the human life span.
  • Some individuals have difficulty thinking of adolescent development as being a science in the same way that physics, chemistry, and biology are sciences.
  • Introduce the concept of generational inequity. Should the young have to pay for the old? Is the older population using up resources that should go to disadvantaged children and adolescents?
  • Psychosexual Stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
  • Id: instincts Ego: deals with the demands of reality Superego: morality
  • Defense Mechanisms: Freud felt that repression is the most powerful, pushing impulses of the id out of awareness
  • Unconscious thought remains a central theme, but conscious thought makes up more of the iceberg than Freud believed.
  • Unconscious thought remains a central theme, but conscious thought makes up more of the iceberg than Freud believed.
  • Erik Erikson (1902-1994) Eight psychosocial stages, not psychosexual as Freud believed. Development changes occur through lifespan, whereas Freud believed our basic personality is formed before the age of 5. Each stage is filled with a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced. The more an individual resolves this crisis (task), the healthier that individual’s development will be.
  • 1. Birth to 2: understanding of the world is achieved through coordinating sensory experiences 2. 2 to 7: children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings. 3. 7 to 11: children can perform operations and logical reasoning replaces intuitive thought 4. 11 to 15: individuals think in abstract and more logical terms.
  • 1. A particular mental act cannot be viewed accurately in isolation but should be evaluated as a step in a gradual development process 2. Language is most important. It helps the child plan activities and solve problems. 3. Adolescent development is inseparable from social and cultural activities.
  • Concerned with: How does information enter the mind? How is it stored and transformed? How is it retrieved?
  • Behavioral and social cognitive theories emphasize the importance of studying environmental experiences and observable behavior. Social cognitive theories emphasize person/cognitive factors in development.
  • Behavioral and social cognitive theories emphasize the importance of studying environmental experiences and observable behavior. Social cognitive theories emphasize person/cognitive factors in development.
  • Adds person/cognitive element to Skinner’s theory Model says that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors interact in a reciprocal manner Observation learning is a key aspect of how we learn
  • Ecological, contextual theory: Urie Bronfenbrenner’s view of development, involving 5 environmental systems, ranging from the fine-engrained inputs of direct interactions to broad-based inputs of culture
  • Ecological, contextual theory: Urie Bronfenbrenner’s view of development, involving 5 environmental systems, ranging from the fine-engrained inputs of direct interactions to broad-based inputs of culture
  • Ecological, contextual theory: Urie Bronfenbrenner’s view of development, involving 5 environmental systems, ranging from the fine-engrained inputs of direct interactions to broad-based inputs of culture
  • Research is not only guided by grand theories such as Piaget’s, but also by local or micro theories that focus on a specific aspect or time frame of development.
  • Observation – Must be systematic. Make observation in the lab or everyday world. Surveys and interviews – Quickest way to get information. Can be unstructured and open-ended or more structured. People may answer in socially acceptable ways. Standardized Tests – Uniform procedures for administration and scoring. Experience Sampling – Participants given electronic pagers, researcher “beep” them at random times. When “beeped” participants report relevant information. Physiological Measures – can assess hormones, body composition, or brain activity. Case Studies – In-depth look at a single individual.
  • Observation – Must be systematic. Make observation in the lab or everyday world. Surveys and interviews – Quickest way to get information. Can be unstructured and open-ended or more structured. People may answer in socially acceptable ways. Standardized Tests – Uniform procedures for administration and scoring. Experience Sampling – Participants given electronic pagers, researcher “beep” them at random times. When “beeped” participants report relevant information. Physiological Measures – can assess hormones, body composition, or brain activity. Case Studies – In-depth look at a single individual.
  • Observation – Must be systematic. Make observation in the lab or everyday world. Surveys and interviews – Quickest way to get information. Can be unstructured and open-ended or more structured. People may answer in socially acceptable ways. Standardized Tests – Uniform procedures for administration and scoring. Experience Sampling – Participants given electronic pagers, researcher “beep” them at random times. When “beeped” participants report relevant information. Physiological Measures – can assess hormones, body composition, or brain activity. Case Studies – In-depth look at a single individual.
