Journal of Coastal Research       SI 56         1311 - 1315           ICS2009 (Proceedings)             Portugal          ...
Evaluation of Sustainability Indicators for the Coastal Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.                                  M...
Souto et al.Table 2: Highest and lower arithmetic means, with standard                   important as the numbers of schoo...
Evaluation of Sustainability Indicators for the Coastal Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  This work represents the result o...
Souto et al.                  LITERATURE CITED                                     INEPAC.  2005. Guia de Bens Histórico-C...
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Evaluation of Sustainability Indicators for the Coastal Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


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Evaluation of Sustainability Indicators for the Coastal Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

  1. 1. Journal of Coastal Research SI 56 1311 - 1315 ICS2009 (Proceedings) Portugal ISSN 0749-0258Evaluation of Sustainability Indicators for the Coastal Zone of Rio deJaneiro, Brazil R.D. Souto †, M. Polette‡ and M. Kampel∞ † Escola Nacional de Ciências Estatísticas ‡ Centro de Ciências ‡ Divisão de Sensoriamento Remoto Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Tecnológicas da Terra e do Mar Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Estatística Universidade do Vale do Itajaí Espaciais, São José dos Campos Rio de Janeiro 88303-202, Brazil 12227-010, Brazil 20231-050, Brazil ABSTRACT SOUTO, R.D., POLETTE, M. and KAMPEL, J., 2009. Evaluation of sustainability indicators for the coastal zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 56 (Proceedings of the 10th International Coastal Symposium), 1311 – 1315. Lisbon, Portugal, ISSN 0749-0258. This paper demonstrates the application of sustainability indicators in a case study that evaluates anthropogenic impacts on the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis considered 41 socio- environmental thematic indicators at six dimensions of the eco-development: spatial, cultural, economic, ecological, social and political. The indicators were applied to 34 coastal municipalities of the State of Rio de Janeiro, classified in regions with a low, middle or high degree of anthropogenic impact. The thematic indicators were aggregated to obtain sectorial indicators that supported the derivation of dimensional indicators. A final index, termed the Anthropogenic Impact Index (AII), was calculated as a weighted mean of dimensional indexes. The percentage of municipalities with impact indexes above the average was 53% in the ecological, economic, social and political dimensions and 47% in the spatial dimension. Considering the AII, 53% of municipalities showed indexes above the average, with 39% of municipalities located in Guanabara Bay Littoral, 39% in the Região dos Lagos Littoral, 17% in the Norte-Fluminense Littoral and 5% in the Southern Littoral. It was concluded that the application of sustainability indicators, such as proposed in this work, can be used to a quantitatively characterize socio-environmental parameters of the Brazilian coastal zones and to the effectiveness of public policy mechanisms along the Brazilian littoral zone, particularly those related to monitoring reports such as the Environmental Quality Report. ADITIONAL INDEX WORDS: Coastal management, Sustainable development, Environmental index. INTRODUCTION approximately 24% of the state’s population and to approximately o 10% of all migrations into Brazilian states (IBGE, 2000). The coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (21 - The floating population composed of tourists is substantial,23oS; 41o-45oW) includes 34 municipalities that are organized into corresponding to an increase of 773,932 people in 2007, whichfour coastal sectors: the Southern Littoral, the Guanabara Bay was 15.4% of the total number of visitors to Brazil in this yearLittoral, the Região dos Lagos Littoral and the Norte-Fluminense (EMBRATUR, 2008).Littoral (FEEMA, 2008) Enclosing an area of approximately 19,000 Environmental policymaking is a difficult effort.km2, this coastal zone extends by more than 850 km of littoral Decisionmakers must address a wide range of natural resourcewith a maritime zone of 12 nautical