Project Gemini was 2 human space flight program of NASA.It was conducted with 10 manned flights occurring in 1965 and1966.They were launched from Cape Canaveral ,Florida using the Titan11GLV launch vehicle .It first flew on march 23,1965.
GOALS AND OBJECTIVETo develop space craft techniques likePerfecting extra-vehicular activity.• Perfecting orbital maneuvers necessary toachieve rendezvous and docking.• To demonstrate endurance of humans andequipments to space flights for extended periods.• To perfect techniques of atmospheric re-entryand landing at pre selected locations.
DESCRIPTION It was 19 feet long and 10feet wide with launchweight of 8,490 pounds. It include an onboardcomputer. Parachutes were used tomake sea landing. The capsule wassuspended at an angleclose to horizontal,so thatside of heat shield contactthe water first.
MORE ABOUT GEMINI•There were 12 Gemini flights, including 2unmanned flights.•The first space walk or extra-vehicular activitywas made by an American Edward White in June1965.•The first space rendezvous was accomplishedwith Gemini 6 & 7.•In first half of 1966 first docking between Gemini8 and an unmanned vehicle was accomplishedtoo.
CONCLUSION• The goals were met and project wasconsidered a success by achieving manyhistorical records.• It was successful in enhancing flight andground proficiency.
Project Mercury was America’s first human spaceflight programme.It was also the first major undertaking of NASA.
PRINCIPLE AND OBJECTIVEPRINCIPLE• Its principle was using a missile to launch ablunt shape space craft which would dissipateheat and allow safe re-entry into theatmosphere.objective• To place astronauts in space, test their reactionsand return them safely to earth.
• NASA formally created project mercury on dec 17.• KEITH GLENNAN first administrator of NASAannounced this project to public.• FIRST piloted mercury flight lifted off on may 5 1961.
DESCRIPTION• Space craft that wasdesigned was cone shapedwith cylinder on top.• It was 6.8 feet long,6.2 feetin diameter, and had a 16.2feet escape tower.• It weighed about 7900 kg.• It also had solid rocketmotor fastened to cylinder.• Blunt end of the capsule whichwould enter the atmospherewas covered with shield thatcould burn off and dissipateheat during re-entry.• This shield also detached fromthe capsule and release aballoon to cushion landing.• 18 small rockets operatedmanually controlled d attitudeof space craft.DETAILS OF MERCURYWORKING RULE
Seven sub-orbital and four orbital test flights preceded thepiloted flights.In one sub-orbital flight chimpanzee named Ham was asurrogate passenger.Shepard became the first American in space. he was behind thecontrols of freedom7.John Glen Jr. was first American to make an orbital flight.Travelling around earth 3 times in friendship7.Schirra became first orbiting T.V star as he beamed a telecastback to earth from is sigma7 space craft.Gordon Cooper in his faith7 lasted a record of circling earth 22times and released first satellite.
INTRODUCTION• It is a significant part of human spaceexploration. It has accomplished many tasksthat have enhanced the quality of life onearth.• It is worlds first re-usable space –craft.• It is U.S first vehicle having standard sea levelatmospheric pressure and composition.
MISSION SUMMERY.• The Space Shuttle program began with the launchof STS-1 on April 12, 1981. Space ShuttleColumbia spent only two days in space as ittested everything out and returned safely toEarth. This began the first reusable spacecraftprogram. No other flying machine(airplane, helicopter, or rocket ) is able to serve asa home for pilots, carry cargo, fly in space or inour atmosphere, maneuver around in orbit, landon a runway, and be ready to do it all over againin just a few weeks.
• Between march 1998 and may 1998,NASAastronauts flew onboard the Russian space stationMir in a collaborative effort.• Almost 11 space shuttle flights were carried out.• Mir is a test site for three main areas of experienceand investigations:1.designing,building and staffing the international spacestation.2.Investigation about space station hardware, materials andconstruction materials.3.operation,no previous needed so many independentoperations.
INTRODUCTION•The Apollo program was the space flight effort that landedthe first humans on Earths Moon.•Conceived during the Presidency of Dwight D.Eisenhower and carried out by the National Aeronautics andSpace Administration of the United States (NASA).• Apollo began in earnest after President John F.Kennedy proposed the national goal of "landing a man on theMoon and returning him safely to the Earth" by the end ofthe 1960s
GOAL• The goal of Apollo was singular and straightforward-to land man on moon and bring himback to earth safely.
