Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS• Present Tense • Stem changers • Irregular yo• Ser and Estar• Verbs like gustar• Preterite vs Imperfect• Sunjunctive in noun and adjective clauses• Commands• Object pronouns• Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns• Demonstrative Adjectives and PronounsEnd of part two 2012• Subjunctive• Irregulars• Saber vs Conocer• Reflexives• “Se” imporsonals• Dipthongs with accents• Verbs like ger/gir, uir/guir, cer/cir 2
  3. 3. PRESENT TENSE Step One: Determine if the Verb is an “-ar, -er, or –ir” verb. Step Two: Drop the ending. Step Three: Add the correct ending in place of the –ar, -er, or -ir. -ar verbs -er verbs -ir verbs -o -amos -o -emos -o -imos -as -áis -es -éis -es -is -a -an -e -en -e -enExample:Cantar (yo form) Cantar Canto 3
  4. 4. STEM CHANGERS • Stem changer verbs are verbs that need certain vowels in the middle of the word changed . • The stem is only changed in yo, tú, usted, and ustedes form. This is known as the boot. • There are three types of stem changes. (I to ie, I to e, and o to ue) • The stem change will occur in the second to last vowel in the word. For example; the ‘E’ in the word comenzar would be changed. Step One: Determine if the verb is a stem changer verb, if so, determine what type of stem change it needs. Step Two: If the verb is conjugated in the boot, change the stem, if not, leave it be. Step Three: Finally, drop the –ar, -ir, or –er ending and conjugate accordingly. I to IE I to E Only change theO to UE stem in the BOOT. 4
  5. 5. IRREGULAR YO• Irregular yo verbs are verbs that are normal in every tense but the yo form. The irregular yo verbs will have a different ending in the yo form.• These verbs change to either –yo, - go, or zco. 5
  6. 6. SER Descrip tion Dates Origin Charac Events Ser teristics Posses Time sion Relatio Occupa nships tion 6
  7. 7. ESTAR Health -ing Emotion Estar Present Location Condition 7
  8. 8. VERBS LIKE GUSTARGustar- To like Gustar and verbs like gustar are onlyMolestar-To bother conjugated in two different way based on ifFascinar-To fascinate the object is singular or plural. (-a or –an)Aburrir-To boreImportar-To be important to Example:Interesar-To InterestDisgustar-To disgust Me gusta su gato.Doler(e-ue)-To inflict pain Me gustan sus tortugas.Encantar- To love somethingQuedar-To remain 8
  9. 9. NOUNS, ARTICLES, AND ADJECTIVES Nouns • Add S to most nouns ending in vowels to make plural • Add ES to nouns ending in consonants to make plural Articles • Articles must always agree in gender and quantity • Un, una, unas, unos, el, la, las, losAdjectives• The ending of the adjective will change in order to accommodate and agree with the noun it is describing. Must agree with gender and quantity.• O, os, a, as 9
  10. 10. PRETERITE VS IMPERFECT Refers to ONE specific A continuous action in event or time in the past! the past! ER/IR Er/Ir AR AR ia iamos i imos ab abamoe amos a s abas abais ias iaisaste asteis iste isteis aba aban ia iano aron io ieron Ser ver ir Ser & Ir Dar Hacer• era • veia • iba • fui • di • hice• Eras • Veias • Ibas • Fuiste • Diste • Hiciste• Era • Veia • Iba • Fue • Dio • Hizo• Eramos • Veiamos • Ibamos • Fuimos • Dimos • Hicimos• Erias • Veiais • Ibais • Fuisteis • Disteis • Hicisteis• eran • veian • iban • Fueron • dieron • hicieron 10
  11. 11. SUBJUNCTIVEIn noun clauses• main verb expresses influence, emotion, doubt, or denialIn adjective clauses• when unknown information is trying to be found Er / ir Ar verbs Verbs e emos a amos as áis es éis 11 a an e en
  12. 12. COMMANDS• Tu Affirmative- simply drop the s Irregulares- di hax ve pon sal se tan ven• Tu Negative – put in tu form and change to opposite vowel, and add an s Irregulares- TVDISHES• Ud./uds. Negative and affirmative – put in yo form and change to opposite vowel Irregulars- TVDISHES• Mono verbs• Let’s sit down!• Sentemosnos!• Sentemonos!• Vayamos• Vamanos 12
