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Implementation business strategy, organizational strategy and information strategy in ford motor company
 

Implementation business strategy, organizational strategy and information strategy in ford motor company

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In this paper we have discussed, how Ford Motor Company navigated through the turbulent times and emerged successful from the global financial crisis of 2008 and 2009. In fact, Ford’s difficult ...

In this paper we have discussed, how Ford Motor Company navigated through the turbulent times and emerged successful from the global financial crisis of 2008 and 2009. In fact, Ford’s difficult times started well before the economic crisis and they were bleeding cash in the mid-2000s. They knew they had to make substantial restructuring arrangements. We have explained how Ford Motor Company implemented their new Business Strategy, Organizational Strategy and Information Strategy during their journey to becoming a single global organization from what we witnessed during our work experience at Ford Motor Company. We have also analyzed how the strategies fit into Porter’s Differentiation-Focus Strategy model (Generic Strategy) and Technology Acceptance Model.

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    Implementation business strategy, organizational strategy and information strategy in ford motor company Implementation business strategy, organizational strategy and information strategy in ford motor company Document Transcript

    • NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY CI6228 Managing Information Systems Term PaperIMPLEMENTATION OF BUSINESS, INFORMATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY IN FORD MOTOR COMPANY RAJU ANTONY PRAKASH SRINIVASAGAM PRIYA LAKSHMI
    • TABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................. 3BUSINESS STRATEGY................................................................................................................... 3ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY .................................................................................................. 3INFORMATION STRATEGY .......................................................................................................... 4HOW THE THREE STRATEGIES COMPLEMENT EACH OTHER............................................... 4THEORETICAL MODEL................................................................................................................. 4PORTERS GENERIC STRATEGIES............................................................................................... 4 THE COST LEADERSHIP STRATEGY................................................................................... 5 THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY ................................................................................... 5 THE FOCUS STRATEGY ........................................................................................................ 5TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL ....................................................................................... 6RELATED FRAMEWORKS ............................................................................................................ 6PORTER’S FIVE FORCE MODEL .................................................................................................. 6IMPLEMENTATION OF BUSINESS STRATEGY IN FORD.......................................................... 7ONE FORD PLAN............................................................................................................................ 7IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION STRATEGY IN FORD ................................................. 9FORD’S ‘ONE IT’ PLAN ................................................................................................................. 9THE NEED FOR ONE STRATEGY ............................................................................................... 10REORGANIZE IT GLOBALLY ..................................................................................................... 11IMPROVE COLLABORATION ..................................................................................................... 11HELP CREATE NEW PRODUCTS................................................................................................ 12ENABLE MOBILITY ..................................................................................................................... 12USE OF ANALYTICS .................................................................................................................... 12IMPLEMENTATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY IN FORD ....................................... 13ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY ................................................................................................ 13HOW THE STRATEGY USED IN FORD FITS INTO THE SELECTED MODEL ........................ 13FINDINGS ...................................................................................................................................... 16 STAFF LEVEL: .......................................................................................................................... 16 INFRASTRUCTURE LEVEL: .................................................................................................... 16 APPLICATION LEVEL:............................................................................................................. 16LESSONS LEARNT ....................................................................................................................... 17