MORE ABOUT THE PROGRAME• One of the greatest moments in human history came on July20, 1969, when Neil Alden Armstrong became the first human to walkon the moon.• The program included a large number of uncrewed test missions and11 manned missions.• Lunar surface experiments included soil mechanics, meteoroids, solarwind experiments etc.• Apollo 17, launched December 7, 1972, was the last Apollo mission tothe Moon. Mission commander Eugene Cernan was the last person toleave the Moons surface. The crew returned safely to Earth onDecember 19, 1972.
MAJOR EXPERIMENTS OF SHUTTLE-MIR.• Successful culturing of cartilage cells was carriedout.• Researchers found out that the rate of bone loss onthe Mir, a chronic problem does not lessen overtime as previously thought.• For the first time in history, a complete natural cycleof plants growth has been accomplished in space.• Many protein crystals were grown in space. Thecrystals form the basis for basis for improved drugdesign for a wide variety of illness.
SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING• The Apollo program, specifically the lunar landings, has been calledthe greatest technological achievement in human history.• The program stimulated many areas of technology.• The flight computer design used in both the lunar and commandmodules was, along with the Minuteman Missile System. the drivingforce behind early research into integrated circuits• The fuel cell developed for this program was the first practical fuelcell.• . Computer-controlled machining (CNC) was pioneered in fabricatingApollo structural components.
PHOTOSHasselblad camera used in the Apollo Program.Lunar Roving Vehicle used on Apollos 15–17The most famous of the Moon rocks recovered, the GenesisRock, returned from Apollo 15.Ferroan Anorthosite Moon rock, returned from Apollo 16.Photographs of earth as taken from the Apollo space-crafts.
• It is regarded as one of the most successfulmission carried out giving history some of theremarkable events of mankind.• The famous words spoken by Neil Amstrongon landing on moon… “One small step for aman, one giant leap for mankind.”
INTRODUCTIONSky lab provided U.S first experimental spacestation.Sky lab space station was launched on May14, 1973.from the NASA Kennedy space center by ahuge launch vehicle.On May 25, 1973 crew of sky lab 2 finally beganthere 28 days aboard sky lab.
To prove that humans could liveand work in space for extendedperiods.To expand our knowledge of solarastronomy well beyond earthbased observation.
DESCRIPTION• This 100-ton (91-metric ton) structure was 118 feet (36meters) high, 22 feet (6.7 meters) in diameter, and flew at analtitude of 270 miles (435 kilometers).Scientific equipments used:• The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), used to study the Sun indifferent wavelengths with no atmospheric interference.• Two X-ray telescopes; an X-ray and extreme ultravioletcamera; an ultraviolet spectroheliometer; an extremeultraviolet spectroheliograph and an ultravioletspectroheliograph; a white light coronagraph; and twohydrogen-alpha telescopes.• The unit had its own electricity-generating solar panels.
WORK CARRIED OUT• In period upto june 22, they circled earth 404 times , completed 392experiment hours and carried out 3 EVAs.• It was a site of nearly 300 scientific and technical experiments.• Medical experiments on human adaptibility to microgravity ,solarobservations were carried out.• It also detailed earth resources experiments.
A special instrument called thespectroheliometer scanned the Sunand recorded its ultraviolet radiation..Comet Kohoutek was photographedby Skylabs far-ultraviolet camera. Itshydrogen halo had a diameter ofsome 1,600,000 miles.
• In Skylab, both the hours spent in orbit and thosespent performing EVA exceeded the combinedtotals of all of the worlds previous space flights.• Good health and physical condition of theastronauts after returning from their extendedstay in the weightlessness of space conclusivelydemonstrated the feasibility of longer humanspaceflight missions.
• It was obviously a successful project as it hadtaken the critical first step to demonstrate thathumans could survive in space.
INTERNATIONAL SPACESTATIONThe International Space Station on 30May 2011 as seen from thedeparting SpaceShuttle Endeavour during STS-134…..The International Space Station (ISS) is ahabitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit.
INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATIONThe ISS followsthe Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, andMir space stations, as the 11th spacestation launched, not includingthe Genesis I and II prototypesThe station has a unique environment for the testing of thespacecraft systems that will be required for missions to theMoon and Mars
Primary purposes for the iss to serve ASAN ADVANCED TEST BED FOR TECHNOLOGY ANDHUMAN EXPLORATIONA WORLD CLASS RESEARCH FACILITYA COMMERCIAL PLATFORM FOR BOTH SPACERESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
– The ISS combines the Japanese Kibō laboratory with threespace station projects, the Soviet/Russian Mir-2, the AmericanFreedom, and the European Columbus.– Russias next planned space station OPSEK, is to be separatedprior to the ISSs deorbit to form a new, separate spacestation, intended to support deep space exploration.Like manyartificial satellites, the ISS can be seeseen from Earth with thenaked eye..– The station is maintained in orbit between 278 km (173 mi)and 460 km (286 mi) altitude, and travels at an averageground speed of 27,724 km (17,227 mi) per hour, completing15.7 orbits per day.
–The station consists of.– pressurised modules– external trusses– solar arrays– and other components ,– which have been launched byRussian Proton rockets, Americanspace shuttles, andRussian Soyuz rockets.
– The ISS serves as a research laboratory thathas a microgravity environment in which crewsconduct experiments in many fieldsincluding biology, humanbiology, physics,astronomy and meteorology.
– The ownership and use of the space station is established inintergovernmental treaties and agreements which divide thestation into two areas and allow the Russian Federation toretain full ownership of Russian OrbitalSegment(ROS)/(RS), with the US Orbital Segment (USOS)allocated between the other international partners..
EXTRA VEHICULAR ACTIVITESWHAT ACTUALLY EXTRA VEHICULARACTIVITES MEANS….????
DEFINITION– The term most commonly applies to an EVA madeoutside a craft orbiting Earth (a spacewalk), butalso applies to an EVA made on the surface ofthe Moon (amoonwalk)..Exra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done byan astronaut away from the Earth, and outside ofa spacecraft.
– Untethered spacewalks were only performed on threemissions in 1984 using the Manned Maneuvering Unit(MMU), and on a flight test in 1994 of the Simplified Aid forEVA Rescue (SAFER)A SAFER is a safety device worn on tethered U.S. EVAs, sincethe capability of returning to the spacecraft is essential.EVAs may be and electricaeither tethered (the astronaut isconnected to the spacecraft; oxygen l power can be suppliedthrough an umbilical cable; no propulsion is needed to return tothe spacecraft), or untethered…
– A "Stand-up" EVA (SEVA) iswhere the astronaut does notfully exit a spacecraft, but iscompletely reliant on thespacesuit for environmentalsupport..Its name derives from theastronaut "standing up" in theopen hatch, usually to film or assista spacewalking astronaut.
Indian Missiles: Threat and CapabilityThe Report(January-February 1995)– As Indian scientists watchedtheir new space rocket ascendover the Indian Ocean, theywere jubilant.THE ROCKETS FOUR GIANT STAGESLIFTED A THREE-QUARTER TONSATELLITE INTO A NEAR POLARORBIT, A TREMENDOUS ACHIEVEMENTFOR INDIAN ROCKETRY.
• .India tested its first nuclear device in 1974. Sincethen, according to the CIA (Central IntelligenceAgency), its researchers have progressed toworking on more powerful thermonuclear bombsand the missiles to deliver them.IF INDIA CONVERTS ITS NEW SPACE ROCKET TO AMISSILE, IT COULD REACH CITIES AS FAR AWAY ASLONDON, TOKYO AND NEW YORK.India built the medium-range Agni missile by takinga first-stage rocket from a small space launcherand combining it with guidance technologydeveloped by the German space agency
– One of Indias ablest students was A. P. J. Kalam returnedhome to build Indias first space rocket, the SatelliteLaunch Vehicle - SLV-3, a carbon copy of the Scout.NASA made Kalams task easier by supplying unclassified technicalreports on the Scouts designIndias quest for imports provoked a row with the United States in1992. The Russian space agency tried to sell India advancedcryogenic engines for Indias most ambitious space rocket, theGeosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).
Space suit..– A space suit is a garment worn to keepan astronautalive in the harsh environment ( vac cum andtemperature extremes) of outer space.– Space suits are often worn inside spacecraft asa safety precaution in case of loss of cabinpressure, and are necessary for extra-vehiculaactivity (EVA), work done outside spacecraft.
– Space suits have been worn for such work inEarth orbit, on the surface of the Moon, and enroute back to Earth from the Moon.– The first space suit worn by a human in spacewas the Soviet Union SK-1 suit worn by YuriGargarin in 1961.
