Transcript of "Ikay to. thesis ko. final set chap1 3 revised edition"
Chapter I<br />Introduction and Background of the Study<br />Introduction<br />In the primitive ages, people have used smoke signals, jungle drums, carrier pigeons and semaphores to get a message from one point to another. And that is a clear evident that even before, it is very important to communicate or to get messages from other places. That is why Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. Probably no means of communication has revolutionized the daily lives of ordinary people more than the telephone. <br />Telephone comes from the Greek word tele, meaning from afar, and phone, meaning voice or voiced sound. Generally, a telephone is any device which conveys sound over a distance. A string telephone, a megaphone, or a speaking tube might be considered telephonic instruments but for our purposes they are not telephones. These transmit sound mechanically and not electrically. As the year change, the telephone also evolved. From the tin can telephones to the coin operated pay phone. Then there’s the pager and the bulky mobile phones. And today, cellular phones are the most rampant to use in this society.<br />Man’s needs are gradually increasing for a short period of time. When these needs become scarce and deprive, this evoke his imagination which would lead into action. According to Maslow, these needs are physiological needs, safety needs, and need for love, affection, and belongingness. When those needs are satisfied, self-esteem becomes dominant.<br />Communication, as a tool for socializing and interacting towards people serve as a medium to achieve those needs. Man always wanted to communicate because he expresses himself to alleviate his depression, emotional burden, and anxiety. Moreover, it gains involvement in social group such as classmates or friends. Because technology rapidly grows that exceed its present existence, communication becomes easier and faster such as the cellular phones. Despite economic crisis some people buys newer version of cellular phones because of popularity, socioeconomic status, and conformity from his friends. According to Lave, claims that every human thought is adopted to the environment that is situated, because what people perceive, how they conceive of their activity, and what they physically do develop together. <br />In short, human need of communicating in terms of belongingness with the use of cellular phones they adopt to the environment because of different preferences such as social conformity or to gain socioeconomic status. Evolution of cellular phones accompanied by increasing features. At first, it was just a non colored screen until there are cellular phones with built in cameras, music player, internet and some television with it. Now we are dealing with cellular phone with touch screen. It is useful, but it brought disadvantage among children and adolescence. They might be addicted in gaming and earlier exposure to pornography. It decreases their time doing their assignments at school, and increase sexual interest. <br />In our society, it is now considered that cell phones are one of the needs not a want. In fact, the Philippines have been crowned as the Texting Capital of the World due to the overwhelming number of SMS messages it sends each day. An SWS survey conducted in 2001 strongly proves this point: “Out of the 15 million households in the Philippines, an estimated 2.5 million have a cellular phone, of which 2.3 million have text-messaging capacity. Expect that every month, there are latest models of cell phone. <br />According to De Santis, Poole and Orlicowski, technology is not rendered as an artifact, but instead examines how people as they interact with a technology in their outgoing practices which shape their emergent and situated use of that technology. In other hand cellular phones depends upon a person on how he will use it whether it surrender oneself from others’ influence or use it as a purpose of communicating and personal satisfaction. Moreover, Bandura claim that human behavior is learned observationally from others, one forms an idea of how new behavior are performed, and later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action. Changes of technological development among cellular phones are very alarming especially to the adolescence. <br />Therefore, this research was conducted to clarify and discover if there’s a behavioral impact among psychology students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines towards technological development of cellular phones.<br /> <br />Theoretical Framework<br />This study was provided by personality theories, social learning theories, and theories interconnecting between technology and human interaction towards society that would substantiate the research.<br />According to Maslow, growth towards self-actualization requires the satisfaction of a hierarchy of needs. These involve needs for self-esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others. Humans have a need for a stable, firmly based high level of self-esteem, and respect from others. When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-confident and valuable person in the world. When these needs are frustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless, and worthless. Maslow’s theory of needs plays an important role in this study. Cellular phone acted as a media for communication towards people. It comprises need for love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization. He or she becomes more confident, sociable, and expressive in his thoughts and opinions when he got a latest version of cellular phone. Because he feels that he was involve in the group of friends which will substantiate his anxious feeling. <br />According to Adler, people born with weak, inferior bodies – a condition that leads feeling of inferiority, and a consequent dependence on other people. Therefore, a feeling of unity with others (social interest) is inherent in people and ultimate standard for psychological health. His other main tenets are stated in outline form. <br /><ul><li>The one dynamic force behind people’s behavior is the striving for success of superiority.