miles. This region is home to management and pollution control issues in the face of causal80% of Rio de Janeiro’s population, approximately 10.5 million complexity, incomplete or conflicting data, and many otherpeople, and has a demographic density of 585 inhabitants/km2 uncertainties. Without careful analysis based on solid factual(FEEMA, 2008). foundations, bad choices are made, investments in environmental Coastal areas of the State of Rio de Janeiro present a wealth of protection under-perform, and political divisions widen (ESTY etnatural resources and are rich with diverse species, habitat types, al., 2008). Therefore, shifting environmental policymaking ontoand nutrients. These areas also support diverse economic firmer analytic foundations, based on carefully constructed dataactivities. In 2005, Rio de Janeiro State was responsible for 84% and indicators, emerges as a matter of considerable urgency.and 45% of the Brazilian oil and gas production, respectively Identifying an appropriate set of metrics is equally important.(ANP, 2005 apud FCIDE, 2006). Extractive and transformation Some indicator initiatives have been too broad to be of great valueindustries are important to the economy, contributing 35% of the (ESTY et al., 2005). The aim of this work was to formulate andstate’s Gross Domestic Product (FCIDE, 2006). Business and evaluate indicators for the coastal cities of Rio de Janeiro coveringservice companies represent 49% and 37% of the total number of sustainable development in a “six dimensional bottom line”commercial establishments, respectively (FCIDE, 2006). considering spatial, cultural, economic, ecological, social andEmployment, recreation and tourism, commerce, and energy political factors, as proposed by SACHS (2002).production are factors causing migration into these areas. In 2000,2,476,072 people entered Rio de Janeiro, which corresponds to Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 56, 2009 1311
  2. 2. Evaluation of Sustainability Indicators for the Coastal Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS A website was also built to disseminate the methodology and the Based on regional characteristics, a list of 41 thematic results more widely on the internet (SOUTO, 2008).indicators was created. These indicators were hierarchicallyranked within 15 sectors and 6 dimensions. An index of RESULTSsustainability was calculated for each dimension from which an Table 1 shows the highest and lower arithmetic means amongintegrated index, called the Anthropogenic Impact Index (AII), component indexes of each dimension, except the culturalwas ultimately composed. The municipalities were identified by dimension, which has a unique component indicator. The highestnumeric codes (1-34) as well as the parameters (1-51). Table 3 and lower arithmetic means for the sectors of the economic andshows the thematic indicators codified by alphanumeric social dimensions are shown in Table 2.combinations (Ax-Fx) according to the six dimensions (A-F).Each indicator was associated with its DPSIR – Deriving forces, Table 1: Highest and lower arithmetic means, with standardPressures, State, Impacts or Response type (EUROSTAT, 1999). deviations indicated in brackets, among component indexes of Datasets of 51 parameters used to build the thematic indicators each dimension, except the cultural dimension.were obtained from different sources: six governmental – IBGE(2000), IPEA (2000), FCIDE (1994, 2001), INPE (2003), INEPAC Dimension Highest mean Lower mean(2005), MS (2003) and one non-governmental – SOSMA (2000).The datasets were obtained from recognized institutions providing A2a - Atlantic forest A3a - Permanent farming Spatialofficial data in Brazil. These institutions had previously validated A coverage coveragethe datasets. In each series of data, the missing data were 0.2550 (0.2829) 0.0726 (0.1784)estimated by linear regression. The coefficients used to composethe thematic indicators were normalized between 0 and 1 and Economic C1b - Participation of C2b - Industry participation inthose indexes were calculated according to the following equation population in the EAP the municipality’s economy C(IISD, 2008): 0.8234 (0.1562) 0.0588 (0.1718) Ecological D1d - Water bodies area D1c - Degraded areas D 0.6470 (0.4850) 0.0911 (0.2482) Ind x = [( Coef x  Coef min ) / ( Coef max  Coef min )] (1) E2c - Domestic garbage E2d - Water treatment plantswhere Indx is the index for each municipality; Coefx is the Social collection efficiency coveragecoefficient estimated for a specific municipality; Coefmin is the E 0.7997 (0.2306) 0.0477 (0.1759)lower coefficient of the series; and Coefmax is the maximumcoefficient of the series. F1e - Municipal expenses F1b - Total municipal The indexes of the 15 sectors and 6 dimensions were Political current expenditures directed to national securityarithmetically averaged from the component indexes. The AII was F and public defence 0.5776 (0.1437)calculated using a weighted arithmetic average of the dimensional 0.0874 (0.2278)indexes, as described in equation (2):AII = I A 0.15 + I B 0.1 + IC 0.2 + I D 0.2 + I E 0.2 + I F 0.15 (2) Comparatively, the highest mean (0.7925) was obtained for the cultural dimension, B, followed by the political dimension, Fwhere IA is the index of the spatial dimension; IB is the index of (0.6214), the ecological dimension, D (0.3618), the socialthe cultural dimension; IC is the index of the economic dimension; dimension, E (0.3439), the spatial dimension, A (0.3398), and theID is the index of the ecological dimension; IE is the index of the economic dimension, C (0.3014), respectively. For the AII index,social dimension; and IF is the index of the political dimension. the mean was 0.4290, with L1 and L2 limits of 0.3742 and 0.4756, An exploratory analysis of the indexes was conducted to respectively.identify three thematic classes: high, middle or low anthropogenic The ecological, economic, social and political dimensionsimpact. Basic statistical moments were calculated for the indexes, showed that 53% of municipalities had indexes above the mean.and the upper and lower limits of the classes intervals were The spatial and cultural dimensions showed that 47% and 71%,defined according to equations (3) and (4): respectively, of the municipalities had indexes above the mean. Regarding the AII, 53% of municipalities had indexes above L1 = μ  σ (3) the mean, with 39% belonging to the Guanabara Bay Littoral, 39% to the Região dos Lagos Littoral, 17% to the Norte- L2 = μ + σ (4) fluminense Littoral, and 5% to the Southern Littoral.where is the arithmetic mean and  is the standard deviation. Incases where the L1 or L2 limits were out of the interval from theminimum index to the maximum index, the variance, rather thanstandard deviation, was used. The classes’ intervals were definedas follows: low impact – interval from the minimum index to L1;middle impact – interval from (L1 + 0.0001) to (L2 + 0.0001); andhigh impact – interval from L2 to the maximum index. Thisclassification scheme was used to produce the thematic maps. A relational database was implemented in MySQL Server v.4.1and PHP 5 programming was used to implement the formulas tocalculate the indexes and to generate the thematic maps (Figure 1). Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 56, 2009 1312
  3. 3. Souto et al.Table 2: Highest and lower arithmetic means, with standard important as the numbers of schools. If this last measure isdeviations indicated in brackets, among indexes of sectors of the included in the HDI-Education computation, the ranking ofeconomic and social dimensions. education quality of the state municipalities would be different from the list published by the government. In the habitation sector, Sector Highest mean Lower mean the higher impact is associated with a subnormal agglomeration. C1a - Human Especially in the metropolitan region, the Guanabara Bay Littoral, Employing C1b - Participation of people and more recently in the Região dos Lagos Littoral, the subnormal Development Index – and Income in the EAP agglomeration process is being intensified. The high degree of Income C1 0.8234 (0.1562) 0.3223 (0.2088) concentration in the economic activity and the relatively good infrastructure available in those areas attracts less privileged C2b – Industrial GDP C2a - GDP per capita participation in the people from other areas. The fast population increase is not C2 0.1535 (0.2528) municipal economy accompanied by sufficient increase in services, and consequently 0.0588 (0.1718) there is insufficient support from government and private investments. In the security sector, the homicide indicator should C3a - Aquaculture not be interpreted as an indicator of satisfactory safety but as a Fishing C3b - Fishermen