HOW SPACE SUIT WORKS?– Outer Space is an extremely hostile place. If you were to stepoutside a spacecraft and you werent wearing a space suit, thefollowing things could happen:– YOU COULD BECOME UNCONSCIOUS WITHIN 15 SECONDS BECAUSE THERES NOOXYGEN.– YOUR BLOOD AND BODY FLUIDS COULD "BOIL" AND THEN FREEZE BECAUSE THEREIS LITTLE OR NO AIR PRESSURE.– YOUR TISSUES (SKIN, HEART, OTHER INTERNAL ORGANS) COULD EXPAND BECAUSEOF THE BOILING FLUIDS.– YOU COULD FACE EXTREME CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE. FOR EXAMPLE, IN THESUNLIGHT TEMPERATURES MIGHT REACH 248 DEGREES F (120 DEGREES C) ANDPLUMMET TO -148 F ( -100 C) IN THE SHADE.– YOU WOULD BE EXPOSED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF RADIATION, SUCH AS COSMICRAYS, AND CHARGED PARTICLES EMITTED FROM THE SUN (SOLAR WIND).– YOU COULD BE HIT BY SMALL PARTICLES OF DUST OR ROCK THAT MOVE AT HIGHSPEEDS (MICROMETEOROIDS) OR ORBITING DEBRIS FROM SATELLITES ORSPACECRAFT.
–SO, TO PROTECT YOU FROMTHESE DANGERS, A SPACE SUITMUST:–HAVE A PRESSURIZEDATMOSPHERE.–GIVE YOU OXYGEN ANDREMOVE CARBON DIOXIDE–MAINTAIN A COMFORTABLETEMPERATURE DESPITESTRENUOUS WORK ANDMOVEMENT INTO AND OUT OFSUNLIT AREAS–PROTECT YOU FROMMICROMETEOROIDS ANDFROM RADIATION TO SOMEDEGREE
Spacesuit requirements– A SPACE SUIT MUST PERFORM SEVERAL FUNCTIONS TO ALLOW ITS OCCUPANT TOWORK SAFELY AND COMFORTABLY, INSIDE OR OUTSIDE OF A SPACECRAFT. IT MUSTPROVIDE:– A STABLE INTERNAL PRESSURE. THIS CAN BE LESS THAN EARTHS ATMOSPHERE, ASTHERE IS USUALLY NO NEED FOR THE SPACESUIT TO CARRY NITROGEN (WHICHCOMPRISES ABOUT 78% OF EARTHS ATMOSPHERE AND IS NOT USED BY THEBODY). LOWER PRESSURE ALLOWS FOR GREATER MOBILITY, BUT REQUIRES THESUIT OCCUPANT TO BREATHE PURE OXYGEN FOR A TIME BEFORE GOING INTO THISLOWER PRESSURE, TO AVOID DECOMPRESSION SICKNES.– MOBILITY. MOVEMENT IS TYPICALLY OPPOSED BY THE PRESSURE OF THE SUIT;MOBILITY IS ACHIEVED BY CAREFUL JOINT DESIGN.– SUPPLY OF BREATHABLE OXYGEN AND ELIMINATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE; THESEGASES ARE EXCHANGED WITH THE SPACECRAFT OR A PORTABLE LIFE SUPPORTSYSTEM (PLSS).
TEMPERATURE REGULATION.UNLIKE ON EARTH, WHERE HEATCAN BE TRANSFERREDBY CONVECTION TO THEATMOSPHERE, IN SPACE, HEATCAN BE LOST ONLY BY THERMALRADIATION ORBY CONDUCTION TO OBJECTS INPHYSICAL CONTACT WITH THEEXTERIOR OF THE SUIT. SINCE THETEMPERATURE ON THE OUTSIDEOF THE SUIT VARIES GREATLYBETWEEN SUNLIGHT ANDSHADOW, THE SUIT IS HEAVILYINSULATED, AND AIRTEMPERATURE IS MAINTAINED ATA COMFORTABLE LEVEL.
–A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM, WITH EXTERNAL ELECTRICALCONNECTION TO THE SPACECRAFT OR PLSS–MEANS OF COLLECTING AND CONTAINING SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE(SUCH AS A MAXIMUM ABSORBENCY GARMENT)