People’s subjective perceptions shape their behavior and personality.
The self-consistent personality structure develops into a person’s style of life.
Style of life is molded by people’s creative power.</li></ul>Adler’s theory was emphasized in this study because it stresses individual’s conformity towards social life to compensate his weaknesses such as financial difficulties and physical inadequacies. Individuals set a fictional goal, by studying hard or get into a job with high salary. Latest cellular phones that are brought denote superiority or success. When he gains superiority or success, in his brand new cellular phone, he will achieve his final goal to reduce his feeling of inferiority. <br />According to Lave’s Situated Learning theory, “Learning is not an accumulation of interaction, but the transformation of the individual who is moving toward a full membership in the professional community”. It looks at the learning phenomenon in a broader and holistic perspective incorporating behavior (action) and cognition by recognizing the interaction between people and environment and the role of situation. This theory stress out technological development of cellular phone as a situation adapted by the individual. <br />According to Anthony Giddens, Structuration theory defines structures as rules and resources organized as properties of social systems. The theory employs a recursive notion of actions constrained and enabled by structures which are produced and reproduced by that action. Consequently, in this theory technology is not rendered as an artifact, but instead examines how people, as they interact with a technology in their ongoing practices, enact structures which shape their emergent and situated use of that technology.<br />According to Bandura, people learn through observing others’ behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors. “Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.” Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. Bandura believed in “reciprocal determinism”, that is, the world and a person’s behavior cause each other, while behaviorism essentially states that one’s environment causes one’s behavior, Bandura, who was studying adolescent aggression, found this too simplistic, and so in addition he suggested that behavior causes environment as well. Later, Bandura soon considered personality as an interaction between three components: the environment, behavior, and one’s psychological processes (one’s ability to entertain images in minds and language).<br />Conceptual Framework<br />INPUTDevelopment of cellular phonesCuriosity of Adolescents Satisfaction of NeedsSocializationOUTPUTHow does it affect the Behavior of the generation?PROCESSConformity of Youth to the use of continuous Technological Development of Cellular Phones<br />Statement of the problem<br />This study aims to find out the impact of technological development of cellphones to the behavior of adolescents. Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:<br /><ul><li>What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
What are the effects of technological development of cellular phones to the behavior of adolescents in terms of:</li></ul>a.Socialization<br />b.Self-esteem<br />c.School Performance<br />3. Is there a significant correlation between technological developments of cellphones to the behavior of the respondents?<br />Hypotheses<br /><ul><li>There is no significant relation between the technological development of cellphones and the behavior of the adolescents.</li></ul>Significance of the study<br />This study can be use as a reference for further studies conducted in the same field. For some reasons, this study will be highly beneficial to the following:<br />School administrators, teachers and guidance counselors. This will give them baseline information with scientific results about the behavior, study habits, and attitudes of adolescents towards the growing technology industry specifically mobile phones.<br />Psychologist and other concern professionals. This will assist them to define, assess, interpret and evaluate intensively the behaviors, study habits and attitudes of adolescents towards the growing technology industry specifically mobile phones.<br />Parents and Guardians. They will be enlightened of the impact of technological changes to the behavior of their child.<br />Adolescents. For whom the study is directly address, this will serve as an eye opener.<br />Scope and limitation<br />This study is to be conducted to determine the impact of technological development of cellphones to the behavior of psychology students studying at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. The aspects will look into the priorities, socialization, self-esteem and school performance. How they conform on the changes of technology.