workers C3 0.1077 (0.2414) very poor register of the occurrence of homicide. Most of the 0.1503 (0.2195) deaths in high subnormal agglomeration locals do not enter into C4a - Enterprise C4b - Hotel the official statistics. Moreover, occurrences of less serious Enterprises participation in the crimes, such as robberies and assaults are more frequent and are establishments C4 municipal economy not registered, causing this indicator to provide an inadequate 0.0951 (0.2070) 0.1255 (0.1642) picture of the safety level in the cities. E1c - Deaths by In the political dimension, the application of municipal Health E1a - HDI-Longevity resources does not sufficiently support the population transmissible illnesses E1 0.3342 (0.2290) requirements, and the average amount of received resources was 0.1280 (0.2166) lowest for education (0.5654), followed by health and sanitation E2c - Domestic garbage E2d - Water treatment (0.4447) and security (0.0874). Sanitation collection efficiency plants coverage The highest rate of impact indexes above the mean (71%) was E2 0.7997 (0.2306) 0.0477 (0.1759) estimated for the cultural dimension and indicates that the effort to Education E3a - HDI - Education E3d - Illiteracy protect historical and cultural goods is still incipient in the state. E3 0.6321 (0.1684) 0.3059 (0.1895) Due to globalization processes and economic pressures, the Brazilian society is losing part of its cultural memory and E4b - Population in E4a - Demographic consequently its own identity. According to SANTOS (2000), the Housing concept of culture is directly linked with authentic expression, subnormal agglomerations density E4 0.2785 (0.2215) 0.1092 (0.2148) integrity and freedom of the people. Distortions constitute a way of creating new requirements, necessities and habits, resulting in a resignation of its proper authenticity. The similarity in the percentage of cities with impact values DISCUSSION above the average of the other 5 dimensions demonstrates that the The results obtained for the spatial dimension the shift from a effect of human occupation on these cities is inter-dependent orrural model to a more developed one in the State of Rio de systemic and has reciprocal consequences.Janeiro. There was a significant increase in the urban population The results of the percentage of cities, classified by coastalaround the metropolitan region. According to other results sectors, with above average Anthropogenic Impact Indexesobtained by SOSMA and INPE, it is estimated that only 7.26% of confirm the impact of the urbanization in the Guanabara Baythe original Atlantic Rain Forest is presently preserved in Brazil, Littoral and of the oil & gas production in the Região dos Lagoswith significant deforestation occurring in the State of Rio de Littoral, mainly in the Campos Basin region. The SouthernJaneiro between 2005 and 2007 (SOSMA, 2006). Littoral has a somewhat better situation but has a risk of change in The results obtained for the ecological dimension confirm the the near future due to developments in the transformationachievements reported by OLIVEIRA et al. (2007) that one of the industrial park that was recently installed in this area.most critical environmental impacts in the cities of the middle-south regions of Brazil is the sedimentation of water bodies. CONCLUSIONS In the social dimension, results showed that population health is Sustainability indicators were formulated and applied tomore affected by infantile mortality than by transmissible evaluate the coastal municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) andillnesses. Still, both of these factors contribute to a shortened were addressed in six dimensions of eco-development. More thanlongevity. Children younger than 1 year old are more vulnerable half (53%) of the 34 municipalities had an above averageto illness in general due to their fragile and incompletely Anthropogenic Impact Index, and the cultural and spatialdeveloped immunity system. Regarding sanitation, we strongly dimensions were the most and the least impacted, respectively.criticize the extensive use of sanitation landfills and the lack of Considering the coastal sectors, the Guanabara Bay Littoral andrecycling programs. Considering education, the calculated indexes the Região dos Lagos Littoral were more affected than the othersconfirm the dependency between the HDI-Education, the