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Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
Test Manual In Counseling  Final Edit
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Test Manual In Counseling Final Edit

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  • 1. Multiple Choices: Choose items or options that best answer the question and encircle it.<br />1. He defined a helping relationship as “which at least one of the parties has the intent of promoting the growth, development, maturity, improved functioning, and improved coping with the life of the other”.<br />a. Okunc. Miars and Haverson<br />b. Brammer and Mac Donaldd. Rogers<br /> Answer: D. Rogers - Rogers (1961), for example defined a helping relationship as one “which at least one of the parties has the intent of promoting the growth, development, maturity, improved functioning and improved coping with the life of the other”.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p.5.<br />2. It is one of the implicit and explicit points regarding definition of counseling which focuses of the client goals and states that “Counseling is a rehearsal for action”.<br />a. Counseling is a process that may be profession developmental and intervening <br />b. Counseling is theory based<br />c. Counseling is a profession<br />d. Counseling includes various specialties<br />Answer: A. Counseling is a process that may be developmental and intervening - Counseling is a process that may be developmental and intervening. Counselors focus on their client goals. Thus, counseling involves choice and change. In some cases, “Counseling is a rehearsal for action” (Casey, 1996, p. 176)<br />Reference: Gladding, Samuel T. Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2000, p.7 <br />3. They suggest some stages in helping relationship which involves preparation, initial responding, and follow-up.<br />a. Purkey and Schmidtc. Egan<br />b. Brammerd. Corey and Corey<br />Answer: A. Purkey and Schmidt. - Purkey and Schmidt (1987) set forth three stages in building the helping relationship each containing four steps: Stage 1, “Preparation” having the desire for a relationship, eexpecting good things, preparing the settings, and reading the situation. Stage 2, is “Initiating Responding”, and includes choosing caringly, acting appropriately, honoting the client, and ensuring reception. The third and final stage, “Follow-Up”, includes interpreting responses, negotiating positions, evaluating the process, and developing trust.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p. 6.<br />4. It is one of the stage in helping relationship which includes the initial meeting of the client and counselor, rapport building, information gathering, goal determination, and informing the client about conditions.<br />a. Extended Explorationc. Relationship Development<br />b. Problem Resolutiond. Termination and Follow-Up<br /> Answer: C. Relationship Development - Stage 1 – Relationship Development. This stage includes the initial meeting of the client and counselor or therapist, rapport building, information gathering, goal determination, and informing the client about the conditions under which the counselor will take place (e.g. confidentiality, taping, counselor/ therapist/ client roles).<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p.7 <br />5. It is the another term in core conditions of helping relationship in which describes the ability to be authentic.<br />a. Genuineness and Congruencec. Emphatic Understanding<br />b. Concretenessd. Respect and Positive Regard<br />Answer: A. Genuineness and Congruence - Genuineness and Congruence describes the ability to be authentic in the helping relationship. The ability to be real as opposed to artificial, to behave as one feels as opposed to playing the roles of the helper, and to be congruent in terms of actions and words are further descriptors of this core condition.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p. 10<br />6. It describes a counselor or therapist to serve as a sounding based for client by paraphrasing their thoughts and feelings.<br />a. Attending and Encouragingc. Summarizing<br />b. Reflecting Contact and Reflecting Feelingd. Restating and Paraphrasing<br />Answer: D. Restating and Paraphrasing<br />Item Explication: These strategies enable a counselor or therapist to serve as a sounding board for the client by feeding back thoughts and feelings that the client verbalizes. Restating involves repeating exact words used by the client. Paraphrasing repeats the thoughts and feelings of the client, but the words are those of the counselor or therapist.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p. 13<br />7. It is one of the strategies helping relationship that aid in data gathering that enable a counselor or therapist to gather information in a specific area related to the client’s presented concerns or to respond to specific topic areas.<br />a. Questioningc. Both A and B<br />b. Problem and Leadingd. Either A or B<br />Answer: B. Problem and Leading – These strategies enable a counselor or therapist to gather information in a specific area related to the client’s presented concerns (Probing), or to encourage the client to respond to specific areas (Leading).<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p. 16<br />8. It is one of the strategies in helping relationship that add depth and enhance the relationship that gives implication for both clients and counselors or therapists.