    • INTRODUCTION In this paper we have discussed, how Ford Motor Company navigated through theturbulent times and emerged successful from the global financial crisis of 2008 and 2009. Infact, Ford’s difficult times started well before the economic crisis and they were bleedingcash in the mid-2000s. They knew they had to make substantial restructuring arrangements.We have explained how Ford Motor Company implemented their new Business Strategy,Organizational Strategy and Information Strategy during their journey to becoming a singleglobal organization from what we witnessed during our work experience at Ford MotorCompany. We have also analyzed how the strategies fit into Porter’s Differentiation-FocusStrategy model (Generic Strategy) and Technology Acceptance Model.BUSINESS STRATEGY Business Strategy can be described as the plan which guides organizations in theselection and application of resources that will help them obtain a competitive advantage. It ismore concerned with how a business competes in a particular market. It consists of strategicdecisions about the choice of products, meeting the needs of customers, exploiting/creatingopportunities, etc. In simple terms, it can be defined as a plan that says where abusiness/organization wants to go and how it envisages getting there. (Studies)ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY Organizational Strategy can be described as how an organization needs to change overtime in order to deliver the enterprise strategy and a plan of how the transformation will bemade. This requires an analysis of both the current state and desired state which will helporganizations identify the gaps between the two states. Some of the important factors to beconsidered when developing the organizational strategy are (International):  The strategic relationships and enterprise structure that will be necessary to achieve the business strategy  The new capabilities and skills that will be required in terms of talent acquisition and workforce composition  Talent management practices required to create a high performing workforce  The culture of the organization
    • INFORMATION STRATEGY Information Systems Strategy focusses on the IS capabilities that would assist theenterprise in implementing its business strategy and at the same time fit with theorganizational strategy. In other words it can also be described as an IT oriented businessstrategy approach. It focuses on identifying the IT architecture (software, hardware, data, andnetwork) that will help the implementation of business strategy.HOW THE THREE STRATEGIES COMPLEMENT EACH OTHER All the three strategies are really important for the success of any organization. TheBusiness strategy is the key strategy which drives the other two strategies. The threestrategies should complement each other to achieve the business goals and hence when onestrategy is changed the other two strategies should undergo changes accordingly. Whenorganizational strategy is developed in line with Business Strategy and implementedefficiently, it will help companies to convert the strategic intent into sustainable results.Similarly Information Strategy helps companies in implementing its business strategy byfocusing on IT resources and systems to give them the competitive advantage. THEORETICAL MODEL We chose Porter’s generic strategies and Technology Acceptance Model to explainthe alignment of Business, Organization and Information Systems strategy at Ford MotorCompany.PORTERS GENERIC STRATEGIES Michael Porter put forth three generic strategies in his book ‘Competitive Advantage:Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance’ to gain competitive advantage. Thestrategies are:  Cost Leadership  Differentiation  Focus
    • The three strategies can be applied to products and services offered across allindustries and organizations of all sizes ("Porters Generic Strategies - Choosing Your Routeto Competitive Advantage,").THE COST LEADERSHIP STRATEGY In order to gain competitive advantage, the company should reduce the cost involvedin delivering the products and services. This in turn means that the company has to look atoptions that give it a cost advantage. Some areas that the company can explore are:economies of scale, developing partnership with the key suppliers, proprietary technology,low-cost outsourcing, etc. To achieve Cost Leadership, a company should have the funds tobring about the changes, efficient logistics, and a low cost base.THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY Differentiation involves making your products or services different and moreattractive than that of your competitors. This differentiation depends on the industry.However, some of them are functionality, support, durability, brand image, features. A largeorganization that is pursuing a differentiation strategy needs to stay agile with its productdevelopment processes. The differentiation is brought about by concentrating on somedimensions that the customers value. By catering to the specific needs of the customers, thecompany places itself in a unique position which also brings in customer loyalty. The successof the differentiation strategy depends on the research and innovation, ability to deliver high-quality products and services, effective marketing strategy. Some tools that can be used forDifferentiation strategy are:  SWOT Analysis  PEST Analysis  Value Chain Analysis  Porters Five ForcesTHE FOCUS STRATEGY Companies use Focus strategies to understand the unique needs of customers in aparticular market and use that knowledge to develop products and services that best suit thecustomer’s needs. Since they are so focussed on their customers, they tend to build strong