level of regions, and the Southern Littoral had a slightly better condition.literacy, and school inclusion. Another indicator used in this work, These preliminary results indicate that processes of urbanizationdocent sufficiency, presented a lower value (0.3471) compared to and industrialization in the metropolitan area and surroundingschool inclusion (0.4326). We conclude that HDI-Education itself cities offer a heavy risk to the well-being of the coastalcannot fully represent the educational conditions of the state, since population.the number of teachers available to take care of students is as Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 56, 2009 1313
  4. 4. Evaluation of Sustainability Indicators for the Coastal Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This work represents the result of extensive consultations with a The initiatives related to the coastal management of Rio dewide range of institutions and data providers. Any attempt to Janeiro are fundamental, considering its relevance in the Brazilianmeasure environmental performance requires both an in-depth economic context, the great diversity of natural resources and theknowledge of each dimension and the relationships between importance of its biodiversity. The methodology applied here aredimensions and the application of sophisticated statistical satisfactory for the analysis of socio-economic characteristics intechniques. Thus, this evaluation is a valid starting point for the study area and contribute to a better understanding of thedeveloping other approaches to understand the coast of Rio de social and economic distortions that still exist in the coastal zoneJaneiro. of Rio de Janeiro as well as to the formulation of more efficient The use of free software on the evaluation proceedings public policies at local, state and federal level.represents an evolution in data processing in Brazil suggests it ispossible and advantageous to assimilate this software into thegovernment’s coastal monitoring activities. Table 3. Hierarchy of indicators and DPSIR types (DF – Driving forces, P – Pressure, S – State, I – Impact, and R – Response) Dimension Sectorial indicators and components thematic indicators with DPSIR types()A - Space A1 – Urbanization: A1a – Urbanization (P); A2 – Preserved Areas: A2a -Covering by Atlantic Forest (S); A3 – Land Use: A3a – Covering by Permanent Farming (P).B - Cultural B1 – Protection of Historical-Cultural Goods: B1a - Protection of Historical-Cultural Goods (R).C - Economic C1 – Employing and income: C1a – Human Development Index – Income (S), C1b – Participation of people in the EAP (S), C1c – Poverty intensity coefficient – R$ 37.75 line (S), C1d – Poverty intensity coefficient – R$ 75.50 line (S); C2 – GDP: C2a – GDP per capita (S), C2b – Industrial participation in the municipal economy (P); C3 – Fishing: C3a – Aquaculture workers (P), C3b – Fishermen (P); C4 – Enterprises: C4a – Enterprise participation in the municipal economy (DF/R), C4b – Hotel establishments (P).D - Ecological D1 – Landscape modification: D1a – Covering by secondary vegetation (S), D1b – Coverage by field-pasture (S), D1c – Degraded areas (S), D1d – Water body area (S).E - Social E1 – Health: E1a – Human Development Index – Longevity (S), E1b – Life Expectancy at birth (I), E1c – Deaths by transmissible illnesses (I), E1d – Infantile mortality (I); E2 – Sanitation: E2a – Sanitation efficiency (R), E2b – Water supply coverage (R), E2c – Efficiency of home garbage collection (R), E2d – Water treatment stations coverage (R), E2e – Drain treatment coverage (R), E2f - Urban drainage net covering (R). E3 – Education: E3a – Human development index – Education (S), E3b – School insertion (S), E3c – Sufficiency of teachers (R), E3d – Illiteracy (S); E4 – Housing: E4a – Demographic density (DF/P), E4b – Population in subnormal agglomerations (I/P), E4c – Subnormal agglomerations (I/P); E5 – Security: E5a – Homicides (I).F - Politics F1 – Public Administration: F1a – Total municipal capital expenditures (R), F1b – Total municipal current expenditures (R), F1c – Municipal expenses directed to education and culture (R), F1d - Municipal expenses directed to health and sanitation (R), F1e - Municipal expenses directed to national security and public defense (R).Figure 1. Thematic map of the Anthropogenic Impact Index (AII) for coastal municipalities of the State of Rio de Janeiro (adaptedfrom ). Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 56, 2009 1314