<br />a. Confrontationc. Self-Disclosure<br />b. Responding to Non-Verbal Cuesd. Both A and C<br />Answer: C. Self- Disclosure - Self-Disclosure. This strategy has implications for both clients and therapists. In self-disclosing, the counselor of therapist shares with the client his or her feelings, thoughts, and experiences that are relevant to the situation presented by the client.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p. 16-17<br />9. He is one of the proponents for the development of counseling that sets up a systematized guidance program in public schools.<br />a. Clifford Beersc. Jesse B. Davis<br />b. Sigmund Freudd. Frank Parsons<br />Answer: C. Jesse B. Davis - Jesse B. Davis was the first person to a set up a systematized guidance program in the public schools. As superintendent of the Grand Rapids, Michigan system, he suggested in 1907 that classroom of English composition teach their students a lesson once a week with the goal of building and preventing problems.<br />Reference: Gladding, Samuel T. Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2000, p. 8-9.<br />10. It is generally understood to mean that a professional is qualified capable and able to understand and do certain things in a appropriate and effective manner.<br />a. Competencyc. Ethics Competence<br />b. Risk Managementd. Multicultural Competence<br />Answer: A. Competency - Competency is generally understood to mean that a professional is qualified capable and able to understand and do certain things in a appropriate and effective manner.<br />Reference: Brown, Steven D. and Lent Robert W. Handbook of Counseling Psychology. Fourth Edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Inc. , 2008, p. 6.<br />11. It is the third area in supervision competency that refers to such aspects as the supervision being respectful and empowering, adhering to ethical principles, engaging self-education, and remaining aware of one’s expertise and limitations.<br />a. Social Contextc. Knowledge<br />b. Skillsd. Values<br />Answer: d. Values – The third area, Values, refers to such aspects as the supervision being respectful and empowering, adhering to ethical principles, engaging self-education, and remaining aware of one’s expertise and limitations.<br />Reference: Brown, Steven D. and Lent Robert W. Handbook of Counseling Psychology. Fourth Edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Inc. , 2008, p. 8.<br />12. It is the ability to adapt one does to meet client needs.<br />a. Intellectual Curiosityc. Flexilibility<br />b. Energyd. Support<br /> Answer: c. Flexilibility - Another qualities of being an effective counselors are as follows: Intellectual Competence, Energy, Flexibility (The ability to adapt what one does to meet client needs), support, goodwill, and self-awareness.<br />Reference: Gladding, Samuel T. Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2000, p. 32.<br />13. They concluded that effective counselors must be emotionally mature, objective, and must have self-awareness, incorporating their strengths and weaknesses realistically.<br />a. Auvenshine and Noffsinger<br />b. Wiggins and Weslander<br />c. Foster and Guy<br />d. Holland<br />Answer: A. Auvenshine and Noffsinger – Auvenshine and Noffsinger (1984) concluded that, “Effective counselors must be emotionally mature, objective, and must have self-awareness, incorporating their strengths and weaknesses realistically.<br />Reference: Gladding, Samuel T. Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2000, p. 34.<br />14. It is the most common personal consequence of working as a counselor.<br />a. Burnoutc. Vicarious Rebellion<br />b. Emotional Distressd. Wounded Healer<br />Answer: A. Burnout - Burnout is the state of becoming emotionally of physically drained to the point that one cannot functions meaningfully. It is the single most common personal consequence of working as a counselor (Emerson and Markus, 1996; Kottler,1993)<br />Reference: Gladding, Samuel T. Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2000, p. 34.<br />15. These persons are educated to provide assistance on both preventive and remedial level.<br />a. Non-Professional Helpersc. Generalist Human Services Worker<br />b. Professional Helpersd. All of the Above<br />Answer: b. Professional Helpers - Finally, there are professional helpers. These persons are educated to provide assistance on both preventive and a remedial level. People in this group include counselors, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, psychiatric nurses, and marriage and family therapists. Workers on this level have specialized advanced degree and have had supervised internships to help them prepare to deal with a plethora of situations.<br />Reference: Gladding, Samuel T. Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2000, p. 35.<br />16. It is a unified set of ideas, principles, and behaviors.<br />a. Impairment<br />b. Comprehensive<br />c. Theory<br />d. System<br />Answer: D. System - A system is unified and organized set of ideas, principles, and behaviors. <br />Reference: Gladding, Samuel T. Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2000, p. 38.<br />17. It is the foundation of good counseling and challenges counselors to be caring and creative within the confines of a highly personal relationship that is structured for growth and insight.<br />a. Theoretical Purity<br />b. Technical Eclecticism<br />c. Theory<br />d. System<br />Answer: C. Theory - Theory is the foundation of counseling. It challenges counselors to be caring and creative within the confines of a highly personal relationship that is structured for growth and insight (Gladding, 1990). <br />Reference: Gladding, Samuel T. Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2000, p. 38.<br />18. It is one of the following negative motivators of becoming an effective counselor that refers to the persons who have unresolved anger and act out their feelings through their clients’ deviant behavior.<br />a. emotional distressc. vicarious rebellion<br />b. loneliness and isolation d. a need for love<br />Answer: C. vicarious rebellion - Vicarious Rebellion – Persons who have unresolved anger and act out of their thoughts and feelings through their clients’ deviant behavior.<br />Reference: Gladding, Samuel T. Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2000, p. 31<br />19. It is a personal quality of a counselor which has the ability to put oneself in another’s place even of that person is a different gender or from a different culture.<br />a. capacity for self-denialc. comfort with conversation <br />b. empathy and understandingd. sympathy<br />Answer: B. empathy and understanding - Another personal qualities of an effective counselor is by having empathy and understanding. Empathy and Understanding is the ability to put oneself in another plane, even if that person is a different gender or from a different culture.<br />Reference: Gladding, Samuel T. Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2000, p. 31<br />20. It is a sloppy, unsystematic process of putting unrelated clinical concepts together.<br />a. Syncretismc. Technical Eclecticism<br />b. Theoretical Integrationalismd. Theoretical Purity<br />Answer: A. Syncretism – The lowest or the first level of eclecticism is really syncretism - , unsystematic process of putting unrelated clinical concepts together.<br />Reference: Gladding, Samuel T. Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession. Fourth Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc., 2000, p. 40.<br />21. The following statements in goals of therapy are true except one.<br />A. A successful course of therapy can be gauged by the client’s development of a new way of thinking, substituted for an old way.<br />B. To help the client to becomes his or her own therapist and able to continue using cognitive reality.<br />C. To find the difficulties in the clients life and develop a highly cognitive therapy for enable to cope up with reality.<br />D. Help the clients to solve the problem and as a therapist they will present themselves as a blank slate.<br />Answer: A. A successful course of therapy can be gauged by the client’s development of a new way of thinking, substituted for an old way. - Goals of Therapy. A successful course of therapy can be gauged by the client’s development of a new way of thinking, substituted for an old way that has not been working well. For example, as suggested above, perceiving problems as manual and manageable is a huge change for many clients.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, p.298.<br />22. According to Glasser, the goal of reality therapy is to:<br />Help people make better choices and have more control over their lives within the constraints of outside world.<br />Reorganizing a client’s thinking and the way he sees and interprets outward events.<br />Exposed the clients to a graded hierarchy of fears and taught to apply problem-solving tactics while being supported and guided by therapist.<br />Help the clients<br />Answer: A. Help people make better choices and have more control over their lives within the constraints of outside world. – The goal of reality therapy is to help people make better choices and have more control over their lives within the constraints of outside world.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, p. 315.<br />23. Albert Ellis is known for his belief that humans have inherent rationality but are also burdened with strong inborn tendencies to think irrationally. In this concept, he develop “Eleven Irrational Belief” that lead to unhappiness and neurosis. What irrational belief emphasizes that “it is an unobtainable goal and the person who strives it becomes less self-directing, more insecure, and less genuine.<br />a. A person must be perfectly competent, adequate, and achieving to be considered<br />b. It is essential that a person be loved or approved by virtually everyone in the community<br />c. Some people are bad, wicked, or villainous and therefore should be blamed and punished<br />d. It is a terrible catastrophe when things are not as a person wants them to be<br />Answer: b. It is essential that a person be loved or approved by virtually everyone in the community - It is essential that a person be loved or approved by virtually everyone in the community. This is an unobtainable goal and the person who strives it becomes less self-directing, more insecure, and less genuine. Other irrational belief will be discussed in the reference below.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, p. 304-305.<br />24. It is the purpose of cognitive behavioral treatment for those people who are suffering from anxiety. Choose the exact statement.<br />Identify different types of feelings; normalize fear or anxiety<br />Distinguish anxiety from other feelings and escape from it.<br />Provide information about the anxiety and deal with this.<br />Review, identify somatic responses to anxiety.<br />Answer: D. Review, identify somatic responses to anxiety. - Purpose of Session No. 4 in Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety – Review, identifying somatic responses to anxiety, introduce tense vs. relaxed and introduce relaxation training.