2. IntroductionThe discovery of inner time Magical moments when the laws of time don‟t seem to apply. Why is that some people are in high spirits all day when others groan and complain about a relatively light agenda?
3. Twenty-five HoursWhat Happens When Nothing Happens Michel Siffre‟s experiment to find out „what happens when nothing happens for weeks on end‟. The results were fascinating. He lost his orientation of time and his diary entry indicated that he lost 25 days!
4. A Hidden Clock Michel Siffre and others repeated the experiment several times. Another study was done at Munich where the students from Max Planck Institute participated. Important finding: A hidden clock inside our body guides us through day and night. Even though the biological clock modulates every aspect of our lives, our consciousness produces its own time. Everything we see, think and feel is measured against it.
5. How long does an hour last? The biological clock and consciousness measure time in a different manner. Body clock determines time automatically. After staying awake for 16 hours, we grow tired, whether we like it or not. Consciousness measures time against memories. We rely on our memories of hours spent at bus stops, doctor‟s office, airport to form a picture of those time intervals. If our memory fails, we lose sense of inner time.
6. Owls and Larks Our biological clock in instills a personal rhythm in each of us. It even affects the firmness of our handshakes, the degree of our patience and whether an alcoholic drink leaves us with a hangover. If you try to work counter to your personal rhythm, you will expend more time and energy on the things you need to get done. Even flowers are aware of time! French astronomer Jean-Jacques de Marian‟s experiment with mimosa plants was published in Paris Academy of Sciences.
7. Carolus Linnaeus Conducted a similar experiment byplanting flowers that open and close at different time tocreate a flower clock. The clock was accurate to half anhour of the correct time.
8. Each cell in the body has its own clock. E.g., the liver has sensors that enable it to exchange information about time with the other organs. The central clock in the body is reset every morning. The first rays of the sun act to help the body to reset its time.
9. Why teenagers are night owls? In teenagers, the sleep inducing hormone, Melatonin is secreted at about 11PM. Hence they feel sleepy much later. Since the schools start early in the morning, the teenagers are mostly in a half asleep state during the morning classes. The government after recognizing the problems faced by the students and schools and students has announced monetary rewards to schools that push their starting time back an hour or so. The schools that adopted the suggestion has seen a considerable decrease in absenteeism and the grades of the students have improved.
10. Twilight Gloom A minimum amount of the sun‟s rays has to reach the eye in the course of a day for the body clock to function reliably. The biological clock cannot be reset properly in the absence of sufficient sunlight. Insomnia, decrease in work performance and depression are among the known consequences. This is most common for people who work in closed rooms all day.
11. A sense of Seconds The Chinese have long recognized the connection between time perception and bodily movement. Most sequences of movement last no more than 3 seconds. When the world begins to race: Case study in Dusseldorf
12. The longest hourTwo minutes on a hot oven:When you sit with a nice girl for two hours, it seems liketwo minutes, but when you sit on a hot stove for twominutes, it seems like two hours. ``That‟s relativity,‟‟Einstein said. Time can fly like a bird or crawl like a snail and we seem happiest when we are not noticing its rate of passing.
13. Atoms of TimeHow long does the present last? Future and past adjoin within a given moment and meet at the fine line we call the present. The Now is an illusion. The brain can juggle time. The brain can delay the present by up to a half-second.
14. The longest moment Working memory: two to three seconds. E.g., memorizing a phone number. Forgetting a new number just told to you. Two women image used in an advertisement in 1890.
15. Neglecting the Now
16. Neglecting the NowPHILOSOPHERS AROUND THE world have been encouraging usto focus our attention on the moment since time immemorial.More than 2,500 years ago, Buddha stated that dwelling entirely in the presentconstitutes the penultimate step on the Noble Eightfold Path to enlightenment.Only when we live for the moment do we live for the future. - Heinrich von KleistThe great thinkers of history have acknowledged that achieving thisfocus is easier said than done.
17. Neglecting the NowTry making a mental note of what goes through your head in the course of a few minutes.
18. Neglecting the Now
19. Neglecting the Now
20. Neglecting the Now
21. Neglecting the Now
22. Neglecting the Now
23. Neglecting the Now
24. Neglecting the Now
25. Neglecting the NowBut the things that are unfolding right before your eyes just flash on and offbetween all these feelings and thoughts. We register the here and now with oursenses, but remain detached from it. We find it much easier to experience thepast and future that we reconstruct in our heads.
26. Neglecting the NowBut the things that are unfolding right before your eyes just flash on and offbetween all these feelings and thoughts. We register the here and now with oursenses, but remain detached from it. We find it much easier to experience thepast and future that we reconstruct in our heads.
27. Neglecting the NowBut the things that are unfolding right before your eyes just flash on and offbetween all these feelings and thoughts. We register the here and now with oursenses, but remain detached from it. We find it much easier to experience thepast and future that we reconstruct in our heads.
28. Neglecting the NowBut the things that are unfolding right before your eyes just flash on and offbetween all these feelings and thoughts. We register the here and now with oursenses, but remain detached from it. We find it much easier to experience thepast and future that we reconstruct in our heads.
29. Neglecting the NowBut the things that are unfolding right before your eyes just flash on and offbetween all these feelings and thoughts. We register the here and now with oursenses, but remain detached from it. We find it much easier to experience thepast and future that we reconstruct in our heads.
30. Neglecting the NowBut the things that are unfolding right before your eyes just flash on and offbetween all these feelings and thoughts. We register the here and now with oursenses, but remain detached from it. We find it much easier to experience thepast and future that we reconstruct in our heads.