<br />Definition of terms<br />To facilitate better understanding of the study, the following terms are defined:<br />Touch screen - electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. The term generally refers to touch or contact to the display of the device by a finger or hand. Touch screens can also sense other passive objects, such as a pen.<br />SMS- Short message service; refers to the exchange of brief written messages between mobile phones over cellular networks.<br />Cellular phone- is an electronic device used for mobile telecommunications (mobile telephone, text messaging or data transmission) over a cellular network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. Mobile phones differ from cordless telephones, which only offer telephone service within limited range, e.g. within a home or an office, through a fixed line and a base station owned by the subscriber and also from satellite phones and radio telephones.<br />Chapter II<br />Review of Related Literature and Studies<br />Foreign Literature<br />Adolescence may be viewed as a transition age in human development from childhood to adulthood. During this period, an individual goes through many changes including the formation of one’s values, attitudes and behavior to adapt and adjust behavior to culturally acceptable adult forms (Dusek, 1996).<br />According to Hall (1904), he saw adolescence as a period of storm and stress. Many people still adhere to Hall’s view. However, Coleman (1978) clarified that various stresses in adolescence do not occur at the same time. Rather, adolescents deal with one or two stressful events which alleviate the stress, then deal with the others.<br />The peak age for stressful situation varies. Adolescence seems to represent a series of smoothly evolving changes in development. Changes that adolescence is experiencing within them redefine their roles as members of their family, peer group and society as they, in turn, perceive these changes (Dusek, 1996).<br />Adolescents have a greater freedom to explore new situations. From Agence France- Presse’s article in Washington on December 2009, there were three teenagers who use cellular phone to sent semi-nude pictures. According to a survey by a US family planning organization, published in 2008, 20%of American teenagers said they had participated in sexting- the apparently popular practice of sending semi-nude or nude photos to friends by using a mobile phone.<br />From the blog of Matthew Bishop he says that in rich countries, mobile phones can seem something of a mixed blessing – particularly if you are stuck on a train next to a teenager with a Crazy Frog ring-tone. But in poor countries, mobile phones have no obvious downside and have already delivered remarkable beneﬁts, in terms both of economic growth and personal empowerment. They may even enable poor countries to leapfrog over some of the traditional stages of the development process.<br />The mobile phone has spread throughout much of the developing world more quickly and deeply than any previous technology-based product – not least traditional ﬁxed-line phones. This has been helped by the fact that rolling out a mobile phone network is far cheaper than building a ﬁxed-line system. In Morocco in 1995, for example, after decades of investing in the telephone infrastructure, there were only four ﬁxed lines per 100 inhabitants. In 2003, there were still four ﬁxed line subscribers per 100 Moroccans, but there were also 24 mobile phone subscribers per 100 – up from zero in 1995, according to a recent study by the London Business School for Vodafone, the British global mobile phone giant. In the same period, mobile phone penetration has risen from 0 to 36 per cent in Albania, 0 to 30 per cent in Paraguay, 0 to 21 per cent in China and 0 to 9 per cent in India.<br />In the past few years, Africa, so often left behind by other economic advances, has seen the world’s most rapid growth in mobile phone penetration (albeit from a very low base). Subscriber growth in several sub-Saharan African countries exceeded 150 per cent last year; there are now eight subscribers per 100 people across the region, up from three in 2001. In Tanzania, it took just ﬁve years from the ﬁrst mobile phone call for the number of mobile phone subscribers per 100 people to exceed the number of ﬁxed lines, compared with 15 years in a rich country such as Britain. The true extent of mobile phone use in developing countries is far greater than these ﬁgures suggest, thanks to all that phone sharing.<br />When you get a mobile phone it is almost like having a card to get out of poverty in a couple of years.” So says Muhammad Yunus, the founder of the micro-credit provider, Grameen Bank, and its hugely popular mobile phone offshoot in Bangladesh, Grameen Phone.<br />Foreign Studies<br /> A study from Aligarh Muslim University, India said that the world is becoming increasingly dependent upon technology. Technology is playing a crucial role in contemporary society. It has transformed the world from a primitive communal to an industrialized world. The internet has become a major shareholder. Developing nations can derive tremendous advantage from this technology for updating the knowledge of its researchers and scientists. Even educational organizations are influenced by the development of information technology. The most obvious example has been the introduction of information technology related courses. <br />This study concluded that society expects to be able to manipulate the information it has for its own benefits, to increase understanding and discover new relation.