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, p. 300.<br />25. It is an overview of cognitive behavioral treatments that certainly compresses us with their negative view of dependency and their emphasis on rationality.<br />Cultural concerns<br />Cultural process<br />Cultural approach <br />Cultural method<br />Answer: A. Cultural concerns ; Cultural Concerns – An overview of cognitive- behavioral treatments certainly impresses with their negative view of dependency and their emphasis on rationality, two values associated with western thought and not necessarily with other philosophies.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, p. 331.<br />26. It is the client’s thorough evaluation that should lead to formulation of a plan for action.<br />evaluation <br />planning <br />planning control<br />planning approach<br />Answer: B. planning ; Planning – The client’s thorough evaluation should lead to formulation of a plan for action. Reality therapists encourage plan that is simple, realistic, measurable, involved, committed, continuous, and within the client’s powers (not dependent on other people’s efforts).<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, p.316.<br />27. It is a cognitive behavioral treatment that takes several forms and described as a standard technique in counseling. It is essential as well as in the process of treatment.<br />Cognitive method<br />Problem-solving<br />Therapeutic process<br />Therapeutic approach<br />Answer: C. Therapeutic process ; The Therapeutic Process – Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment takes several forms, as described in the next few sections. Commonalities exist in the essential concepts as well as in the process of treatment.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, p. 297.<br />28. Related to question no.27, it is one of therapeutic session in which counselor addresses the client on her own terms.<br /> A. multimodal process<br /> B. Bringing and tracking<br /> C. Both a and b<br /> D. Tracking<br />Answer: B. Bringing and tracking ; Bridging and Tracking – In therapeutic process, the counselor addresses the client on her own terms first; In other words, he focuses initially on the modalities she has rate strongly in her structural profile, and uses there as a basis to reach other dimensions he considers important.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, p. 319.<br />29. It is a process that involves paying attention to the client in which different modalities usually take precedence for each client.<br />Tracking <br />Bridging<br />Tracking and Bridging<br />Tracking modalities<br /> Answer: A. Tracking ; Tracking involves paying attention to the order in which different modalities usually takes precedence for each client.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, p. 320.<br />30. The term dialectical describes the interaction of two conflicting forces, but there is an exception. Choose the exception.<br />The need for the client to accept herself and also to change<br />The client’s maintaining the validity of her experience while learning to interpret it differently<br />The client’s getting what she needs and losing it if they becomes more competent<br />The client learns to become comfortable with change in them.<br />Answer: D. The client learns to become comfortable with change in them. - The term “dialectical describes the interaction of 2 conflicting forces. In Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), the dialectics are between:<br />The need for the client to accept herself and also to change;<br />The client’s getting what she needs and losing it if she becomes more competent; and<br />The clients’ maintaining the validity of her experience while learning to interpret it differently (Linehan, 1993).<br />Dialectics imply change, and clients learn to become comfortable with change in themselves, others, and the environment.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004, p. 321. <br />31. It is a field of study which is comprised of everything contributing to the recognition, elucidation, prevention, and treatment of mental abnormalities.<br />a. Psychologyc. social Work<br />b. counselingd. Psychiatry<br />Answer: D. Psychiatry - Psychiatry is a field of study which is comprised of everything contributing to the recognition, elucidation, prevention, and treatment of mental abnormalities. Psychiatrists are trained doctors, who work largely through diagnosis of illness and and then prescribe a treatment - usually including medication.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M. Counseling Psychology. First Edition. 526-528 United Nations Avenue, Ermita, Manila – Educational Publishing House, 2006, p.29.<br />32. This kind of profession deals with wellness, personal growth, career and pathological concerns.<br />a. Psychologyc. social Work<br />b. counselingd. Psychiatry<br />Answer: B. counseling - Counseling deals with personal growth, career and pathological concerns. In other words, counselor works in areas that involve relationships. These areas include intra- and interpersonal concerns related to finding meaning and adjustment in some settings as schools, families, and careers.<br />Reference: Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M. Counseling Psychology. First Edition. 526-528 United Nations Avenue, Ermita, Manila – Educational Publishing House, 2006, p.33.<br />33. She edited the first comprehensive and significant work on racial identity and counseling.