MOTIVATION, ATTITUDE & APTITUDE IN SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING Presenters: Bibiana Siah Hui Nien Dhamayanthi Bhaskaran Ras Ameliya Ramli Samantha Desonia Andy Wong Sze Yeen
INTRODUCTION In SLA, some L2 learners never become native : -Some would make slow progress ; -Some learners could progress rapidly through certain stages of learning. Several characteristics contributing to successful language learning : motivation, aptitude, attitude, personality, intelligence and learner preferences. Main focus : relation among motivation, attitude and aptitude in SLA.
ATTITUDE A set of beliefs developed in a due course of time in a given socio-cultural setting. Positive attitude facilitates learning. No positive attitude, not able to produce any result.
ATTITUDE attitudes toward learning are believed to influence behaviors. attitudes influence achievement. attitude influences one’s behaviors, inner mood and therefore learning Positive and negative attitudes have a strong impact on the success of language learning
ATTITUDE The characteristics of affective domain- interest, values and tendency, most of these shape our attitudes. Expectations, and behaviors influence both student’ s self, image and academic performance.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTITUDE ANDACHIEVEMENT A positive relationship between affective characteristics and foreign language achievement. Students’ attitudes differ according to the type of high school. Graduates showed negative attitude towards foreign language at the university level.
RELATION BETWEEN KNOWING SECONDFOREIGN LANGUAGE & ATTITUDE Bilingual children have markedly more favorable attitudes toward another language and culture. “Bilingualism increases positive attitudes towards foreign language”
ATTITUDETeacher’s Attitude: Teacher’s role- controller facilitator. Learners’ learning outcomes are influenced by the interpretation of teachers’ interpersonal behavior.
ATTITUDE Student’s Attitude towards Teachers: An L2 learner needs to be psychologically prepared to acquire a second or a foreign language as it is a part of different ethno-linguistic community. An L2 learner is required to impose elements of another culture into one’s own life space. When a language is learnt only for the utilitarian purposes, the success in a second language is supposed to be lower than if it is learnt for the integrative purpose.
APTITUDE Aptitude consistently been linked as one of the central individual differences in language learning. Aptitude is a specific talent for language, its innate, fixed, and invariable in the course of L2 development, different from general intelligence. individual has different aptitude. Some may have high some may possess low aptitude. Aptitude does not account for the failure or success of learners but it can justify why some learners learn language more quickly than others.
APTITUDE foreign language aptitude consists of four independent abilities that describe the L2 learner. PHONETIC • ability to perceive distinct sounds, associate a symbol with that sound and retain thatCODING ABILITY associationGRAMMATICAL • ability to recognize the grammatical function of a lexical element (word, phrase, etc.) in a SENSITIVITY sentence without explicit training in grammar.ROTE LEARNING • ability to learn associations between words in a foreign language and their meanings and retain ABILITY that association. INDUCTIVE • ability to infer or induce rules governing theLEARNING ABILITY structure of a language
RESEARCH RELATED TO THEMOTIVATION, ATTITUDE & APTITUDEIN (SLA)
Aptitude, attitude & motivation are most strongly associated with learners L2 achievement. L2 learners with positive attitudes toward the target culture and people will learn the target language more effectively. Every learner has an Individual-difference variables that affect their motivation in language learning. Its influenced by antecedent factors and interact with both formal (nurture) & informal language (naturally) acquisition contexts therefore influence both linguistic and nonlinguistic outcomes.
Researchers predicts that students degree of success affects their and that both types of outcomes (positive/negative) because of the influence on individual-difference variables on language attitudes and motivation. A “motivated learner” defined as (a) eager to learn the language, (b) willing to expend effort on the learning activity (c) willing to sustain the learning activity
THE ROLE OF APTITUDE AND MOTIVATION IN L2 LEARNING(GARDNER, 2000)
Students who had positive motivation and attitudes toward language study tend to do well on the module tests and to participate actively. Motivated students studied regularly and productively in order to take every opportunity to perfect their language skills.
Crookes and Schmidt conduct a new research agenda involving L2 learning motivation. They criticized Gardners socioeducational model for not focusing sufficiently on the L2 instructional context and for being too limited in two ways: i. Despite the large sample of subjects with whom Gardner and his associates usually work, their research is always based on one-shot questionnaires (i.e., data collected at one point in time) that are then examined in relation to the final achievement measures. i. Integrativeness is not equally important for L2 achievement in classroom-based.
An interest in learning a foreign language develops because of emotional involvement with the target language’s community or because the learner has a direct interest in the language. Research findings show that attitudes and motivation are indeed related to successful L2 learning but it has not been indicated how they do so.
Researchers point out that learners are motivated if i. they need to learn the language in order to achieve a goal ii. if they want to communicate with speakers of the target language iii. learn about the country where the language is spoken Brown distinguishes three different types of motivation: i. global; a general orientation for learning; ii. situational; relates to the situation in which learning takes place iii. task motivation which relates to specific tasks.
THE ROLE OF APTITUDE & MOTIVATION IN L2LEARNING Attributes Integrativeness Attitude / Attitudes toward the learning Motivation situation Test Motivation Battery (AMTB) Language Anxiety Instrumental Orientation
Attributes Factor Structural analyse using EquationAnalysis Modelling Data Collected
L2 proficiency Language aptitude Motivation & attitudes DataCollected Self-confidence Attitudes toward the language course & classroom anxiety Attitudes, motivation & language anxiety