    • brand loyalty. The Focus strategy is usually combined with either Cost Leadership orDifferentiation to make their products and services sought after. Differentiation focus exploitsthe special needs of buyers in certain segments (Porter, 1985).TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), developed by Davis is popular forexplaining and predicting computer usage behaviour. It specifies the relationship betweensystem design features, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude towards usingthe technology and the actual usage behaviour. According To TAM, whenever new softwareis given to the users, the acceptance of the technology depends on several factors such asPerceived usefulness and Perceived ease-of-use. The users develop a positive attitude towards the new technology when they perceivethe technology to be useful and easy to use. User acceptance is highly influenced by thecharacteristics of the technology and interaction with other users. The perceived usefulnessdepends on how the user thinks he can use the technology and the perceived ease of use isinfluenced by the peer group comments. TAM tries to identify the factors that the users think of when they accept or shun atechnology. Overall, TAM provides a representation of the design choices that influence useracceptance, and therefore helpful in forecasting and evaluating user acceptance ofinformation technology ("Technolgy Acceptance Model," 2012). RELATED FRAMEWORKSPORTER’S FIVE FORCE MODEL Porter’s five forces model has been an important tool in understanding thecompetition and potential opportunities within an industry (Porter, 1985). The five forcesidentified by Michael E. Porter are: 1. Potential threat of new entrants 2. Bargaining power of buyers 3. Bargaining power of suppliers
    • 4. Threat of substitute products 5. Industry competitors Hence, it can give a clear picture about the industry which the company can use todifferentiate itself from its competitors offering similar products and services. The model isuseful for developing business and marketing plan. The model however can only be effectiveonce the main strategy of the organization is identified and clearly defined. Porter’s fiveforces can be implemented alongside Porter’s differentiation strategy. The firm using themwill first identify the differentiating factors it wants to concentrate on and the Five forcesmodel will provide the organization with a detailed report with respect to the differentiatingfactor. IMPLEMENTATION OF BUSINESS STRATEGY IN FORDONE FORD PLAN Historically, Ford Motor Company operated as four large separate automotivecompanies around the world: 1) A North American company 2) A South American company 3) A European company 4) An Asia Pacific Company Since each region was working as a separate company, they had their ownmanufacturing processes, product development systems, suppliers, etc. This structure wouldhave made sense during the initial stages of automotive industry when transportation,communication and other infrastructures were not developed. But continuing to operate in thesame manner even after the developments in communication and infrastructure led toinefficient and unnecessary duplication of work. For an enterprise as big as Ford, thecompany had also failed to realize the benefits of scale that would have been made availableby going global. In the last few decades, Ford acquired a few other brands and their portfolio includedJaguar, Land Rover, Aston Martin and Volvo. Ford found it difficult to manage all theacquired businesses and as a result ended up neglecting the focus on the ‘Ford’ brand. The
    • ‘Blue Oval’ was just a house of brands and failed to retain the historical supremacy that wastraditionally associated with the symbol of Ford Motor Company. Ford got itself into a mess by designing cars separately for the Americas, a differentset for Asia Pacific and another set for Europe. This resulted in a lot of work and waste ofmoney. Ford realized their mistakes just before the economic recession of 2008 and begantheir efforts to fundamentally restructure the way they do business. They recognized the needto change their business strategy in order to put Ford on the path to long term viability. When Alan Mulally took over as the CEO of Ford Motor Company in 2006, he andhis leadership team started to work on the new business strategy to make Ford as a singleglobal organization. They developed a new plan which can be summarized as (Company,2008): “One Ford – One Team, One Plan, One Goal.” One Ford has firmly established the principle of one global company. The ‘OneTeam’ and ‘One Plan’ is laser focused on delivering the ‘One Goal’ which is creating anexciting viable Ford Motor Company delivering profitable growth for customers, dealers andsuppliers.
    • By implementing the new strategy, Ford focused on ‘One Ford’ and simplified thebrand structure by selling Jaguar, Land Rover, Aston Martin and the majority of theirownership of Mazda. They improved the brand image of Ford among customers byreestablishing Ford’s historical association with safe, affordable and sustainabletransportation for customers, offering the best value. They continued to improve theirvehicles to achieve leadership in fuel economy, quality, safety, convenience technology andinterior comfort, all further strengthening the Ford brand. They took painful but much neededdownsizing actions to match capacity to market demand and also to reduce operating costs. Some of the other activities that Ford carried out to implement the new BusinessStrategy are:  Aligning Manufacturing Capacity to meet the real demand  Strengthening the Supplier Base  Supporting the Dealer Network  Focusing Ford Motor Credit Company to support U.S. Consumers and Dealers Ford partnered with stakeholders to help them execute the plan and deal with thebusiness realities. They also reached out and listened to customers, employees, dealers,investors, suppliers, retirees and governments as Ford felt these constituencies are all criticalto the success of Ford Motor Company going forward. They believed that implementing thenew Business Strategy will deliver a profitable business and growth for all. IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION STRATEGY IN FORDFORD’S ‘ONE IT’ PLAN Ford’s business strategy is based on the ‘One Ford Plan’ which is basically the globalproduct development vision. The name says it all. The ‘One Ford’ Strategy that Ford wants touse to increase its presence in all markets is based on the notion of ‘global customer’. Itfocuses on delivering more vehicles across all markets from fewer core platforms whichallows the increased use of common systems and parts and thereby reduces the costs. IT playsa major role in making this plan work. In order to support the IT needs of Manufacturing Plants, Marketing and SalesDepartment, Product Development Department, Order Fulfillment Department, Human