  • Ethics: The best interests of the participants always have to be kept in mind Gender: Every effort should be made to make research equitable for females and males Ethnicity: Include more children from ethnic minority backgrounds in child development research Ethnic gloss: Using an ethnic label in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogenous than it really is
  • Consumer: Be cautious about what is reported in the media Avoid assuming individual needs on the basis of group research Recognize it’s easy to overgeneralize from a small sample A single study is not the defining word Consider the source…evaluate it’s credibility
  • Knowledge in the field of adolescence rests heavily on the development of a broad, competent research base.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1 PowerPoint slides prepared by Leonard R. Mendola, PhD Touro CollegeMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 2. 2 Chapter 1: Introduction Outline The Historical Perspective • Early History • The Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries • Stereotyping of Adolescents • A Positive View of Adolescence Today’s Adolescents in the United States & Around the World • Adolescents in the United States • The Global Perspective The Nature of Development • Processes and Periods • Developmental Transitions • Developmental Issues The Science of Adolescent Development • Science and the Scientific Method • Theories of Adolescent Development • Research in Adolescent DevelopmentMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 3. 3 Chapter 1 Introduction Adolescence, 13th Edition, is a window into the nature of adolescent development —your own and that of every other adolescent. In this first chapter, you will read about the history of the field, the characteristics of today’s adolescents, both in the United States and the rest of the world, and the way in which adolescents develop.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 4. 4 Historical Perspective • Early History In early Greece, the philosophers commented about the nature of youth. Plato (4th Century BCE) Aristotle (4th Century BCE) In the Middle Ages, children and adolescents were viewed as miniature adults and were subject to harsh discipline. In the 18th Century, the French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau offered a more enlightened view of adolescence.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 5. 5 Historical Perspective (Continued from previous slide) The 20th & 21st Centuries • G. Stanley Hall’s Storm-and-Stress View • Margaret Mead’s Sociocultural View • The Inventionist View • Further Changes in the 20th and 21st Centuries – The women’s movement – The dual family and career objectives – Increased use of media and technology by adolescents • Web, iPods, Cellphones, text messaging, YouTube & MySpace – Increased diversityMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 6. 6 Historical Perspective (Continued from previous slide) Stereotyping of Adolescents A Stereotype is . . . A generalization that reflects our impressions and beliefs about a broad category of people. All stereotypes carry an image of what the typical member of a particular group is like.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. 7 Historical Perspective (Continued from previous slide) • Some Stereotypes of Adolescents: • “They say they want a job, but when they get one, they don’t want to work.” • “They are all lazy.” • “All they think about is sex.” • “They are all into drugs.” • “The problem with adolescents today is that they all have it too easy.” • “They are so self-centered.”McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 8. 8 Historical Perspective (Continued from previous slide) Stereotyping of Adolescents Joseph Adelson (1979) • Coined the term adolescent generalization gap. • Refers to generalizations that are based on information about a limited, often highly visible group of adolescents.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 9. 9 Historical Perspective (Continued from previous slide) A Positive View of Adolescence • The negative stereotyping of adolescents is overdrawn. (Balsano & others, 2009; Lerner, Roeser, & Phelps, 2009). Old Centuries and New Centuries • Psychologists are now calling for a focus on the positive side of human experience and greater emphasis on hope, optimism, positive individual traits, creativity, and positive group and civic values, such as responsibility, nurturance, civility, and tolerance. (Gestsdottir & Lerner, 2008). Generational Perceptions and Misperceptions • Adults’ perceptions of adolescents emerge from a combination of personal experience and media portrayals, neither of which produces an objective picture of how typical adolescents develop. (Feldman & Elliott, 1990).McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 10. 10 Today’s Adolescents in the United States and Around the World “Growing up has never been easy.” • The developmental tasks today’s adolescents face are no different from those of adolescents 50 years ago. • For a large majority of youth, adolescence is not a time of rebellion, crisis, pathology, and deviance. Rather it is a time of evaluation, decision making, commitment, and finding a place in the world. • Socioeconomic, ethnic, cultural, gender, age, and lifestyle differences influence the developmental trajectory of every adolescent (Conger & Conger, 2008).McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 11. 11 Social Contexts • Contexts are the settings in which development occurs. • Contexts are influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors. • Each adolescent’s development occurs against a cultural backdrop of contexts that includes family, peers, school, church, neighborhood, community, region, and nation, each with its cultural legacies (Parke & others, 2008; Taylor & Whittaker, 2009).McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 12. 12 Today’s Adolescents Projected Percentage Increase in Adolescents Aged 10–19, 2025– 2100. Fig. 1.1McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 13. 13 Today’s Adolescents Actual and Projected Number of U.S. Adolescents Aged 10–19, 2000–2100 Fig. 1.2McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 14. 