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  • The paper focuses on an approach to scale which treats its production as observable. I focus on the meetings in an infrastructure building project called GEON. It is their everyday concern of participants: you hear of scaling, scaling up, or scaleability. My interest then are the methods for knowing the size of geon, and how participants act on its scale.
  • Kizmet, Cassius
  • Kizmet, Cassius
  • Kizmet, Cassius
  • n 1827, Sir Charles Wheatstone was the first person to coin the phrase "microphone."In 1876, Emile Berliner invented the first microphone used as a telephone voice transmitter. At the U.S. Centennial Exposition, Emile Berliner had seen a Bell Company telephone demonstrated and was inspired to find ways to improve the newly invented telephone. The Bell Telephone Company was impressed with what the inventor came up with and bought Berliner's microphone patent for $50,000.
  • n 1827, Sir Charles Wheatstone was the first person to coin the phrase "microphone."In 1876, Emile Berliner invented the first microphone used as a telephone voice transmitter. At the U.S. Centennial Exposition, Emile Berliner had seen a Bell Company telephone demonstrated and was inspired to find ways to improve the newly invented telephone. The Bell Telephone Company was impressed with what the inventor came up with and bought Berliner's microphone patent for $50,000.
  • The paper focuses on an approach to scale which treats its production as observable. I focus on the meetings in an infrastructure building project called GEON. It is their everyday concern of participants: you hear of scaling, scaling up, or scaleability. My interest then are the methods for knowing the size of geon, and how participants act on its scale.
  • Translated into a digital number Sampling rate
  • Wide Angle Lens Focal Length: 10 mm, 12 mm Large field of view Greater depth of field size difference between near and far Medium Lens Focal Length: 25 mm – 50 mm Objects in background and foreground different sizes * But not as great as wide angle lens Focal Length: 100 mm Compresses space/ Expands time The “baseball effect” The Graduate effect (Mike Nichols, 1967)
  • Telephoto flatten vs wide angle distrort
  • Telephoto flatten vs wide angle distrort
  • Telephoto flatten vs wide angle distrort
  • Telephoto flatten vs wide angle distrort
  • Telephoto flatten vs wide angle distrort
  • Telephoto flatten vs wide angle distrort
  • - 525 lines -
  • "Revolution in the Valley" writtened by Andy Hertzfeld: The Lisa team decided to optimize their display for horizontal resolution, in order to be able to display 80 columns of text in an attractive font. The vertical resolution wasn't as important, because vertical scrolling works much better for text than horizontal scrolling. The designers decided to endow Lisa with twice as much horizontal resolution as vertical, using a 720 by 360 pixel display, with pixels that were twice as high as they were wide. This was great for text oriented applications like the word processor, but it made things somewhat awkward for the more graphical applications. When Burrell redesigned the Macintosh in December 1980 to use the same microprocessor as Lisa, the Motorola 68000, it set off shock waves within Apple. Not only was Burrell's new design much simpler than Lisa, with less than half the chip count, but it also ran almost twice as fast, using an 8 megahertz clock instead of a 5 megahertz clock. Among other advantages was the fact that the Mac's 384 by 256 pixel display had the identical horizontal and vertical resolution, a feature that we called "square dots". Square dots made it easier to write graphical applications, since you didn't have to worry about the resolution disparity.
  • Georges-Pierre Seurat: Study for "A Sunday on La Grande Jatte", oil on canvas, 27 3/4 x 41 in. (70.5 x 104.1 cm), 1884–85 Pointillism: points of colors so they blend in the mind of the viwer Endangered legibility of paintings The theory behind this also stresses the value of complementary colours (for example, blue and orange), which form vibrant contrasts and enhance each other, when juxtaposed Begain in black anw white?
  • Balanced XLR: shielded from noise, grounded X= ground, L= Lead, R= Return
  • Multi-channel recording? Digital or analog? Field or studio?
  • Transcript

    • 1. Fundamentals of Technology Week 5 What is Capture?
    • 2. ‘ The Stack’ Network Hardware Operating System Applications Interface Users
    • 3. ‘ The Stack’ Network Hardware Operating System Applications Interface Users
    • 4. ‘ The Stack’ Network Hardware Operating System Applications Interface Users Capture
    • 5. ‘ The Stack’ Network Hardware Operating System Applications Interface Users Capture
    • 6. What is Capture?