<br />a. Janet E. Helmsc. Courtland C. Lee<br />b. Frederick D. Harperd. Daya S. Sandhu<br />Answer: A. Janet E. Helms ; 1990- Janet E. Helms edited the first comprehensive and significant work on racial identity and counseling.<br />Reference: Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M. Counseling Psychology. First Edition. 526-528 United Nations Avenue, Ermita, Manila – Educational Publishing House, 2006, p. 48<br />34. They are trained in a variety of therapetic techniques used to address a wide range of issues which includes depression, addiction, suicidal impulses, stress management, problems with self-esteem,,and career concerns.<br />a. Mental Health Counselorc. Social workers<br />b. Guidance Counselord. Psychologists<br />Answer: A. Mental Health Couselor ; Mental Health Counselor – Work in individuals. Families and groups to address and treat mental disorders and promote optimum mental wealth. They are trained in a variety of therapeutic techniques used to address a wide range of issues which includes depression, addiction or substance abuse, suicidal impulses, stress management, problems with self-esteem, issues associated with aging, job and career concerns.<br /> Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M. Counseling Psychology. First Edition. 526-528 United Nations Avenue, Ermita, Manila – Educational Publishing House, 2006, p. 38. <br />35. It is one of developmental stage which involves the developing conscience, morality and scale of values occur.<br />a. adolescencec. middle childhood<br />b. early adulthoodd. early childhood<br />Answer: C. Middle Childhood - Middle Childhood (Age 6-11). Another characteristic of Middle Childhood according to Havighurst is developing his/her conscience, morality, and a scale of values.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M. Counseling Psychology. First Edition. 526-528 United Nations Avenue, Ermita, Manila – Educational Publishing House, 2006, p. 64.<br />36. It is one of developmental task according to Havighurst which involves occur intellectual skills.<br />a. adolescencec. middle childhood<br />b. early adulthoodd. early childhood<br />Answer: A. Adolescence - Preadolescence and Adolescence (12-18) According to Havighurst, another characteristic of adolescence is developing intellectual skills and concepts necessary for civic competence.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M. Counseling Psychology. First Edition. 526-528 United Nations Avenue, Ermita, Manila – Educational Publishing House, 2006, p. 65.<br />37. Related to question no.36, it involves the finding a congenial social group.<br />a. adolescencec. middle childhood<br />b. early adulthoodd. early childhood<br /> <br />Answer: B. early adulthood - Another characteristic of Early Adulthood (Age 19-30) according to Havighurst Developmental Tasks is finding a congenial social group.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M. Counseling Psychology. First Edition. 526-528 United Nations Avenue, Ermita, Manila – Educational Publishing House, 2006, p. 65.<br />38. Related to question no.36, this stage develops the fundamental skills in reading, writing and calculating.<br />a. adolescencec. middle childhood<br />b. early adulthoodd. early childhood<br />Answer: C. middle childhood - Another characteristic of Middle Childhood (Age 6-11) according to Havighurst Developmental Tasks is developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and calculating.<br /> Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M. Counseling Psychology. First Edition. 526-528 United Nations Avenue, Ermita, Manila – Educational Publishing House, 2006, p. 64. <br />39. The primary goal of humanistic theories is to achieve:<br />a. Self- Realizationc. Self-Acceptance<br />b. Self- Actualizationd. Self-Esteem<br />Answer: A. Self- Actualization; Third Force/ Source - The primary goal of humanistic theories is to create a working environment where the client can achieve self-actualization. Self-actualization is the client’s innate capacity to become all that he or she can bring forth.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M. Counseling Psychology. First Edition. 526-528 United Nations Avenue, Ermita, Manila – Educational Publishing House, 2006, p. 54<br />40. Lewis and Lewis coined this term for a new type of counselor who would function in multidimensional roles regardless of employment setting.<br />a. Guidance Counselorc. Community Counselor<br />b. Career Counselord. Mental Health Counselor<br />Answer: C. Community Counselor ; The diversification for counseling meant that specialization training began to offered in counselor education programs. It is also meant that the development of new concepts of counseling. For example, Lewis and Lewis coined the term community counselor for a new type of counselor would function in multidimensional roles regardless of employment setting.<br />Reference: Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M. Counseling Psychology. First Edition. 526-528 United Nations Avenue, Ermita, Manila – Educational Publishing House, 2006, p. 51.<br />41. It is the school of thought in psychology, according to Watson which claims that behavior should be the sole subject matter of psychology and that it should be studied through observation.<br />a. Psychoanalyticc. Functionalism<br />b. Behaviorismd. Structuralism<br />Answer: B. Behaviorism ; Behaviorism was formed as a reaction against the Freudian emphasis on the unconscious as the subject matter of psychology and introspection as the method of its investigation.