  5. 5. Souto et al. LITERATURE CITED INEPAC. 2005. Guia de Bens Histórico-Culturais Tombados: 1965-EMBRATUR. 2008. Anuário Estatístico Embratur. Vol. 35. Instituto 2005. Rio de Janeiro: Governo do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasileiro de Turismo - EMBRATUR. Brasília: Ministério do Instituto Estadual de Patrimônio Cultural, 122 p. Turismo, Instituto Brasileiro de Turismo, 126 p. IPEA. 2000. Banco de dados IPEADATA. Brasília: Ministério doEUROSTAT. 1999. Towards Environmental Pressure Indicators for Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão, Instituto de Pesquisas the European Union. Theme 08 – Environment and Energy. Econômicas Aplicadas. Available from: Brussels: European Comission, Joint Research Centre, 97 p., D.C.; LEVY, M.A.; et al., 2005. The 2005 Environmental MS. 2003. DATASUS/MS - Banco de Dados do Sistema Único de Sustainability Index: Benchmarking National Environmental Saúde. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde. Available from: Stewardship. New Haven: Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, 367p. SOSMA. 2000. Atlas dos Remanescentes Florestais de MataESTY, D.C.; LEVY, M.A.; KIM, C.H.; SHERBININ, A.; SREBOTNJAK, Atlântica. Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica – SOSMA. Available T.; MARA, V., 2008. 2008 Environmental Performance Index. from: New Haven: Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, SOSMA. 2006. Atlas dos Remanescentes Florestais de Mata 382p. Atlântica: 2000-2005. Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica –FCIDE. 1994. IQM-Verde I - Índice de Qualidade dos Municípios SOSMA. Available from: Verde I. Rio de Janeiro: Governo do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, SOUTO R.D. Atlas of Sustainability Indicators for Coastal Fundação Centro de Informações e Dados Rio de Janeiro, 156 Municipalities of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Available from: p. 2001. IQM-Verde II - Índice de Qualidade dos Municípios OLIVEIRA, S.M.M.C. ; BARCELLOS, F.C.; GREEN, A.P.L. 2007. Verde II. Rio de Janeiro: Governo do Estado do Rio de Aspectos da Governança Ambiental no Complexo Regional Janeiro, Fundação Centro de Informações e Dados Rio de Centro-Sul, segundo o Grau de Urbanização. VII Encontro da Janeiro, 154 p. Sociedade Brasileira de Economia Ecológica. (Fortaleza,FCIDE. 2006. Rio de Janeiro em Dados. Rio de Janeiro: Governo Ceará, Brazil). do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Fundação Centro de Informações SACHS, I. 2002. Caminhos para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável. e Dados Rio de Janeiro, 23 p. Rio de Janeiro: Garamond, 95p.FEEMA. 2008. Programas e Projetos: Gerenciamento Costeiro SANTOS, M. Da cultura à indústria cultural. Jornal Folha de São Integrado. Rio de Janeiro: Governo do Estado do Rio de Paulo. 19-mar-2000. Janeiro, Fundação Estadual de Engenharia do Meio Ambiente. Available from: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSIBGE. 2000. Censo Demográfico 2000: Migração e Deslocamento: The authors thank the reviewer for his comments, all Brazilian Resultados da Amostra. Brasília: Ministério do Planejamento, official data providers: Ministério da Saúde, Ministério da Orçamento e Gestão, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Educação, Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão, Estatística, 147 p. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE, InstitutoIBGE. 2000. Censo Demográfico 2000. SIDRA - Sistema IBGE de Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais - INEP, Instituto de Recuperação Automática. Brasília: Ministério do Pesquisas Econômicas Aplicadas - IPEA, Instituto Estadual do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão, Instituto Brasileiro de Patrimônio Cultural - INEPAC, Fundação Centro de Informação e Geografia e Estatística. Available from: Dados do Rio de Janeiro – FCIDE, and NGO SOS Mata Atlântica - SOSMA. Special tanks to CTTMar/ UNIVALI, DSR/ INPE andIISD. 2008. Dashboard of Sustainability. Winnipeg, Manitoba: ENCE/ IBGE. International Institute for Sustainable Development, Consultative Group on SD Indicators. Available from: 2003. Censo escolar 2000. Brasília: Ministério da Educação, Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais, 205 p. 1315