14 Social Policy and Adolescents’ Development Social policy A national government’s course of action designed to influence the welfare of its citizens. Currently, many researchers are attempting to design studies whose results will lead to wise and effective social policy decision making (Eccles, Brown, & Templeton, 2008)McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 15. 15 The Global Perspective Youth Around the World • Two-thirds of Asian Indian adolescents accept their parents’ choice of a marital partner for them. (Verma & Saraswathi, 2002). • In the Philippines, many female adolescents sacrifice their own futures by migrating to the city to earn money that they can send home to their families. • Street youth in Kenya and other parts of the world learn to survive under highly stressful circumstances. In some cases abandoned by their parents, they may engage in delinquency or prostitution to provide for their economic needs. • In the Middle East, many adolescents are not allowed to interact with the other sex, even in school (Booth, 2002).McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 16. 16 The Global Perspective (Continued from previous slide) Youth Around the World  Rapid global change is altering the experience of adolescence, presenting new opportunities and challenges to young people’s health and well-being.  Around the world, adolescents’ experiences may differ depending on their gender, families, schools, and peers (Brown & Larson, 2002; Larson & Wilson, 2004).McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 17. 17 The Global Perspective (Continued from previous slide) Brad Brown and Reed Larson (2002) summarized some of these changes and traditions in the world’s youth: • Health and well-being • Gender • Family • School • Peers Adolescents’ lives are characterized by a combination of change and tradition.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 18. 18 The Nature of Development Development: The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 19. 19 Development Processes Biological processes Biological, Physical changes Cognitive, and within an Socioemotional individual’s body. ProcessesMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 20. 20 Development Processes (Continued from previous slide) Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes Cognitive processes Changes in thinking and intelligence.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 21. 21 Development Processes (Continued from previous slide) Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes Socioemotional processes Changes in relationships, emotions, personality, and social contexts.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 22. 22 Processes and Periods Developmental Changes Are a Result of Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes Fig. 1.3McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 23. 23 Periods of Development Childhood • Prenatal Period • Infancy • Early Childhood • Middle and Late ChildhoodMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 24. 24 Periods of Development (Continued from previous slide) Adolescence • Early Adolescence • Late AdolescenceMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 25. 25 Periods of Development (Continued from previous slide) Adulthood • Early Adulthood • Middle Adulthood • Late AdulthoodMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 26. 26 Periods of Development Processes and Periods of Development Fig. 1.4McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 27. 27 Developmental Transitions Childhood to Adolescence • Growth spurt, hormonal changes, sexual maturation. • Increases in abstract, idealistic, and logical thinking. • Quest for independence. • Conflict with parents. • Increased desire to spend more time with peers. • Conversations with friends become more intimate.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 28. 28 Developmental Transitions (Continued from previous slide) Adolescence to Adulthood • Approximately 18 to 25 years of age. • Economic and personal temporariness. • Experimentation and exploration.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 29. 29 Emerging Adulthood Key Features • Identity exploration, especially in love and work. • Instability. • Feeling in-between. • Self-focused. • The age of possibilities, a time when individuals have an opportunity to transform their lives.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 30. 30 Health and Well-Being Adolescents’ Self-Reported Well-Being from 18 Years of Age Through 26 Years of Age Fig. 1.5McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 31. 31 Health and Well-Being (Continued from previous slide) Adolescents’ Self-Reported Risk-Taking Decreases from 18 Years of Age Through 26 Years of Age Fig. 1.6McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 32. 32 Becoming an Adult Possible markers of adulthood: • Economic independence. • Self-responsibility. • Independent decision making. • Accepting responsibility for the consequences of one’s actions. • Deciding on one’s own beliefs and values. • Establishing a relationship equal with parents.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 33. 33 Becoming an Adult Three Types of Assets That Are Especially Important in Making a Competent Transition Through Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood Fig. 1.7McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 34. 34 Becoming an Adult (Continued from previous slide) Resilience Refers to adapting positively and achieving successful outcomes in the face of significant risks and adverse circumstances.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 35. 35 Developmental Issues • Nature vs. Nurture • Continuity vs. Discontinuity • Early vs. Later Experience Fig. 1.8McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 36. 36 Evaluating the Developmental Issues • It’s unwise to take an extreme position on developmental issues. • Nature and nurture, continuity and discontinuity, and early and later experience all affect our development throughout the human life span. • The above consensus has not meant the absence of spirited debate.