Let the waste of the “sick” not contaminate the lives of “The Healthy”
CONTENT• Definition• Categories of Biomedical Waste• Problem associated with Biomedical waste• Need for Biomedical Waste Management• Step to manage hazardous waste• Treatment techniques• Biomedical waste management in India• Environmental legislation• Conclusion• Summary
Biomedical Waste (BMW) is…• Solid waste generated during the diagnosis, testing, treatment, research or production of biological products for humans or animals (WHO)• WHO estimates – 85% of hospital waste is non-hazardous – 10% is infectious – 5% is non-infectious but consists of hazardous chemicals like methylchloride and formaldehyde.
TYPES OF BIOMEDICAL WASTES WASTE CATEGORY TYPE OF WASTE Category No. 1 Human Anatomical Waste Category No. 2 Animal Waste Category No. 3 Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste Category No. 4 Waste Sharps Discarded Medicine and Cytotoxic Category No. 5 drugs Category No. 6 Soiled Waste Category No. 7 Solid Waste Category No. 8 Liquid Waste Category No. 9 Incineration Ash Category No.10 Chemical Waste
PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH BMWORGANISM DISEASES CAUSED RELATED WASTE ITEMVIRUSES AIDS, Infectious Hepatitis, Infected needles, bodyHIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis Infectious Hepatitis, Fluids, Human excreta, soiledA,C, Arboviruses, Dengue, Japanese linen, Blood, body fluids.Enteroviruses encephalitis, tick-borne fevers, etc.BACTERIA Typhoid, Cholera, Tetanus Human excreta andSalmonella typhi, Wound infections, body fluid in landfills andVibrio cholerae, septicemia, rheumatic hospital wards, Sharps suchClostridium Tetani, fever, endocarditis, skin as needles, surgical blades inPseudomonas, Streptococcus and soft tissue infections hospital waste.PARASITES Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Human excreta, blood andWucheraria Bancrofti, Kala Azar, Malaria body fluids in poorlyPlasmodium managed sewage system of hospitals.
NEED FOR BMW MANAGMENTNosocomial infections in patients from poor infection control practices and poor waste management.Drugs which have been disposed of, being repacked and sold off to unsuspecting buyers.Risk of air, water and soil pollution directly due to waste, or due to defective incineration emissions and ash.Risk of infection outside hospital for waste handlers and scavengers, other peoples.
TECHNIQUES SEGREGATION :- to segregate the wastes.Colour Coding Type of ContainerYellow Plastic Bag DisinfectedRed container/Plastic bagBlue/ Plastic Bag / punchWhite Translucent proof containersBlack Plastic Bag
TRANSPORTATION• Transportation of BMW can be divided into internal and external transportation.• INTERNAL: it is for yellow ,red ,blue and white bags.• EXTERNAL: it is for the general waste collected in the black coloured plastic bags.
TREATMENT AND DISPOSALPROCEDURES MAIN FUNCTIONIncineration burn trash and other types of waste until it is reduced to ash.Autoclaving and Shredding It uses a combination of heat, steam and pressure.Chemical treatment Using sodium hypochlorite solution, bleaching powder, savlon and then discharged into drains/sewersIrradiation technique Involve the expose to UV radiation and ionizing radiation
Bio medical waste management in IndiaBiomedical waste (management and handling) rule1998, prescribed by The Ministry of Environment andForests, Govt of India, came into force on 20th July1998. This rule applies to those whogenerate, collect, receive, store, dispose, treat orhandle bio medical waste in any manner.Thus bio medical waste should be segregated intocontainers/bags at the point of generation of waste.Thus Colour Coding & type of containers used fordisposal of waste is came into existence which isshown as follows. 12
Environmental Legislation The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 The Biomedical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998 The Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000 The Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 The National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995 The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 13
CONCLUSION• Safe and effective management of waste is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility.• Proper collection and segregation of biomedical waste.• Try to reduce the waste generation.• Individual awareness and participation.• Use recycle products.• Label with agent, concentration and hazard warnings.• Communicate about workplace hazards.