Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS• Present Tense • Stem changers • Irregular yo• Ser and Estar• Verbs like gustar• Preterite vs ImperfectEnd of part one 2012• Subjunctive• Irregulars• Saber vs Conocer• Reflexives• “Se” imporsonals• Dipthongs with accents• Verbs like ger/gir, uir/guir, cer/cir 2
  3. 3. PRESENT TENSE Step One: Determine if the Verb is an “-ar, -er, or –ir” verb. Step Two: Drop the ending. Step Three: Add the correct ending in place of the –ar, -er, or -ir. -ar verbs -er verbs -ir verbs -o -amos -o -emos -o -imos -as -áis -es -éis -es -is -a -an -e -en -e -enExample:Cantar (yo form) Cantar Canto 3
  4. 4. STEM CHANGERS • Stem changer verbs are verbs that need certain vowels in the middle of the word changed . • The stem is only changed in yo, tú, usted, and ustedes form. This is known as the boot. • There are three types of stem changes. (I to ie, I to e, and o to ue) • The stem change will occur in the second to last vowel in the word. For example; the ‘E’ in the word comenzar would be changed. Step One: Determine if the verb is a stem changer verb, if so, determine what type of stem change it needs. Step Two: If the verb is conjugated in the boot, change the stem, if not, leave it be. Step Three: Finally, drop the –ar, -ir, or –er ending and conjugate accordingly. I to IE I to E Only change theO to UE stem in the BOOT. 4
  5. 5. IRREGULAR YO• Irregular yo verbs are verbs that are normal in every tense but the yo form. The irregular yo verbs will have a different ending in the yo form.• These verbs change to either –yo, - go, or zco. 5
  6. 6. SER Descrip tion Dates Origin Charac Events Ser teristics Posses Time sion Relatio Occupa nships tion 6
  7. 7. ESTAR Health -ing Emotion Estar Present Location Condition 7
  8. 8. VERBS LIKE GUSTARGustar- To like Gustar and verbs like gustar are onlyMolestar-To bother conjugated in two different way based on ifFascinar-To fascinate the object is singular or plural. (-a or –an)Aburrir-To boreImportar-To be important to Example:Interesar-To InterestDisgustar-To disgust Me gusta su gato.Doler(e-ue)-To inflict pain Me gustan sus tortugas.Encantar- To love somethingQuedar-To remain 8
  9. 9. PRETERITE VS IMPERFECT Refers to ONE specific A continuous action in event or time in the past! the past! ER/IR Er/Ir AR AR ia iamos i imos ab abamoe amos a s abas abais ias iaisaste asteis iste isteis aba aban ia iano aron io ieron Ser ver ir Ser & Ir Dar Hacer• era • veia • iba • fui • di • hice• Eras • Veias • Ibas • Fuiste • Diste • Hiciste• Era • Veia • Iba • Fue • Dio • Hizo• Eramos • Veiamos • Ibamos • Fuimos • Dimos • Hicimos• Erias • Veiais • Ibais • Fuisteis • Disteis • Hicisteis• eran • veian • iban • Fueron • dieron • hicieron 9
  10. 10. SABER VS CONOCERWhen translated to English, both Saber and Conocer mean to know; however theyare used in two very different situations.Saber: to know a fact, or know how to do something. In the preterit it means to learn or find outConocer: to know someone or something and be familiar with it. In the preterit it means to meet someone. Conocer is an irregular yo verb! (zco) 10
  11. 11. •Me lavo. REFLEXIVES Reflexive pronouns are often followed by a verb : Example: I brush my teeth. This goes for Spanish language as well: Me Nos Te Os Se Se•Me lavo . 11
  12. 12. “SE” IMPERSONALS‘Se’ becomes impersonal when the subject of the verb is unidentified, but obviously third person.This is most commonly used when making a general statement. se + 3rd person singular verbExamples:Se habla español aquí. 12
  13. 13. DIPHTHONGS WITH ACCENTSIn some cases, verbs require an accent to break up a diphthong. The syllable with the an accent is the syllable to be stressed when saying the word. If there is no accent, the second to last syllable will be stressed if the word ends in an n or s. - Happens when a weak vowel (i/y,u) and strong vowels come together and form on syllable.In this case, an accent is used on the weak vowel.Examples:Comprendiótenéis 13
  14. 14. VERBS LIKE GER/GIR, UIR/GUIR, CER/CIRVerbs that end in ger, gir, uir, guir, cer, and cir irregular yo form verbs.Verbs that end in ger or gir- G to J in yo formVerbs that end in uir or guir- GU to G in yo formVerbs that end in cer or cir- C to ZC in yo form 14
  15. 15. HACE+TIME+QUE+PRESENT TENSE• This format is used to explain the amount of time that the action took. Hace Tres ańos Que bailo 15
  16. 16. IMPERFECTImperfect tense is used when an action is continuous and has no exact beginning or ending point.*Think about it like a movie* Ia Iamos Aba Abamos Ias Abas Ia Ian Aba Aban -Ir/-Er -Ar 16
  17. 17. PRETERITEPreterite tense is used when the action is past tense that is over and done with.*Think of it as a snapshot*To the tune of “row row row your boat” Trigger Words:E, I, aste, iste, AnteayerO, io-o-o, AnocheAmos, imos, aron, ieron AyerEl es preterito La semanapasada 17
  18. 18. IRREGULARS -Car • Que -Gar • Gue -Zar • CeMust have accent over e in yo form only! 18
  19. 19. SPOCK VERBSSer/Ir Dar/Ver Hacer• Fui • (D/V)i • Hice • (d/v)iste • Hiciste• Fuiste • (d/v)io • Hizo• Fue • (d/v)imos • Hicimos• Fuimos • (d/v)ieron • Hicieron• Fuieron 19