<br />Another study by Ben Meadocroft said that technology influenced the interactions between the individuals. It has been enhanced by the development; the individuals then have the ability to communicate through e-mails, chat rooms, and social net workings.<br />Common Sense Media in San Franciso USA recently released the results of a national poll on the use of digital media for cheating in school(2009). The poll, conducted by The Benenson Strategy Group, revealed that more than 35% of teens admit to cheating with cell phones, and more than half admit to using the Internet to cheat. More importantly, many students don’t consider their actions to be cheating at all. The results highlight a real need for parents, educators, and leaders to start a national discussion on digital ethics. In this poll, kids reveal that they’re texting each other answers during tests, using notes and information stored on their cell phones during tests, and downloading papers from the Internet to turn in as their own work. Because the digital world is distant, hard to track, and mostly anonymous, kids are less likely to see the consequences of their online actions, especially when they feel they won’t get caught.<br />These are the result of the study conducted:<br />-41% of teens say that storing notes on a cell phone to access during a test is a serious cheating offense, while 23% don’t think it’s cheating at all.<br />- 45% of teens say that texting friends about answers during tests is a serious cheating offense, while 20% say it’s not cheating at all.<br />- 76% of parents say that cell phone cheating happens at their teens’ schools, but only 3% believe their own teen has ever used a cell phone to cheat.<br />- Nearly two-thirds of students with cell phones use them during school, regardless of school policies against it.<br />- Teens with cell phones send 440 text messages a week and 110 a week while in the classroom.<br />According to the London Business School study, this looked at 92 countries, rich and poor, between 1980 and 2003. Overall, says the study, in a typical developing country, a rise of 10 mobile phones per 100 people boosts the rate of growth of GDP by 0.6 percentage points a year. That may not seem much, but compounded over a few years it can add up to a big increase in living standards. Those developing countries that have higher levels of mobile phone penetration may become the success stories of the coming decade. For instance, notes the study, the Philippines had 27 mobile phones per 100 people in 2003, compared with Indonesia’s nine. If that gap remains, the Philippines could expect its GDP to grow by one percentage point a year faster than that of Indonesia.<br />Local Literature<br />From the journal of Jerry Liao of Manila Bulletin, technology has brought a lot of benefits to mankind. It made most of us more effective and efficient both in our professional and personal tasks. But as much as there are a lot of advantages, there are still those who are more innovative than others - like using technology in some other ways, the bad ways. From Ronald S. Lim’s journal, the temptation to cheat is even easier for today’s technologically-advanced youth. With mobile phones making the transmission of messages easier and the Internet making the sharing of information much quicker, today’s Filipino student can just as easily download his answers from a computer as he can from looking at his seatmate’s answers.<br />However, it would seem that the tried and tested technique of looking at the answer of seatmates, passing around notes, and “reliable” classmates are the methods preferred by today’s young Filipinos.Technology, particularly mobile phones, once again came under fire because of the Pinoy youth’s new texting style. Now a national phenomenon (or a national plague?), the Jejemons’ improper use of words have caused alarm among parents and teachers alike. Teachers have complained about their students’ adapting this newfound language in their regular schoolwork. In this case, instead of making things better, technology has been distorted and has caused bad influence on today’s generation. <br />However, also from Manila Bulletin, a journal of Angelo G. Garcia, says there’s a lesson from mobile phones. Technology has done more good than harm for the youth admittedly. The advent of e-book readers, for instance, has made books more available to everyone with just a touch of a button. Laptop computers are being used as an affordable education device to children around the world. Even mobile phones are now channels to teach children.<br />In 2003, Nokia, the International Youth Foundation, Pearson, and the United Nations Development program conceptualized the global BridgeIT program which uses cellular technology to bring educational materials to the developing world. The program was pilot-tested in the Philippines on the same year and the Text2Teach program was born.<br />“Text2Teach is now an evolution of what we have in the past. What we have now is the ability to download these videos, at very high speeds using the cellular network. The beauty of this is you can take the program, and take it to those areas that are very, very rural and don’t have access to the internet. It is much easier with a cellular tower and with that speed and you can serve the entire community with this content to help the teachers,” saysNokia Europe Community Involvement head Patrick Gonzales.