31. Things to Ponder Why is it so difficult simply to listen to the sound of rain for a few minutes?
32. Neglecting the Now If you train your perception to be more thoroughly aware of the present, you will reap substantial benefits. By giving more life to our time, we give more time to our life. When you are situated firmly in the here and now, you will gain a fuller sense of the moments that make up your life and derive more pleasure from them.
33. We Are The Architects Of Our Memory
34. We Are The Architects Of Our Memory JourneyWe journey to the past and future so quickly that we don‟t even noticethe leap from the now to the then.Our contact with the present keeps breaking off, and we dip into thepast.If we did not have this ability, we would be left with nothing more thana narrow beam of consciousness to illuminate only the present.Everything before and after it would lie in the dark.
35. Life without Past and FutureIf PAST PRESENT FUTURE
36. Life without Past and FutureIf PRESENT
37. Things to Ponder Could we live in such an eternal present?
38. Life without Past and FutureWilliam James said…. If the past did not linger on in our minds, imagesand feelings would be like “a string of bead-like sensations, allseparate.” Every impression would be lost forever as soon as it wasextinguished. We would see no connection between what just was andwhat now is.James thought his vision of a life devoid of memory was pure fiction;after all, memory seems so natural that we can hardly imagine a lifewithout it.But contrary to James‟s belief, a life in the unvarying present is possible!
39. Life without Past and Future H.M – Man without Memory He forgets everything you tell him on the spot If you leave the room and come back a few minutes later, H.M. acts as though he is seeing you for the first time. Words that he heard, or even used himself, vanish from his mind in less than a minute. H.M. lives exclusively in the present; past and future have no meaning for him. For most people, life is like a film, with one image flowing into the next, but H.M. feels as though he is looking at a series of unrelated photos. Just as William James imagined, H.M. does not recognize the least connection between one snapshot and the next. For H.M., every new moment is “like waking from a dream.”
40. Several Kinds of Memory H.M – Man without Memory H.M.‟s capabilities and limitations proved that there is not just one memory, but several. H.M. had retained his implicit memory, but implicit memory appears to contribute little to the experience of time, which requires explicit memory to store information and experiences. Explicit memory, in turn, consists of two stages The first stage is the working memory. The second of the memory passes along a piece of information only when it seems so important that it engages us intensively, extensively, or repeatedly. This entry into long-term memory is blocked in H.M.‟s case.
41. Retouching Experiences Memories are not simply there; we create them. We tell our history anew, and in the process past and present are linked. When we recall our past, our feelings at the time of the event are the most likely element to be reshaped in the process of reconstruction. We generally see the past in the light that seems logical from our current perspective. Moreover, people select what they remember to suit their current state of mind. If you are in good spirits, you think primarily of the happy times when picturing your relationship with your spouse, but if you are feeling blue, you focus on the fighting and disappointments during your years together.
42. Things to PonderWhen we take a tour through our own memory, Weourselves are the architects of our own recollections,aren‟t we?
43. The Allure of Speed What does it really mean to say we have “no time”? The root of the problem is not a lack of time, nor is it too quick a pace imposed by other people, but a combination of factors originating within ourselves: an inability to concentrate, an overwhelming feeling of stress, and a lack of motivation What should we prefer: having time or having no time? Neurologists and afflicted patients often come up against a syndrome known as the “weekend headache”: when the stress lets up, patients experience pain instead of relief.
44. Why Life Speeds Up As We Grow Older TIME CHANGES AS we look back on it. Expanses of time that once seemed endless get so compressed as to be nearly unrecognizable. An experience that went by like nothing balloons in our memory “An Hour Is Not Merely an Hour” The passage of time quite naturally makes the past seem briefer from a distance. The further back an interval of time lies, the shorter we imagine it to have lasted. Typically, the past week occupies more space in our memory than does the week before that, and far more than a week during the previous year is likely to. Where did the lost time wind up? It appears to be gone, along with all the little incidents in our lives we no longer remember. Can it be restored?
45. Why Life Speeds Up As We Grow Older Humans need nearly a decade to develop a feeling for time. Past and future are alien to newborns Infants just one month old recognize sounds that are played to them repeatedly. By the time they are six months old, infants can differentiate between rhythmic time patterns. When they are seven months old, children can learn a rhythm even in the absence of sounds
46. Why Life Speeds Up As We Grow Older By the age of four, children can grasp the concept of an entire day. Adolescents begin to grasp the concept of the span of a whole life. Dealing with time concepts no longer poses difficulties for teenagers, who have internalized the fact that while minutes and months cannot be seen or touched, they still determine our lives. A few years after puberty, time, which has seemed so slow-moving up to this point, begins to accelerate. Our time commitments increase, but the days do not grow longer. The immediate future seems like a bulging suitcase into which there is far too much to stuff.
47. Why Life Speeds Up As We Grow Older As the years go by, people are usually disconcerted to find that the older they get, the faster time seems to pass But why do people often remember more from their youth than from their more recent past? Shouldn‟t our oldest memories be the most faded, and our newer ones be fresher and more numerous? Never again would we experience so much change. The more knowledge of the world we acquire, the fewer new memories are retained in our memory—it would be a waste of brain capacity to remember slight variations on a familiar theme. But the fewer memories we have retained from a period, the shorter that period seems in retrospect. The ongoing acceleration of years as we grow older is a price we pay for learning.
48. The Cup of Life Runneth Over WE ARE PERPETUALLY short of time. An inability to concentrate is one major contributing factor in feelings of relentless time pressure. Time is eaten up not only by the activity we are carrying out at a given moment, but also by the unfinished business we are juggling in our heads, because every activity we keep on the front burner encumbers our working memory. Unfortunately, multitasking is one of the surest ways to fritter away time. Every time we turn our attention to a different activity, the mind needs to switch gears, which explains why we always seem to require more time for a task if we are interrupted.