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  • 1. Chapter 1
  • 2. Environment (Natural) The environment is the aggregate of all those things and set of conditions which directly or indirectly influence not only the development or growth and quality of life of individual organisms but also the communities at a particular place. Environment includes 4 (four) factors: 1. Climatic factors 2. Edaphic factors 3. Physiographic factors 4. Biotic factors
  • 3. 1. Climatic factor Climate is traditionally defined as the variability of relevant atmospheric variables such as temperature, precipitation and wind. Climate can thus be viewed as an aggregate of weather. There are the following factors present in any climate significantly: ii. Light ii. Temperature iii. Precipitation iv. Humidity v. Air and atmosphere
  • 4. i. Light Sun provides us with solar energy which could never come to an end. Solar energy can be used to generate electricity, for heating, for running machines by generating power and for other domestic purposes. As sunlight will never run out of stock one should use it as an alternative for non-renewable resources like coal and petroleum
  • 5. i. Light Light is an electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye. A beam of light is pictured as a shower of particles called “Photons”. Each photon carries a certain amount of energy called “Quantum.”
  • 6. The solar radiations which penetrate earth’s atmosphere consist of a band of visible light and a small proportion of UV and Infrared radiations.  White light is the combination of 7 colored light.
  • 7. ii. Temperature The degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter, expressed in terms of units or degrees designated on a standard scale. The degree of heat in the body of a living organism, usually about 37.0°C (98.6°F) in humans
  • 8. Effect of Temperature on the Environment: There are two effects of temperature are found in the environment: 1. Temperature has effect on growth and development of the species. 2. Temperature has effect on the distribution pattern of species in different places.
  • 9. Effect of Temperature on the Environment For example, Himalayan rabbits carry the C gene, which is required for the development of pigments in the fur, skin, and eyes, and whose expression is regulated by temperature (Sturtevant, 1913). Specifically, the C gene is inactive above 35°C, and it is maximally active from 15°C to 25°C.
  • 10. Effect of Temperature on the Environment It determines which species (eg. plants and animals) can survive in a particular region. Examples: The different species of plants and animals show a wide variation as regards their tolerance to temperature range and fluctuation:
  • 11. Effect of Temperature on the Environment A desert is a landscape that receives very little precipitation and high temperature. This special temperature help to grow some special species in this region: Cactus, Palm tree, Camel etc.
  • 12. Effect of Temperature on the Environment A polar ice cap or polar ice sheet, is a high- altitude region that covered in ice. It is resulting by the lower surface temperatures. Polar bears are superbly insulated by up to 10 cm (3.9 in) of blubber to tolerate this low temperature.
  • 13. iii) Precipitation Precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity on the earth. The main forms of precipitation include : rain, sleet, snow, and hail.
  • 14. iii) Precipitation: formation The quantity of water retained in the atmosphere is called the vapor and is needed for precipitation. Formation of vapor is depend on temperature and wind. Vapor increases in the atmosphere if the temperature rises and pressure decrease. Vapor production continued up to saturation point of the atmosphere. (At certain temperature and pressure, the maximum water-laden air is called saturated atmosphere). At saturation point if the temperature is lowered the water holding capacity of atmosphere is reduced which causes the condensation of water vapor in the form of rain drop, dew, frost, sleet, snow, etc. This is the formation process of precipitation.
  • 15. Importance of precipitation Rain is one of the source of water to the water bodies. Rainfall is important for soil moisture and soil moisture is important for agriculture, soil organisms, soil reaction etc. Finally it is essential for all living beings including plants and microorganism of this planet. Another name of water is life. The total rainfall, especially the distribution of rainfall throughout the year is one of the leading features of climate.
  • 16. iv. Humidity Water vapor present in air is called humidity. According to Penck (an ecologist ) world climate has classified based on the evaporation and precipitation ratio of a place: 1. Arid: it is characterized by the condition in which evaporation is greater than precipitation. Most "arid" climates surround the equator; these places include most of Africa and parts of South America, Central America and Australia.
  • 17. iv. Humidity 2. Arid-humid: When evaporation is more or less equal to precipitation. West Africa, India, parts of Maxico, small parts of Pakistan, south Africa , Asia, North America etc. 3. Humid: When evaporation is lesser than precipitation. Humid climates normally lies on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 40° north and tend to be located at coastal or near coastal locations.