    • Resources, Dealers, etc. Ford had four major IT centers in America, United Kingdom, Chinaand India. The four IT centers were catering to the needs of the four regions namely Ford ofNorth America, Ford of South America, Four of Europe and the Ford operations in the AsiaPacific Region. Since the four regions have been operating as individual entities for years,each region had their own suite of applications for each department; they had their own DataCenters, Networks, IT infrastructure, IT positions, etc. As the needs of the various departments mentioned above are the same irrespective ofthe region, this method of operation resulted in duplication of work and other resources.When Alan Mulally took over as the CEO of Ford Motor Company, he realized that therewas a lot of money being wasted because of this mode of operation. So in order to align theInformation Strategy with the Business Strategy, he devised ‘One IT Plan’ which was alignedwith the ‘One Ford’ plan and merged the four IT centers into a single global IT organization.THE NEED FOR ONE STRATEGY In order to achieve its One Ford goals, Ford need a one-IT Strategy. But that’s not aneasy task when there are around 10,000 IT employees globally. The most ambitious part ofthe plan was to virtually turn the IT Organizations in the four regions into one. These changeswere not at the strategic level alone. For example, there were three Data Centers, one for theAmericas (North and South America), one for Europe and another one for APA (Asia Pacificand Africa) region. The Data Center in Singapore has already been disbanded and soon theother two data centers will be consolidated and will be made available only in the US. Thisprovides a way to achieve global network capability. The basic requirements for the strategy are to have uniform support practices andapplications across all regions. Each region had its own set of Application Development andSupport processes and now with the implementation of ‘One IT’ strategy only one version ofthe process has to emerge(Reiling). The five areas in which Ford implemented changes as part of the new InformationStrategy are (Murphy): 1) Reorganizing IT Organization 2) Improving Collaboration 3) Enabling Mobility
    • 4) Helping in Product Development 5) Increasing Use of AnalyticsREORGANIZE IT GLOBALLY Ford has spent the last three to four years restructuring the entire IT organization to dotwo important things. The first objective was to map the IT goals to One Ford initiatives andthe second objective was to ensure that Information Technology provides a platform toincrease and support growth. The ‘One IT’ plan completely restructured the fragmented IT centres of regionalbusiness units and introduced shared services for application development, applicationsupport and infrastructure. The restructuring has cut the operating costs of IT over 30percentage in the past four years.IMPROVE COLLABORATION Ford started an initiative called ‘Digital Worker’ Program to focus on collaboration. Anumber of tools were implemented as part of this program that enabled video and dataconferences, telephone over computer networks, data sharing and softphones. Some of thesetools were already being used in Ford but with the restructuring of IT into a singleorganization, the employees in different parts of the world started to realize the real potentialof these tools. The growing use of SharePoint and WebEx videoconferencing has takenCollaboration to a new level. Project teams have started using SharePoint for team projectsites and for social networking as well. Ford is also experimenting with Yammer (The Enterprise Social Network) toencourage informal discussion among employees. The important part is not the tools alonebut how IT can map these collaborative efforts to Ford’s key goal of creating a single globalorganization. The culture at Ford also has got a role to play in these transformation effortsand IT provides a platform to make it possible. Ford is ultimately looking to integrate all theenvironments to provide a seamless interface for all types and forms of collaboration. Theyhave also been upgrading all the conference facilities globally to offer High Definition videoand improved audio capability.
    • HELP CREATE NEW PRODUCTS In most companies, the IT teams are not connected with the product developmentteams and the actual products. This means the companies are missing the opportunity for ITto improve the exiting product development process as well as shape the products. Ford hastaken steps to make both things happen by keeping IT as close as possible to functional unitsso that IT people work with Product Development teams and other functional units as well.This move was the key behind the development of Microsoft-based Sync system (whichlinks, music players, smartphones and internet services) for use in Ford vehicles.ENABLE MOBILITY Ford has been working on providing employee mobility for a while and they started aprogram called ‘ePOD’ (Email on Personally Owned Devices) that allows employees to usetheir personal devices to access Ford’s network and email. This fulfils the expectation ofemployees who want to stay connected to work when needed irrespective of where they are.Ford was among the first few companies to embrace this kind of initiative to let people usetheir own devices (iPhones, iPads, Blackberry and Android based devices) to accesscorporate network and data.USE OF ANALYTICS Ford has embedded IT teams in every functional team present globally. This enablesfunctional teams like Product development and Finance to have an IT initiative aroundanalytics. Like a lot of other companies, Ford is trying to extract more value from the datathat is available within and outside the organization. Applying Business Intelligence withinProduct Creation teams across the globe would give a picture of the various vehicles thatshare common commodities and parts. Ford likes to standardize the parts as much as possibleand Analytics help them assess that.
    • IMPLEMENTATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY IN FORDORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY Once Information strategy was aligned with the Business Strategy, OrganizationalStrategy was also restructured to complement the changes in Business and InformationStrategy. Reporting was one of the greatest challenges when ‘One IT’ strategy wasimplemented. Some departments had the traditional Hierarchical Organization Structure andsome departments had to shift to Matrix Organizational Structure after the restructuring intosingle IT organization. A department head in Europe may have employees reporting to him from China, Indiaand America. The different cultural backgrounds were seen as more of an opportunity ratherthan a problem. Diversity had been an important part of Ford’s culture for a long time andthat helped to an extent. The past experiences show that teams having members fromdifferent cultures pursue creative approaches and hence achieve better results. Workshops were conducted in each region especially at the start of bigprojects/programs to make the teams familiarize with their colleagues and their culture inother regions to avoid misunderstandings and work effectively. Regular meetings were heldin all departments through audio or video conferences. The various collaboration toolsdeployed through the Digital Worker Initiative (as part of Information Strategy) played amajor role in overcoming the barriers that came up due to the changes in OrganizationalStrategy.HOW THE STRATEGY USED IN FORD FITS INTO THE SELECTEDMODELBUSINESS STRATEGY: Ford Motor Company was founded by Henry Ford in 1903 at Dearborn, Michigan. Itwas a pioneer in using the moving assembly line and by the 1920s; Ford had a market shareof about 50%. In 1956, the company went public and since then it has had a significantpresence in the automotive market worldwide. However, due to series of bad managementdecisions and poor product portfolio, the company had not been doing well over the lastdecade.
    • When Allan Mullaly took over as the CEO in 2006, the company was functioning asindividual entities in US, Europe, Australia and other regions. The same effort was duplicatedat its facilities in different regions which came at a huge expense to the company. Analystsestimate the cost between $800 million to $1 billion for developing each car from the scratch.Mr Mullaly changed the company’s management structure and transformed the company’soperations from a network of regional companies to a truly integrated global company. Thekey to this transformation has been the strategy popularly referred to as “One Ford”. It aimsto consolidate the product portfolio and reduce the efforts spent on duplication. Rather, thefocus is on products that can be built and sold anywhere around the world (Eisenstein, 2011). Ford’s business strategy is focused on developing a broad and well thought outsustainability strategy to remain competitive. The recent trends have shown that all the majorplayers in the automotive market are moving towards hybrid vehicles. The steady rise in fuelprice and the increased focus on green technologies has pushed all car manufacturers to lookat vehicles using alternate fuel sources and Ford is not missing out on this electric vehiclewave. But what really works in favour of Ford is that, unlike its competitors is that Ford ispursuing different alternatives instead of just focussing on one technology. The company hastaken a multi-pronged approach towards manufacturing cars for the people (Winston, 2011).Advanced technologies such as cross traffic alert system (it is usually available in high-endcars like BMW), SYNC – which lets you use your phone, make calls, choose music – allwithout taking your hands off the wheel and find your way to just about anywhere – allkeeping your eyes on the road have helped bring the latest technologies to the commonman.(Ford, 2012). Porter’s Differentiation Focus strategy holds good for the reorganization donewithin Ford’s business. At a time when the company was going through a crisis situation withmounting debt, they decided to invest on creating new vehicles that are viable for everyoneinstead of limiting themselves to a few key products. The focus was on what the customersreally wanted and how best to provide them just that. Irrespective of the country that Fordwas operating in, all the customers wanted the following when they bought a car: reliabilityof the brand, after sales customer service, safety. Ford has differentiated itself from its peers by investing on R&D to give its customersthat extra something that has made the difference. Features such as SYNC, MyFordTouch,cross traffic alert system which are normally available only in expensive cars have been made