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 37. 37 The Science of Adolescent Development “Science refines everyday thinking.” — Albert Einstein German-Born American Physicist, 20th CenturyMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 38. 38 Science and the Scientific Method • Conceptualize a process or problem. • Collect research information (data). • Analyze data. • Draw conclusions.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 39. 39 Science and the Scientific Method (Continued from previous slide) Theory An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and make predictions. Hypothesis Specific assertions and predictions that can be tested.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 40. 40 Psychoanalytic Theory Freud (1856–1939) Fig. 1.9McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 41. 41 Psychoanalytic Theory (Continued from previous slide) Freud Personality Structure Id Ego SuperegoMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 42. 42 Psychoanalytic Theory (Continued from previous slide) Freud Defense Mechanisms • Unconscious methods the ego uses to distort reality and protect itself from anxiety. • Examples: Repression and regression. • However, Peter Blos (1989), a British psychoanalyst, and Anna Freud (1966), Sigmund Freud’s daughter, believed that defense mechanisms provide considerable insight into adolescent development.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 43. 43 Psychoanalytic Theory (Continued from previous slide) Revisions of Freud’s Theories • Contemporary psychoanalytic theorists believe that he overemphasized sexual instincts. • They place more emphasis on cultural experiences as determinants of an individual’s development. • Unconscious thought remains a central theme, but most contemporary psychoanalysts argue that conscious thought plays a greater role than Freud envisioned.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 44. 44 Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theory (Continued from previous slide) • Contributions of psychoanalytic theories include an emphasis on a developmental framework, family relationships, and unconscious aspects of the mind. • Criticisms include a lack of scientific support, too much emphasis on sexual underpinnings, and an image of people that is too negative.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 45. 45 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory • According to Freud, our basic personality is shaped in the first five years of life • According to Erikson, developmental change occurs throughout the life span.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 46. 46 Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory (Continued from previous slide) Fig. 1.10McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 47. 47 Psychosocial Theory (Continued from previous slide) Fig. 1.10McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 48. 48 Cognitive Developmental Theory • Psychoanalytic theories stress the importance of the unconscious. • Cognitive theories emphasize conscious thoughts. • Three important cognitive theories are Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory, Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory, and information-processing theory.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 49. 49 Cognitive Developmental Theory (Continued from previous slide) Piaget Fig. 1.11McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 50. 50 Sociocultural Cognitive Theory Vygotsky (1896–1934) • Cognitive skills can be understood only when they are developmentally analyzed and interpreted. • Cognitive skills are mediated by words, language, and forms of discourse. • Cognitive skills have their origins in social relations.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 51. 51 Information-Processing Theory • Emphasizes that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. • Robert Siegler (2006, 2009), a leading expert, states that thinking is information processing. When adolescents perceive, encode, represent, store, and retrieve information, they are thinking.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 52. 52 Evaluating Cognitive Theories • Contributions of cognitive theories include a positive view of development and an emphasis on the active construction of understanding. • Criticisms include skepticism about the pureness of Piaget’s stages and too little attention to individual variations.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 53. 53 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theory Behaviorism • Essentially holds that we can study scientifically only what we directly observe and measure. • Out of the behavioral tradition grew the belief that development is observable behavior that can be learned through experience with the environment (Klein, 2009).McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 54. 54 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theory Skinner’s Operant Conditioning • The scientific study of observable behavior responses and their environmental determinants. • Behavior is learned and often changes according to environmental experience.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 55. 55 Social Cognitive Theory Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Fig. 1.12McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 56. 56 Evaluating Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories • Emphasis on scientific research and environmental determinants of behavior. • Criticisms include too little emphasis on cognition in Skinner’s views and giving inadequate attention to developmental changes.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 57. 57 Ecological Theory Bronfenbrenner (1917 – 2005) • Microsystem • Mesosystem • Exosystem • Macrosystem • Chronosystem • Bronfenbrenner (2004; Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006) has added biological influences to his theory and describes the newer version as a bioecological theoryMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 58. 58 Ecological Theory Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory of Development Fig. 1.13McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 59. 