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C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
C language preliminaries
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C language preliminaries

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  • 1. Introduction to C Language C Tokens Structure of C ProgramCompiling and Executing a C Program C Language Preliminaries Abhineet Anand Computer Science and Engg. Department University of Petrolium and Energy Studies, Dehradun November 19, 2012 Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 2. Introduction to C Language Introduction C Tokens History of C Structure of C Program Characteristics of C Compiling and Executing a C ProgramIntroduction C is a high level language. It also has the capability of low level programming. So, sometimes also referred as middle level Programming Language. Best Programming Language for learning procedural programming approach. It was developed at the Bell Laboratory, USA (now AT & T), in 1972. It is the outcome of Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan. Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 3. Introduction to C Language Introduction C Tokens History of C Structure of C Program Characteristics of C Compiling and Executing a C ProgramHistory of C C is derived from two early programming languages such as BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) and B language developed by Ken Thompson. In 1972 Dennis Ritchie developed a new version of B and named it as C. In 1978, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan jointly published a detailed description of the C language document. It is Known as K & R C. Some of Shortcomings of K & R C implementation are overcome by ANSI (American National Standard Institute) standards. Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 4. Introduction to C Language Introduction C Tokens History of C Structure of C Program Characteristics of C Compiling and Executing a C ProgramCharacteristics of C C is a general purpose & structured programming language, which helps in development of system software. It has rich set of operators. It provides compact representation for expression. It allows manipulation of internal processor registers. Portability: any C program can be run in different machine with no modification. Rich set of data types and less number of reserved words. Pointer arithmetic and manipulation. Ability to extend itself by adding fuctions to its library. Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 5. Introduction to C Language C Tokens C Tokens Structure of C Program Keywords and Identifiers Compiling and Executing a C ProgramC Tokens The Basic and Smallest units of any programming language is known as tokens. When a complier complies a program, it recognises those basic units. There are six types of tokens in C. They are: Keywords Identifiers Constants Strings Operators Special Symbols. Each of these tokens is formed with one or more charecters of C language. Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 6. Introduction to C Language C Tokens C Tokens Structure of C Program Keywords and Identifiers Compiling and Executing a C ProgramKeywords Every word in C program is either a keyword or an identifer. All Keywords must be written in lowercase letters. C is case sensitive language. Keywords supported by ANSI C are: auto, break, case, char, const, continue, default, do, double, else, enum, extern, float, for, goto, if, int, long, register, short, signed, sizeof, static, struct, switch, typedef, union, unsigned, void, volatile & while. Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 7. Introduction to C Language C Tokens C Tokens Structure of C Program Keywords and Identifiers Compiling and Executing a C ProgramIdentifiers Identifiers are the names given to program elements such as variables, arrays and fuctions. These are sequence of alphabets and digits. Rules for forming identifers names: First charecter must be an alphabet or an underscore. No special Charecter or punctuation symbols are allowed except the underscore "_". No two successive underscore are allowed. Keywords should not be used as identifiers. Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 8. Introduction to C Language Structure of C Program C Tokens Preprocessor Statements Structure of C Program Declarations Compiling and Executing a C ProgramStructure of C Program preprocessor statement global decleration; main( ) { decleration; statement; } user defined function Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 9. Introduction to C Language Structure of C Program C Tokens Preprocessor Statements Structure of C Program Declarations Compiling and Executing a C ProgramPreprocessor Statements Begin with # symbol, also called the preprocessor directives. Direct the C preprocessor to include header files and also symbolic constants into C program. Few Statements : # include < stdio.h > : for standard input/output functions. # include "Test.h" : for file inclusion of the header files. # deifne NULL 0 : for defining symbolic constant, NULL=0 Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 10. Introduction to C Language Structure of C Program C Tokens Preprocessor Statements Structure of C Program Declarations Compiling and Executing a C ProgramGlobal Declarations Variable or function whose existance is known in main( ) function and other user defined function, are called the global variable. Its decleartion is known as global declarations. Excuation of C program starts with main( ). Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 11. Introduction to C Language Structure of C Program C Tokens Preprocessor Statements Structure of C Program Declarations Compiling and Executing a C ProgramDeclarations Variable Decleration: All Variables, array, function used in C program are decleared and may be initialized with their basic data types. Statements: the instruction to the computer to perform some specific task. They may be: Arithmetic Statements. Input/output Statements. Control Statements. Other Statements. Comments: explantory notes on some instruction, which are not executed and enclosed with in /* & */. Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 12. Introduction to C Language Compiling and Executing a C Program C Tokens Standard Procedure Structure of C Program Selecting OS Compiling and Executing a C ProgramCompiling and Executing a C Program Compiling a C program means translating it into machine language.C Compiler does that for C pragrams. Various tools are availble which gives the facility of writing, editing, debugging and excuting C language program. This type of environment is known as Inetegrated Development Environment (IDE). Examples : Turbo C, Borland C/C++, ANSI C and many more. Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 13. Introduction to C Language Compiling and Executing a C Program C Tokens Standard Procedure Structure of C Program Selecting OS Compiling and Executing a C ProgramStandard Procedure There are basically five steps in the sucessful execution of a program: Creating a program file (Source File). Saving the program (with .c as extension). Compliation. Linking system library function. Running (executing) the program. Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 14. Introduction to C Language Compiling and Executing a C Program C Tokens Standard Procedure Structure of C Program Selecting OS Compiling and Executing a C ProgramSelecting OS DOS Platform: Any of the C program environment may be used which are IDE. Unix Platform: Any of the Unix text editor is used to type the C Program, with file extention of .c. Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 15. Introduction to C Language Compiling and Executing a C Program C Tokens Standard Procedure Structure of C Program Selecting OS Compiling and Executing a C ProgramSelecting OS cont.. Now, a C compiler is used to complie the program. Normally, CC complier is availeble in Unix. So, cc filename.c This gives the output as a excutable file named a.out. Now, this excutable file can be run through ./a.out on command prompt of unix. Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries
  • 16. Introduction to C Language C Tokens Structure of C ProgramCompiling and Executing a C Program THANK YOU Abhineet Anand C Language Preliminaries

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