      • -1- What is Digital Sampling?
      • -2- What is video?
      • -3- What is Color?
      • -4- What is Audio?
    • 7. Our Heroes this Week
    • 8. Our Heroes this Week Spike Lee
    • 9. Our Heroes this Week Spike Lee Georges Seurat
    • 10. Our Heroes this Week The CCD
    • 11. Our Heroes this Week The CCD transducer
    • 12. -1- What is Digital Sampling?
    • 13. Fundamentals of Technology Week 4 What is Information? What is Software?
    • 14. Digital Audio Capture
      • 48 kHZ: Imagine a snapshot of a sound wave happens 48,000 times a second.
      • Plot Points are saved as digital signals and later used to re-plot the sound wave.
    • 15.  
    • 16. Digital Audio Sampling Rates
      • 8 kHZ = telephone
      • 16 kZ =VoIP
      • 32 kHz = consumer digital video
      • 44.1 kHz = audio CD
      • 48 kHZ = professional digital video
      • 96 kHZ = DVD audio (surround sound)
      • 192 kHZ = DVD audio
    • 17. Digital Image Capture
      • The information of light per pixel becomes a digital number through ADC
      • These numbers indicate:
        • Y Signal: Luminance of light / dark
        • C signal: Chrominance of red / green/ blue
    • 18. Digital vs. Analog
      • Analog devices record light and sound onto tape in ways that are ANALOGOUS to the original.
      • The original could be light reflecting off of a surface (image) or movement of particles in the air (sound)
      • Light and sound cause analog devices to react: silver grains in film change form, diaphragms in microphones vibrate, electrical charges move particles on a tape.
      • Analog devices make copies of the light and sound that are continuous - no breaks or pauses. Infinite grains in film, infinite iron particles on audio tape.
    • 19. Digital vs. Analog
      • Digital devices record light and sound by sampling the original (breaking it into discrete packets or values).
      • Sampling takes place at X times / second (area).
      • More samples = higher resolution (quality)
      • More pixels per image (to a point) = higher quality
      • Too many pixels can create “noise”
      • Fewer samples = lower resolution
      • Resolution ≠ Quality – best resolution depends on use!
    • 20. Digital Analog Duplication of data without loss of quality Wear of tapes, Bleed through, Generation Loss Cheaper, more portable devices Larger, heavier, more expensive devices Distortion and Drop Out No Drop Out, Peaks can be controlled Sampling (makes a circle or wave into a square) Continuous copy (preserves circle/wave) Compressed information easy to share/transport Requires original tape and equipment
    • 21. -2- What is Video?
    • 22. Video Basics: From Light . . . to Digital Camera . . . . . . to Image
    • 23. How do Lenses Work?
    • 24. How do Lenses Work? Iris / Aperture / F-Stops
      • Focal Length = Distance from lens to its focal point (CCD Chip)
      • F-stop is the focal length divided by the diameter of the lens (iris).
      • Each F-Stop reduces or increases the amount of light by two (x 2 or ½)
    • 25. How do Lenses Work?
    • 26. Types of Lenses
      • Wide Angle Lens
        • Focal Length: 10 mm, 12 mm
      • Medium Lens
        • Focal Length: 25 mm – 50 mm
      • Telephoto Lens
        • Focal Length: 100 mm
    • 27.  
    • 28.  
    • 29.  
    • 30.  
    • 31.  
    • 32.  
    • 33. Shutter
    • 34. Shutter For video, think of the shutter as a rotating half disc placed in front of the aperture. - every pass interrupts the flow of light - every interruption marks a new frame Shutter speed = How many times does the shutter rotate per second?
    • 35. Shutter For video, think of the shutter as a rotating half disc placed in front of the aperture. - every pass interrupts the flow of light - every interruption marks a new frame Shutter speed = How many times does the shutter rotate per second? - Video = 30 frames per second - the Disc needs to rotate twice for each frame of video, so the standard shutter speed for 30fps video is 60.
    • 36. Controlling Light Add Light (interior / dark situation) Reduce Light (sunlight, exteriors, very bright situation) Open iris = lower F-stop Close iris = raise F-stop Increase the Gain - adds white noise (+dB) Lower Gain/Add Filter adds black noise (-dB) Reduce shutter speed Increase shutter speed
    • 37. Flow of Digital Video
      • Light to Beam Splitter
      • Beam Splitter to CCD
      • CCD to Digital Signal (C and Y)
      • Digital Signal to Output
      • Digital Input to Video Image.