59 Evaluating Ecological Theory (Continued from previous slide) • Contributions of the theory include: • A systematic examination of macro and micro dimensions of environmental systems. • Attention to connections between environmental systems. • Criticisms include: • Giving inadequate attention to biological factors. • Too little emphasis on cognitive factors.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 60. 60 Eclectic Theoretical Orientation Eclectic Theoretical Orientation • Not following any one theoretical approach, but rather selecting from each theory whatever is considered the best in it.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 61. 61 Research in Adolescent Development Methods for Collecting Data • Observation • Surveys and Interviews • Standardized Tests • Experience Sampling Method (ESM) • Physiological Measures • Case StudyMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 62. 62 Research in Adolescent Development Self-Reported Extremes of Emotion by Adolescents, Mothers, and Fathers Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) Fig. 1.14McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 63. 63 Research in Adolescent Development The Flexibility and Resilience of the Developing Brain Plasticity in the Brain’s Hemispheres Fig. 1.15McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 64. 64 Research Design • There are three main types of research design: – Descriptive – Correlational – ExperimentalMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 65. 65 Research Design • Descriptive research – Aims to observe and record behavior. • For example, a researcher might observe the extent to which adolescents are altruistic or aggressive toward each other. – Descriptive research cannot prove what causes some phenomenon – Descriptive research can reveal important information about people’s behavior.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 66. 66 Correlational Research • Goes beyond describing phenomena. • Helps us predict how people will behave. • Describes the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics. • Correlation Coefficient • +1.00 to -1.00 • Negative vs. Positive • Size of the number • Correlation does not imply causation.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 67. 67 Correlational Research (Continued from previous slide) Possible Interpretations of Correlational Data Fig. 1.16McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 68. 68 Experimental Research • To study causality, researchers turn to experimental research. • The cause is the factor that was manipulated. • The effect is the behavior that changed because of the manipulation. • All experiments involve at least one independent variable and one dependent variable. • The independent variable is the factor that is manipulated. • The dependent variable is the factor that is measured.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 69. 69 Random Assignment/Experimental Design Fig. 1.17McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 70. 70 Time Span of Research Cross-sectional research • Research that studies people all at one time. Longitudinal research • Research that studies the same people over a period of time, usually several years or more.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 71. 71 Conducting Ethical Research • May affect you personally if you ever serve as a participant in a study. • Proposed research at colleges and universities must pass the scrutiny of a research ethics committee before the research can be initiated. • APA’s guidelines address four important issues: 1. Informed consent 2. Confidentiality 3. Debriefing 4. DeceptionMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 72. 72 Minimizing Bias • Gender Bias • Culture and Ethnic Bias • Ethnic GlossMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 73. 73 Being a Wise Consumer of Information • Be cautious of what is reported in the popular media. • Recognize the tendency to over generalize a small or clinical sample. • Be aware that a single study usually is not the defining word. • Remember that causal conclusions cannot be drawn from correlational studies. • Always consider the source of the information and evaluate its credibility.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 74. 74 Adolescent Development Research Journals • Journal of Research on Adolescence • Journal of Early Adolescence • Journal of Youth and Adolescence • Adolescence • Child DevelopmentMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 75. 75 Careers in Adolescent Development • College/University Professor • Researcher • Secondary School Teacher • Exceptional Children (Special Education Teacher) • Family and Consumer Science Educator • Educational Psychologist • School Psychologist • Clinical Psychologist • Psychiatrist • Psychiatric NurseMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 76. 76 Careers in Adolescent Development • Counseling Psychologist • School Counselor • Career Counselor • Social Worker • Drug Counselor • Health Psychologist • Adolescent Medicine Specialist • Marriage and Family TherapistMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 77. 77 RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS • Children’s Defense Fund www.childrensdefense.org/ The Children’s Defense Fund, headed by Marian Wright Edelman, exists to provide a strong and effective voice for children and adolescents who cannot vote, lobby, or speak for themselves. • The Search Institute www.search-institute.org The Search Institute has available a large number of resources for improving the lives of adolescents. The brochures and books available address school improvement, adolescent literacy, parent education, program planning, and adolescent health and include resource lists. A free quarterly newsletter is available.McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 78. 78 E-LEARNING TOOLS To help you master the material in this chapter, visit the Online Learning Center for Adolescence, 13th Edition at: http://www.mhhe.com/santrocka13eMcGraw-Hill Copyright © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.