FEDERICO B. JABOL DECEMBER 7, 2009
BSCP 3-3 Prof. Adrian Guinto
“Anatomy and Physiology”
1. A) What is Chemistry?
Chemistry is a science concerned with the composition, structure, and
properties of a matter as well as the changes. And undergoes during chemical
B) Why it is important in biology?
Chemistry is very important in biology because it gives a exact explanation
on how our body react into chemicals. And because of chemistry new studies are
being conducted to give new solutions. it also help the doctor to prescribe a
2. Differentiate the meaning of atoms, elements, and molecules. And provide
examples to substantiate your answer.2
• Atoms -are made up of matter and the fundamental unit of matter is the
atom. The atom constitutes the smallest particle of an element.
• Ex. Carbon atom, Nitrogen atom
• Elements- are made of a central nucleus containing protons (positively-
charged) and neutrons (with no charge). The electrons (negatively-
charged with negligible mass) revolve around the nucleus in different
imaginary paths called orbits or shells.
• Ex. Hydrogen, Nitrogen
• Molecules- are formed when atoms of the same or different elements
combine. A molecule is the smallest particle of a substance that can
normally exist independently.
• Ex. Molecules of Oxygen (O2 ), molecules of Carbon Dioxide(CO2 )
1. Introduction to Chemistry 4th edition, by Mary Campbell and Shawn O. Farrell( Page. 6)
2 Introduction to Chemistry 4th edition, by Mary Campbell and Shawn O. Farrell( Page 7 and 8)
3. What is the difference between organic and inorganic chemistry?
Organic compounds - are compounds that contain carbon, and it is broad
and important branch of chemistry, because it involves the chemistry of fossils
fuels, dyes, drugs, paper, ink paints, gasoline rubber tires, food and clothing. And
sometimes it defined as the chemistry of carbon and its covalent bond.3
Inorganic compounds - Any substance in which two or more chemical
elements other than carbon are combined, nearly always in definite proportions,
as well as some compounds containing carbon but lacking carbon-carbon bonds.
Inorganic compounds may be classified by the elements or groups they contain.
The major classes of inorganic polymers are silicones, silanes, silicates, and
4. What are the three types of carbohydrates? Provide a graphical representation
Monosaccharide- Is the simplest carbohydrates and known as sugars.
And it comes from the Greek word “mono” meaning one, and “sakaharon”
Disaccharides- are doubled ringed sugars that result from the combination
of two monosaccharides.4
Polysaccharides- are defined as carbohydrate polymers containing many
3.Microbiolgy for Health Science, Seventh Edition, by Gwendolyn R.W.Burton and Paul G. Engelkirk (Page 136-137)
4 Microbiolgy for Health Science, Seventh Edition, by Gwendolyn R.W.Burton and Paul G. Engelkirk (Page 138-141)
5. What are the four types of protein according to structure? Briefly describe each
of them and name at least two examples of each.5
A. Primary protein structure - is a linear sequence of the amino acids in a
chain. It occurs when water is being removed by dehydration synthesis. The
amino acids become linked together by covalent bond referred to as peptide
bond. And a dipeptide is formed by bonding of three amino acids form a
tripeptide, and a chain or polymers consisting of more than three amino acids.
Examples are peptide bond and polypeptide bond.5
B. Secondary protein structure – occurs when a polypeptide chain
naturally twist into helices or sheets as a result of the charge side chains
protruding from the carbon-nitrogen backbone of the molecule. And this helical or
sheet like configuration referred to secondary protein structure. Example is the
C. Tertiary protein structure – occurs because of a long coil become
entwined by folding back on itself, and the polypeptide helix may become
globular. In some areas, the helix is retained but the other areas curve randomly.
And this globular is known as tertiary protein structure. Examples are hydrogen
bonding and disulfide bonding.5
D. Quaternary protein structure – occurs when two or more polypeptide
chains are bonded together by hydrogen and disulfide bond, and the result is
referred to quaternary protein structure. Example is the hemoglobin consists of
four globular myoglobins.5
5 Microbiolgy for Health Science, Seventh Edition, by Gwendolyn R.W.Burton and Paul G. Engelkirk ( Page 148)