    • 38. The Beam Splitter
      • White light enters the lens and a splitter separates light into three colors: Red, Blue and Green.
      • Prism block directs these color streams to an imaging device called a CCD.
    • 39. CCD: Charge Coupled Device
      • The CCD is perhaps the most important element determining the ‘quality’ of a digital image.
      • The CCD translates light into an electrical signal.
      • A one chip camera does not separate Red/Green/ Blue. A three chip camera does (one chip per color).
    • 40. CCD: Charge Coupled Device
      • The CCD is comprised of rows and rows of light and color sensitive pixels.
      • Pixels sense how much light is present.
      • The CCD records:
        • Y Signal: Luminance of light / dark
        • C signal: Chrominance of red / green/ blue
    • 41. Recording onto the Tape
    • 42. From Tape to Television
      • Television uses interlaced scanning: every other scan fills in an “even” or “odd” line
      • Every scan takes 1/60th of a second  so 1 full frame (= two lines) is scanned every 1/30th of a second
      • Video frame rate is 30 fps
    • 43. Types of Connectors Component
    • 44. Types of Connectors Composite Component
    • 45. Types of Connectors Composite Component
    • 46. Types of Connectors Composite Component
    • 47. -3- What is Color?
    • 48. The Beam Splitter
      • White light enters the lens and a splitter separates light into three colors: Red, Blue and Green.
      • Prism block directs these color streams to an imaging device called a CCD.
    • 49. Color mixing: additive RGB
    • 50. Color Temperature
      • Color Temperature
      • Exterior light - 5400K BLUE
      • Interior (tungsten lights) - 3200 K ORANGE
      • Fluorescent - green
      • Sunset exterior - blue/orange
      • Mid day sun exterior - bright blue
    • 51. Color Temperature Variations
    • 52. -4- Spike Lee
    • 53. Color mixing: additive RGB
    • 54.  
    • 55.  
    • 56. Georges Seurat: Parade de Cirque oil on canvas, 1884–86
    • 57. Artifact: Moiré Effect
    • 58.  
    • 59.  
    • 60.  
    • 61.  
    • 62.  
    • 63. Color mixing: additive RGB
    • 64. Color mixing: subtractive CMYK
    • 65. -4- What is Audio?
    • 66. How Does Sound Work?
      • An object vibrates
      • Molecules in the air move
      • Move the molecules next to them
      • Start a sound wave
      • At Sea Level : 340.29 m/s (761 mph)
    • 67. Frequency and Amplitude
      • Frequency : Repetition of event (how many) * Frequency of a sound wave is Pitch *
      • – low frequency, low pitch
      • – high frequency, high pitch
      • Amplitude : Magnitude of oscillation (how much)
      • * Amplitude of a sound wave is Volume *
      • – low amplitude, low volume
      • – high volume, high volume
    • 68.  
    • 69. How Microphones Work
      • Transducer : Converts molecular disturbances into electrical energy.
      • * Roughly equivalent the the CCD chip of the camera.
    • 70. Dynamic Microphone
      • Magnet and coil of wire converts sound waves into electrical energy.
      • Extremely rugged
    • 71. Condenser Microphone
      • Two plates with voltage between them.
      • One plate acts like a diaphragm: when it vibrates it changes the voltage.
    • 72. Condenser Microphone
      • Can be very small - lavaliere microphones
      • Sensitive to high and low frequency sounds
      • Output signal is weak! *requires amplification from an external source
    • 73. Microphone Directionality
        • Omnidirectional Unidirectional
    • 74. Microphone Directionality
    • 75. Types of Connectors Balanced
    • 76. Types of Connectors Unbalanced Balanced
    • 77. Types of Connectors Unbalanced Balanced
    • 78. Signal or Noise?
    • 79. Types of Connectors Unbalanced Balanced
    • 80. Audio Recording Choices
      • Analog or digital? Sampling rate?
      • Type of microphone: Dynamic or condenser?
      • Pickup pattern for microphone?
      • Mono or stereo channels (or more)?
      • What cables connect the devices?
    • 81.  

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