A2 unit 5 – hazards option 1
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A2 unit 5 – hazards option 1

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A LEVEL GEOGRAPHY UNIT

A LEVEL GEOGRAPHY UNIT

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    A2 unit 5 – hazards option 1 A2 unit 5 – hazards option 1 Presentation Transcript

    • A2 Unit 5 – Hazards Option
    • Hazards and responses: RISK?
      • RISK
      • “ The exposure of people to a hazardous event” Why do people place themselves at risk from hazards?
      • Unpredictability
      • Lack of alternatives (economic, lack of land)
      • Changing dangers (vary spatially / time, e.g. coasts)
      • Optimistic outlook (accept them as part of life)
      • Costs vs Benefits (e.g. California)
    •  
    • Vulnerability
      • Vulnerability to hazards has 3 aspects:
      • Peoples preparedness
      • Resilience
      • Health (relating to social, economic and political factors)
      • Distinctions can be made between MEDC and LEDC
      • We receive, filter and distort information as part of human perception. Past experience and values is important factor.
      • ACCEPTANCE
      • ADAPTION
      • DOMINATION
      Hazard Perception
    • Hazard Perception
      • How might the perceptions of scientists differ from those of the general public?
      • Why is the perception of the decision makers in government so important?
    • Hazard Response Prevent or modify the event? Prediction and warning.
    • Careful Planning?
      • Decision ….Modify the event, modify human vulnerability or modify loss?
      • Technological fix and environmental control (mainly with flooding, cloud seeding has had little success)
      • Hazard-resistant design – building design and engineered defences.
      • Change human attitude and behaviour towards hazards
      • This will reduce the impact
      • Needs a good understanding of geophysical processes
      • What technology is available? (also MEDC/LEDC?)
      • Predictions will not stop event – but will provide warnings so they can prepare and evacuate
      • Insurance companies spend large amounts trying to predict. Why?
      • Community must have an understanding of procedures.
      Prediction and Warning
      • Warning is a message that informs about risk.
      • Needs adequate monitoring and evaluation of data and dissemination via radio, TV, police.
      • Community must have an understanding of procedures.
    • Share the Losses?
      • Aid
      • To what extent should this be given to countries who have failed to adequately prepare?
      • Insurance
      • A key strategy in MEDCs. (spread the cost)
      • Can encourage individuals to take preventative measures.
    • Tropical Cyclones
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    • Extension Work
      • Defining and Classifying Hazards
      • P.4-5 Hazards and Responses (2 nd ed)
      • Hazards Impacts on Human Systems
      • P.11 Hazards and Responses (2 nd ed)