<br />Using the mobile application Nokia Education Delivery (NED) installed in special Nokia phones, teachers are able to download and choose educational audios and videos on Math, Science and English specifically created for the program.<br />“One of the differences of Text2Teach is that learning has become more mobile. For example I’m a teacher, I can download the materials today, I will teach it tomorrow, I can study the materials tonight, at home or wherever I am because it’s in the mobile phone. It could be the advent of one day, students having their own mobile phones, downloading educational video materials over the mobile phone. Text2Teach actually creates that culture of learning in a mobile way,” explains Globe Telecom Corporate Social Responsibility head Jeffrey Tarayao.<br />The videos are specifically produced by SEAMEO INNOTECH, with the help of teacher-experts, for the program based on the Department of Education’s Basic Education Curriculum on Grade 5 and 6 Math, Science and English. The program also uses real time technology where it utilizes the fast 3G network of Globe for fast download of the educational materials.<br />“This program is based in real-time so they can download updated content from the server. In the case of DVDs, you have to. That’s the benefit of this technology,” explains Nokia Asia Pacific Community Involvement head Jenny Lim.<br />Many of the materials are preloaded in the mobile device and because of the TV connection capability of mobile phones, it can be then connected to the television for viewing.<br />More recently, the Text2Teach program was launched in Ligao City, Albay. Twenty four out of 49 public elementary schools in the area were given Text2Teach packages that included a Nokia N86 8MP device, — with special TV out feature — preloaded with almost 400 educational audio and video materials on Grade 5 and 6 Math, Science and English curriculum. It also included a Globe prepaid SIM card and a 29-inch color television provided by Kolin Philippines International.<br />Although Ligao City division has improved its performance indicators among students over the past years problems in drop-outs and low participation rates are still evident. In the latest performance indicator given by Ligao City Division, in school year 2008-2009, out of 18,202 enrolled elementary students in public schools, the participation rate is at 82.22 percent with drop-out rates of 0.18 percent. That’s 372 students who dropped-out from school in the whole division that school year.<br />The division’s quality indicator in English (56.12 percent), Science (50.07), and Math (57.73) is something that they hope will improve with the introduction of the Text2Teach program.<br />“With the introduction of Text2Teach, we hope for a significant improvement in the academic performance of the pupils because we expect that our students will be benefiting much from this. Unlike in the normal method of teaching, which is simple lecturing, this time subjects like Mathematics, Science and English have become more lively, more enjoyable because. And leaning will become meaningful and lasting with the students we are hoping for that direction,” Palencia shares.<br />The schools that will benefit from the program are: Amtic Elementary School, Barayong ES, Basag ES, Baligang ES, Herrera ES, Paulog ES, Abella ES, Francia ES, Ligao East ES, Maonon ES, Tupas ES, Oma-Oma ES, Bacong ES, Paulba ES, Cabarian ES, Tiongson ES, Busac ES, Tandarura ES, Tula-Tula (G) ES, Tastas ES, Allang ES, Cavasi ES, Tula-Tula (P) ES, and Culiat ES.<br />The local government of Ligao is also active in helping improve education quality in their city. Mayor Linda Gonzalez gave P738,000 for the program as the local government’s counterpart funds to implement Text2Teach. <br />Since its launch, more than one million public elementary school students and almost 2,000 teachers and school officials in 350 schools in different parts of the country have benefited from the program. And the Text2Teach team is happy to say that impact on the students has been significant.<br />“In the case of Text2Teach, we measure the impact, by looking at the schools that actually use of the program. Over the past years we have had two third party evaluations. There have been an improvement on what they call the learning gauge, in other words when you compare the scores of the kids after they have used Text2Teach compared to before they used it there was a significant difference. We noticed that there was a big difference especially in schools that started with very low scores. Like schools in Mindanao, very large jump from the base core, to the score after they have used the program,” Deriquito shares.<br />Among the program’s beneficiaries are the 11 schools in Dagupan City, Pangasinan that implemented the program last January. School officials in Dagupan visited Ligao City to share the positive experience they got from Text2Teach.<br />“Ang laki ng impact ng Text2Teach sa aming school. At ang enrolment po namin nag increase, nilampasan po namin ang enrolment ng central school by 50 pupils. Nagustuhan din po ng mga parents ang program,” shares Carael Elementary School principal Manuel Ferrer.<br />According to him, Carael Elemetary School improved its National Achievement Test scores to eight percent after only using it for a several months.