    • available to everyone through Ford’s democratizing of technology. All these have resulted incustomers gaining faith on the brand and a strong product line up.IT STRATEGY: Ford Motor Company’s IT division caters to the IT needs for the functioning ofFord’s plants and other entities associated with the manufacturing and sales of its cars. Sincethe company was earlier working as separate entities in the four continents that it operates in,there were four separate IT divisions catering to their needs. However, once the company was aligned to operate as one global organization, all theIT divisions had to be grouped together. This grouping led to realignment and restructuring ofthe entire IT division. All the applications and business processes were consolidated globallyto make them integrated. In order to support the business across several countries, the ITdivisions operating from various countries have to collaborate effectively. Since Ford islooking at new and innovative ways of doing business, it is relying heavily on technology tomake this collaboration work. The initiative to use technology to effectively collaborate is termed as ‘DigitalWorker’ and it consists of using collaboration tools like SharePoint, WebEx, Videoconferencing. Now, Ford employees can also access the company’s network using theirpersonal devices. A lot of investments are being made by the company on an on-going basisto improve collaboration. The Technology Acceptance Model has two parameters which it uses to evaluate theattitude towards a technology. They are:  Perceived usefulness (PU) For Ford IT employees, the perceived usefulness of using these new tools would be: 1. Work life balance which can be obtained now that the technology allows access to the network from home. 2. All information pertaining to a project or application can be found at a single place using SharePoint to share information. 3. Informal discussion among employees using networking tools like Yammer.  Perceived ease of use (PEOU) Some of the perceived ease of use factors could be:
    • 1. Interact with stakeholders directly via video conference, net meeting to have more productive meetings. 2. Anywhere, anytime access of information using their own personal phones. The Technology Acceptance Model will help to identify to what extent theimplementation of these tools and technologies were successful and whether future spendingon such technology improvement is justified.FINDINGS Ford Motor Company is on a bit of roll ever since it implemented the One Ford Planin 2008-2009. It has posted profits for three consecutive years since 2009. IT has got only asmall part in keeping that momentum going. But what matters is that Ford knows that partreally well. Some of the changes that were implemented as part of ‘One IT Plan’ are (Overby):STAFF LEVEL:  In order to address the gap between Business and IT, some of the senior IT executives were assigned to Business Units  Contracts were signed with some of the major IT Service providers to supply long-term and temporary support  As a result of the above change, 20 percent of IT positions were eliminatedINFRASTRUCTURE LEVEL:  Six Data Centers were consolidated and reduced into four  Global WAN was revampedAPPLICATION LEVEL:  Application portfolio was cut by 40%  Collaboration tools were deployed  Global systems were built to integrate design, sales, marketing, procurement and manufacturing processes
    • The biggest outcome of the restructuring process was that the operating costs of ITwere cut by over 30% in the past four years. That is a lot of money and could save Ford up tofew tens of millions annually.LESSONS LEARNT The transformation from separate loss making entities to one global profitableorganization was possible because of the ‘One Ford Plan’ which ensured that theOrganizational Strategy and Information strategy complemented the Business Strategy. Thisis a valuable lesson that can be applied to any organization in a similar position or toorganizations that want to constantly evolve and progress in whatever they do. It was becauseof the clear vision of the leadership team and the hard work of Ford employees around theworld, the business, organizational and information strategies were aligned to each other andimplemented during a three year journey, Ford has posed billions of profits for threeconsecutive years from making the worst loss ($14.6 billions) in 2008 in its 105 year history. The turnaround of Ford Motor Company reiterates the importance of Businessstrategy and how it drives Organizational and Information strategies.
    • ReferenceCompany, Ford Motor. (2008). Ford Motor Company Business Plan.Eisenstein, Paul A. (2011). With new strategy, Ford aims for the top from file:///C:/my%20folder/study%20material/Semester%202/Managing%20Information %20Systems/Term%20Paper/With%20new%20strategy,%20Ford%20aims%20for%2 0the%20top%20-%20Business%20-%20Autos%20-%20The%20Driver%20Seat%20- %20msnbc.com.htm#.T4L8F-TwD71Ford. (2012). SYNC, from (http://www.ford.com/technology/sync/)International, Charlesmore Partners. So what is organizational strategy anyway? Retrieved 7th April 2012Murphy, Chris. 5 Ways Fords CIO is Driving GrowthOverby, Stephanie. Fords One IT Plan Retrieved 4th April 2012Porters Generic Strategies - Choosing Your Route to Competitive Advantage. from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_82.htmPorter, Michael E. (1985). Competitive Advantage. New York: The Free Press.Reiling, Gert. IT Plays crucial role in Fords new global strategy Retrieved 1st April 2012Studies, Business Strategy Case. Business Strategy Case Study. Business Strategy Case Study Retrieved 6th April 2012Technolgy Acceptance Model. (2012). Retrieved from http://top-100-sci-fi- novels.blogspot.com/2012/03/technology-acceptance-model.htmlWinston, Andrew. (2011). Fords Impressive Sustainability Strategy.