<br />Watson (1930) claimed that behavior should be the sole subject matter of psychology that it should be studied through observation.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p. 213.<br />42. He is the best known and controversial figure in the field of behaviorism despite of adamant denial of the importance of condition and affect in understanding the human behavior.<br />a. B.F. Skinnerc. S.Freud<br />b. J.B. Watsond. I. Pavlov<br />Answer: A. B.F. Skinner ; The work of B. F. Skinner on the principles of reinforcement and operant conditioning further developed the school of behaviorism. Skinner is the best known and most controversial figure in the field of behaviorism. Despite the fact that, until his death in 1991, Skinner maintained an adamant denial of the importance of cognitions and affect in understanding human behavior which influence counseling and psychotherapy.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p.213.<br />43. In major constructs, it is considered to encompass a range of approaches limited by the purer behavioral and cognitive interventions.<br />a. Learning Theoryc. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions<br />b. Semantic Interventionsd. Behavioral Excesses<br />Answer: C. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions ; Cognitive-behavioral interventions are considered to encompass as range of approaches limited by the purer behavioral and cognitive interventions. Treatment targets range from excesses and deficits to cognitive excesses and deficits, and cognitive behavioral interventions target both cognitive and behavioral excesses and deficits.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p. 215-216.<br />44. A theory in Psychology according to Albert Bandura in which it has been used to provide a cognitive behavioral theoretical explanation for how people change.<br />a. Operant conditioningc. Classical conditioning<br />b. Behavior Modificationd. Self Efficacy<br />Answer: D. Self Efficacy ; The self-efficacy of Albert Bandura has been used to provide a cognitive-behavioral theoretical explanation for how people change. It has been proposed as a common pathway to explain how people change despite using different behavioral techniques.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p.220.<br />45. It is behavioral intervention used to gradually increase the quality of behavior.<br />a. Positive Reinforcementc. Reinforcement<br />b. Shapingd. Operant conditioning<br />Answer: B. Shaping ; Shaping is a behavioral intervenmtion used to gradually increase the quality of a behavior. Often used to teach a new skill. Shapeing works by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p.221.<br />46. It holds that affect and behavior are determined by the way individuals cognitively structure the world.<br />a. Learning Theoryc. Personality Theory<br />b. Cognitive Theoryd. Developmental Theory<br />Answer: B. Cognitive Theory ; Beck’s Cognitive Therapy. The primary principle underlying cognitive therapy (CT) is that affect and behavior are determined by the way individuals cognitively structure the world.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p.223.<br />47. It is a behavioral interventions design to decrease a problematic behavior.<br />a. Negative Reinforcementc. Extinction<br />b. Punishmentd. Classical Conditioning<br />Answer: b. Punishment ; Extinction is a behavioral intervention designed to decrease a problematic behavior. In this case, a reinforcer that has followed the behavior in the past is removed and the problem behavior decreases.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p.221.<br />48. It is a technique in which client learn to keep track of self-statements and to substitute more adaptive statements.<br />a. Stress Inoculation Trainingc. Self-Instructional Training<br />b. Positive self Statementsd. Cognitive Interventions<br />Answer: c. Self-Instructional Training ; Self- Instructional Training is a technique in which clients learn to keep track of self-statements and to substitute more adaptive statements. Clients learn to make these adaptive statements through homework assignments and practice.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p.225.<br />49. It is the result of faulty learning, making incorrect inferences, and not distinguishing adequately between imagination and reality.<br />a. Psychological Disturbancesc. Social Disturbances<br />b. Emotional Disturbancesd. Spiritual Disturbances<br />Answer: a. Psychological Disturbances ; For Beck, psychological disturbances may be the result of faulty learning, make incorrect inferences on the basis of inadequate or incorrect information and not disturbing adequately between imagination and reality.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p.214-215.<br />50. It is an increase in the undesirable behavior that may occur before extinction.<br />a. Response Burstc. Shaping<br />b. Punishmentd. Reinforcement<br />Answer: a. Response Burst ; Extinction is characterized by response burst, an increase in the desirable behavior that may occur before extinction. The child may get out of seat, wander around, and continue to engage in negative behavior and trying to get the attention of the teacher.<br />Reference: Capuzzi, David and Gross, Douglas R. Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Intervention. Third Edition. Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2003, p.221.<br />

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