<br />“Practical itong Text2Teach, kasi nagke-cater sa maiksing attention span ng mga estudyante. Maliit ‘yung time na nacoconsume pero ‘yung impact sa bata malaki. May nakikita po kami, in terms of performance like in Mathematics, significant po ang difference compared sa dating performance nila,” explains DepEd OIC-Schools Division superintendent, City Schools of Dagupan Dr. Donato D. Balderas, Jr.<br />Moreover, the partners of the program believe that Text2Teach program will not solve all the problems of the country’s education system, this is just their share in somehow improving it – for the children.<br />He also adds that they also have plans to expand the program to lower grade levels. “Another finding was, the longer children, they had the chance to observe children that have undergone Text2Teach for one year, are exposed to Text2Teach, the larger the learning gauge. That is why one of the things we’re discussing Text2Teach is the possibility of extending the program to the lower level. We know that it is good to extend it to the lower Grade level so that the children will have longer exposure to the process.<br />The group is also hoping that someday, DepEd can mainstream the program and integrate it into the national education system to cover all the schools in the country.<br />“Another potential, it may be forward looking but by using this mobile phone and accessing the network, they will be able to come out with user-generated content. If the Text2Teach content is coming from one server, one day, others may come up with materials about other cultures, make a video out of it and it may be viewed by schools in other areas or other countries, who knows. That’s the difference of Text2Teach, it is the mobility of it, it’s in your hands,” Tarayao says.<br />Local Studies<br />In the Philippines, records from the National Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB) show that in 2006, cell phone use while driving ranked as the 12th most common cause of traffic accidents. From 2001 to 2006, traffic accidents caused by cell phone use while driving increased more than five times in the Philippines, the highest increase among causes of traffic accidents. There are now 40 countries worldwide restricting or banning the use of cell phones while driving. Sadly, the Philippines is not one of them. Many appear unaware, however, that the MMDA has an existing ban, issued since 2007, on the use of cell phones and hand-held radios while operating or driving motor vehicles in Metro Manila. The cities of Makati and Cebu have also imposed the same ban. Hopefully, our congressmen and senators will find time to finally enact a law that will effectively make the ban nationwide. Many appear unaware, however, that the MMDA has an existing ban, issued since 2007, on the use of cell phones and hand-held radios while operating or driving motor vehicles in Metro Manila. The cities of Makati and Cebu have also imposed the same ban.<br />According to the studied conducted by Cecilia Alessandra S. Uy-Tioco of New School University(2004), cellphone technology has broken through class divisions. Because of pre-paid numbers, people without credit history, reasonable incomes, or permanent addresses have been able to obtain cellphones. For a country that is socially stratified, this is very empowering. Having the capability of owning and using a technology that the rich use is very empowering for the lower and lower-middle classes. <br />Cellphones in the Philippines are not age-specific nor are they gender-specific. While countries like Japan and Finland attribute text messaging as a phenomenon dominated by the youth, in the Philippines, young and old alike send and receive text messages on a regular basis. The young may tend to use their cellphones more to make friends, for idle chat, or to make plans with friends; and older people tend to use it for work, to keep in touch with family members, and for keeping up with what is going on in the country. The youth may be the quickest to learn a new technology, but in the Philippines, it is not unusual to see grandmothers, society ladies, or priests and nuns tapping away at their cellphones.<br />While there is no study that measures the cellphone uses between the sexes, Pertierra, et al believe that is neutral about gender.92 Men may text more sexually explicit messages, and women more gossip, but the frequency seems to be similar. Because the medium has allowed non-confrontational communication, men and women can pursue normally tabooed topics such as sexuality. Certainly this small Southeast Asian nation has been a major test site for new cellphones. To many, this is a sign of modernity, of being not too far behind the developed nations. The ability to communicate with others across the world in real time through text messaging gives a sense that the Filipino is present in the global stage.<br />Widespread cellphone use has resulted in the blurring of the private and public spheres. While the cellphone is a private technology in that it is communication between two people at a time, it also is a public one because we receive the calls outside the privacy of our offices, our homes, or phone booths. It has become acceptable for Philippine society to take cellphone calls or to check text messages while eating or in a meeting. Visit the Makati nightspots and one will notice the proliferation of cellphones on the tables in restaurants. Or you will notice that not everyone in the table is engaging in conversation. Instead, some are distracted by the constant beeping and ringing of their cellphones. Movie theaters, banks, gas stations, and places of worship have been actively campaigning for the silencing of cellphones in their premises. Countries like Germany have banned cellphone use inside restaurants. But in the Philippines, it is part of daily life.