  • 18. v. Atmosphere and Air A thick gaseous envelope surrounding the earth is called atmosphere. Atmosphere is divided into five different layers or zones: Troposphere: 10-20km Stratosphere: 20-50km (this includes Ozonosphere) Mesosphere: 50-100km Ionosphere: 100-200km (this includes Thermosphere) Exosphere: 200- above
  • 19. v. Atmosphere and Air Air is a mixture of different gases. It is an inexhaustible natural resource, essential for the survival of all the living organisms on earth. Air present in atmosphere contain: Nitrogen 79% Oxygen 20.94% Carbon dioxide 0.032% Other gases 0.028%
  • 20. Importance of Atmosphere and Air Atmosphere filters sunlight reaching the earth, it affects climate and serves as a reservoir of elements essential for life (eg. oxygen, nitrogen, CO2 etc.) Air is also important elements of the environment. Scientific studies have indicated that a normal human being requires about 250-265 kg air/day. Air is also necessary to grow crops, support animal life and is a medium for the sound waves to travel. Wind is a source of renewable energy.
  • 21. B. Edaphic Factors The soil is one of the most important ecological factors called edaphic factors. Soil is the portion of the earth surface consisting of disintegrated rock and decaying organic material. It provides the support for many plants and animals. This factors affect the vegetation are as follows: Soil moisture Soil reactions Soil nutrients Soil temperature Soil atmosphere and Biotic components of the soil.
  • 22. B. Edaphic Factors:Soil formation and its composition Soil is formed from the weathering of rock: overlong periods of time, thousand and millions of year, the rock at or near the surface of the earth are broken down by various physical, chemical and some biological process. The end product of this breaking down is the fine particle of soil.
  • 23. B. Edaphic Factors:Soil formation and its composition Inorganic material derived from parent (material)rocks. Organic material derived from dead and decayed materials. Biological system; such as bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and other soil animals such as nematodes, earthworms, etc. The air and water occupying in the pores
  • 24. C. Physiographic Factors Physiographic factors are those which are introduced by the structure, conformity and behavior of the earth’s surface, by topographic features such as elevation and slopes, silting and erosion, low land or high land. The outer structure of the earth surface is called physiographic factors.
  • 25. D. Biotic Factors All living being of the world is called biotic factors. The biotic factors include both plants and animals and the vegetation. Any activity of the living organism which may cause marked effects upon vegetation in any way is referred to as biotic effect.
  • 26. ISO14001
  • 27. Environment Management (EM) EM is an attempt to control human impact on and interaction with the environment in order to preserve natural resources. Environmental management focuses on the improvement of human welfare for present and future generations. Administrative functions that develop, implement and monitor the environmental policy of an organization.
  • 28. Environment Management System (EMS) An administrative framework for the systematic, structured and documented approach to the management of environmental affairs. This can be standerised by the ISO 14001.
  • 29. ISO 14001 ISO stands for the International Standardization Organization, located in Geneva, Switzerland. ISO promotes the development and implementation of voluntary international standards, both for particular products and for environmental management issues.
  • 30. ISO 14001: Objectives ISO has developed standards that help organizations to take a proactive approach to managing environmental issues. 2. ISO is helping to meet the challenge of climate change. 3. ISO develops normative documents to facilitate the fusion of business and environmental goals. 4. ISO offers a wide-ranging portfolio of standards for sampling and test methods to deal with specific environmental challenges. 1.
  • 31. Principle methodology of ISO 14001 implementation The ISO 14000 family is designed to be implemented according to the same Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle underlying all ISO management systems standards.
  • 32. Principle methodology of ISO 14001 implementation: Plan Planning for ISO-14001 should cover four areas: 1. Environmental Aspects-Capture the significant impacts. 2. Legal and Other Requirements-Ensure basic compliance to all national and local laws. 3. Objectives and Targets- Should be consistent with the Environmental Policy. 4. Management Program- Structured plan for achieving set Objectives.
  • 33. Principle methodology of ISO 14001 implementation: Do (implement) Everyone understands the role they have to play. Careful Document Control. Defined Operational Control: What procedures and work instructions are needed to make sure that environmental aspects are managed? How can we prevent environmental impacts?
  • 34. Principle methodology of ISO 14001 implementation: Check Checking and Corrective action.
  • 35. Principle methodology of ISO 14001 implementation: Check Top Management review for improvement.
  • 36. Practical example
  • 37. Environmental sustainability