  13. 13. OBJECT PRONOUNSIndirect Object Pronouns• Goes before the verb and shows “to whom”.• Me, Te, Le, Nos, Os, Les Direct Object Pronouns• go before the verb but can sometimes be attached to an infinitve• me, te, lo/la, nos, os, los/las Double Object Pronoun• Used when there is an IOP that goes in front of a DOP in the same sentence.• Le, les, se 13
  14. 14. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS• Change varying on gender, quantity, and the degree of stress Unstressed Stressed Mi (s) : my Mío (s)/a(s) : my; (of) mine Tuyo (s)/a(s) : Tu (s) : your your; (of) yours Suyo (s)/a(s) : Su (s) : your; your; (of his; hers; its yours); his (of); etc Nuestro Nuestro (s)/a(s) (s)/a(s) : our : our; (of) ours Vuestro (s)/a(s) Vuestro (s)/a(s) : your : your; (of) yours Suyo (s)/a(s) : Su (s) : your; your; (of) their yours; 14
  15. 15. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS• Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns are the same except that pronouns carry the accent mark. Singular • Este/Esta: this,these • Ese/Esa; that, Plural those • Estos/Estas: • Aquel/Aquella: this,these that those • Esos/Esas: that,those • Aquellos/Aquellas: that,those 15
  16. 16. •Me lavo. REFLEXIVES Reflexive pronouns are often followed by a verb : Example: I brush my teeth. This goes for Spanish language as well: Me Nos Te Os Se Se•Me lavo . 16
  17. 17. POR VS PARA • Movement • Duration • Meaning • UnitPor • Exchange • Destination • Deadline • Recipient • PurposePara • • Employment Comparison 17
  18. 18. TO BECOME• hacerse, ponerse, volverse, llegar a ser all mean to become. • Followed by a noun or adjective Hacerse • Indicate a change brought about by effort • Followed by an adjective Ponerse • Indicates an involuntary physical or emotional change • Followed by an adjective Volverse • Indicates a sudden, profound change Llegar a • Followed by a noun or adjective • Indicate a change brought about by ser effort 18
  19. 19. SABER VS CONOCERWhen translated to English, both Saber and Conocer mean to know; however theyare used in two very different situations.Saber: to know a fact, or know how to do something. In the preterit it means to learn or find outConocer: to know someone or something and be familiar with it. In the preterit it means to meet someone. Conocer is an irregular yo verb! (zco) 19
  20. 20. “SE” IMPERSONALS‘Se’ becomes impersonal when the subject of the verb is unidentified, but obviously third person.This is most commonly used when making a general statement. se + 3rd person singular verbExamples:Se habla español aquí. 20
  21. 21. VERBS LIKE GER/GIR, UIR/GUIR, CER/CIRVerbs that end in ger, gir, uir, guir, cer, and cir irregular yo form verbs.Verbs that end in ger or gir- G to J in yo formVerbs that end in uir or guir- GU to G in yo formVerbs that end in cer or cir- C to ZC in yo form 21
  22. 22. DIPHTHONGS WITH ACCENTSIn some cases, verbs require an accent to break up a diphthong. The syllable with the an accent is the syllable to be stressed when saying the word. If there is no accent, the second to last syllable will be stressed if the word ends in an n or s. - Happens when a weak vowel (i/y,u) and strong vowels come together and form on syllable.In this case, an accent is used on the weak vowel.Examples:Comprendiótenéis 22
  23. 23. HACE+TIME+QUE+PRESENT TENSE• This format is used to explain the amount of time that the action took. Hace Tres ańos Que bailo 23
  24. 24. IMPERFECTImperfect tense is used when an action is continuous and has no exact beginning or ending point.*Think about it like a movie* Ia Iamos Aba Abamos Ias Abas Ia Ian Aba Aban -Ir/-Er -Ar 24
  25. 25. PRETERITEPreterite tense is used when the action is past tense that is over and done with.*Think of it as a snapshot*To the tune of “row row row your boat” Trigger Words:E, I, aste, iste, AnteayerO, io-o-o, AnocheAmos, imos, aron, ieron AyerEl es preterito La semanapasada 25
  26. 26. IRREGULARS -Car • Que -Gar • Gue -Zar • CeMust have accent over e in yo form only! 26
  27. 27. SPOCK VERBSSer/Ir Dar/Ver Hacer• Fui • (D/V)i • Hice • (d/v)iste • Hiciste• Fuiste • (d/v)io • Hizo• Fue • (d/v)imos • Hicimos• Fuimos • (d/v)ieron • Hicieron• Fuieron 27