<br />With the popularity of text messaging as the main use of the cellphone, many have become concerned on its effects on language. Already many have begun using text shorthand in their email messages. <br />Paul Anthony Villegas (2000), a teacher at the Ateneo de Manila High School noticed that his students have been using shortcuts in their compositions. In addition, text messaging has become the new way of cheating. Students send questions and answers to each other during exams. To combat these, elementary and high schools have prohibited the use of cellphones during and in-between class hours.<br />That cellphones have deeply affected the lives of Filipinos should by now be evident. The Knowledge Institute of SGV & Co, Ernst & Young’s Philippine partner, credits the growth of the cellphone industry to its mass-market appeal, its affordability, and the convenience of a pre-paid service. Despite the fact that 40% of the population lives on less than $1 a day, cellphones have had remarkable market penetration at 25%. This paper has shown that the cellphone has made an enormous impact on Philippine culture and society. But more than that, research has revealed that there are cultural reasons unique to Philippine society that have allowed cellphones to take root in the country. The success of any medium, certainly the enormous success of the cellphone, means it has survived a human test.<br />One social impact of widespread cellphone use is that the technology has crossed boundaries of class, gender, and age. Filipinos of all sizes, shapes, and background have adopted this technology. Unlike other nations where the youth dominate the text messaging phenomenon, in the Philippines, both young and old, male and female use this technology extensively.<br />Cellphone technology has also allowed a developing nation like the Philippines to participate in the global village. Not only is the Philippines up to speed in cellphone technology, it is even ahead of some developed nations. The cellphone has also given the Filipino a way of keeping in touch with people around the globe. Since Internet use is not as widespread (4 million Internet users versus 22 million cellphone subscribers), the cellphone is the medium that lets the citizens of the nation join the information superhighway. <br />Since the cellphone is ubiquitous and is used by people from all sectors of society, it has also become a tool for social change. Yet the possibilities of using the cellphone in other ways that can result to the betterment of the community and the nation are being explored. While there is still no way to measure the success of the government and non-government groups’ efforts, the opportunities are exciting. <br />There are traits and characteristics of Philippine culture that have allowed the cellphone, particularly text messaging, to flourish. These are the importance of family, “hiya” (meaning shyness or embarrassment) and the need to be in the know. The family is still the center of Philippine society and the cellphone has allowed them to keep in touch and to communicate regularly. Despite the distances of time and space, text messaging holds the family together. When faced with emotions, confrontations, or demands, the Filipino is shy and embarrassed. Text messaging allows the user to hide behind a mask instead of engaging in face-to-face conversation. This is especially true when dealing with the opposite sex or dating, parents, superiors at work, etc. <br />Filipinos also like to always be in the know. We may be shy about telling a parent we love them or asking the boss for a raise or telling a guy we are attracted to him; but we are definitely curious about the day-to-day lives of the people around us. Years of colonization and oppressive governments have also created an air of suspicion towards the media and the government. The cellphone has allowed people to verify news and information through a network of friends and family. <br />While the tremendous impact of the cellphone on Philippine society and culture cannot be denied, there have also been impacts on the economy. Since the deregulation of the telecommunications industry in 1994, the industry has spawned a host of entrepreneurial activity in areas such as application programming for mobile content (ranging from simple ringtones and phone logos to Java-based games for General Packet Radio Service [GPRS]) and new cottage industries devoted to pre-paid call and text card sales, handset and accessory sales, service centers, and others. There is room for growth in creating more content for mobile phones whether it be games, advertising, new features, etc. As prices of cellphones and the cost of making calls and texts go down, combined with growth in the Philippine economy, the cellphone’s future looks bright. As more and more people use this technology, more impacts on society and culture can be studied. <br />This thesis aimed to examine the impact of cellphones on Philippine culture and society. Much further study can be made in this area. An in-depth study of the differences or similarities in the use of cellphones by men and women would be interesting. While currently there is no evidence of a disparity in the amount of cellphone use between the sexes, it would be fascinating to see if there are any differences in the kind of use. <br />While this thesis briefly touches on the impact of text messaging on language, it would be of value to do a more in depth study on the matter. It would be interesting to see conclusive data on how much speech, spelling, and writing has been affected by shorthand text messages. In addition, a study on the texting language and etiquette that have resulted from cellphones and text messaging would be valuable. <br />Much can indeed by studied and written about cellphone use in the Philippines. This paper only provides a general overview of the impacts and reasons on why the cellphone has been so successful. Good or bad, there is no turning back. The cellphone is here to stay and will continue to be an essential technology for Philippine society and culture. <br />Relevance to the present study<br />The reviewed literature and studies are significant. This might help in seeking the answer to the problem of this study. Moreover, it gives the researchers the overview and idea of the benefits and disadvantages of technology in different aspects of society.<br />Chapter III<br />Methodology<br />This chapter describes the operational plan of work or strategy. A number of activities in the plan of work include the following operations: a) research design; b) population (sampling size and techniques); c) research instruments; d) data gathering procedures; e) statistical treatment of data.<br />Research design<br />The researchers will make use of descriptive method of research. This method gives emphasis of what actually exist such as current conditions, practices, situations and any given phenomenon. It gives a better and deeper understanding of a certain condition on the basis of an in-depth study. It determines the true nature of the problem and accurately describes the process that will be use. It reveals problems so that remedial measures will be instituted and formed.<br />Since this study is concern with the impact of technological development of cellphones to the behavior of the adolescence, to obtain concrete fact and strong-based information about the subject, the gathered data needs to be interpreted and validate properly.<br />Population<br />The subject to be studied is the psychology students studying at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines in Sta. Mesa, Manila. Selecting respondents to this study is through the use of Slovin’s formula.<br />n = N <br />(1 + Ne2) n = Number of samplesN = Total populatione = Error tolerance<br />Research Instrument<br />Normative survey will be use to gather data. Questionnaire is the data gathering instrument to be employed. This is so because it can gather data faster than any other method. A survey is a method of collecting information about a human population. In a survey, direct (or indirect) contact is made with the units of the study (e.g., individuals, organizations, communities) by using systematic methods of measurement such as questionnaires and interviews.<br />Data gathering procedures<br />The respondents will be chosen through the Pure Random Sampling. Each individual is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each individual has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process, and each subset of k individuals has the same probability of being chosen for the sample as any other subset of k individuals (Yates, Daniel S.; David S. Moore, Daren S. Starnes (2008).<br />Statistical Treatment of Data<br />Data gathered through the instrument was subjected to statistical treatment to test the alternative hypothesis advanced in this study. The following statistical treatments are to be use:<br />1. The frequency distribution will be use in order to show the number of respondents according to how they view their work. Such frequency distribution will be made for interpreting the data and representing it, which will make it easier to analyze, handle, and interpret.<br />2. To be able to know the average (mean) and the percentile rank the following formula is used. <br />X= ∑fx%= x ( 100 )<br /> N<br />wherein:<br />N= total number of cases<br />∑x =sum of scores<br />3. In testing the null hypothesis that there is no significant relation between the technological changes and the behavior of the adolescents, the researcher will make use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient with the formula:<br />r= N∑XY- (∑X)(∑Y) <br /> √ [N (∑X2) – (∑X)2] [N (∑Y2) – (∑Y)2]<br />References:<br />Limpingco, Tria: Personality, 3rd ed. Ken Inc., 2006<br />Agence France-Presse. 'Sexting' teenagers sue over porn charge 2009. Inquiry.net. 2009<br />Dusek: Impact of Information Technology on Societal Development and E-governance Vibha Gupta, Research Scholar Department of Library and Information Science, Aligarh Muslim University, India. 2007<br />Cecilia Alessandra S. Uy-Tioco: CELLPHONES AS A CULTURAL TECHNOLOGY:New Ways of Communicating in the Philippines, Master of Arts in Media Studies, New School University. April 2004<br />Ben Meadrowcrof. The Impact of Information Technology on Work and Society. http://www.benmeadowcroft.com/reports/impact/<br />http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/208045/survey-shows-teens-use-mobile-phones-cheat<br />http://www.developments.org.uk/articles/loose-talk-saves-lives-1/<br />http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/273707/lessons-mobile-phone<br />http://www.mb.com.ph/node/229095<br />