Exp Psyhce 2

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Exp Psyhce 2

  1. 1. Perez, Raphael Ray L.Dr. Luz Lee<br />BSCP/ 3rd yr. – 3s Experimental Psychology<br />Title: Simple Reaction Time in Visual and Motor Responses<br />Introduction: In this experiment, would be able to identify the relationship and the significance of 2 modes of response – the motor and visual response.<br />Objectives:<br />To show how motor and visual responses are affected by variation in partial layout od stimulus patterns.<br />Apparatus:<br /><ul><li>Checkboards with 64 boxes containing an arrow or letter
  2. 2. Stopwatch
  3. 3. Red Ballpen</li></ul>Procedure:<br />The experiment is divided into two parts. It consists of 2 response stimuli, arrow and letter and 2 response modes: say and trace.<br />PART 1 – THE SAY CONDITION<br />It is composed of 2 basic stimuli: letter and arrow. In the arrow condition, the subject identify the arrow as pointing up, down, left, and right bay saying aloud in vernacular way (sa ibaba, itaas, kaliwa, o sa kanan). The subject is to read all the arrows in the first line and proceeds the beginning of the second line until all 64 stimuli are read. The experimenter records the reaction time. The subject proceeds to the letter condition when the same task is required. But this time, the subject saids aloud the initial letter (T, I, S, K). Make 5 trials of each for trial condition.<br />PART 2 – THE TRACE CONDITION<br />The subject trace the path indicated by letter also started at the upper left corner. Make a graph result for part 1 and part 2. Compute the mean reaction time for both.<br />Results:<br />PART 1 – THE SAY CONDITION<br /><ul><li>Simple Reaction Time in Visual and Motor Response
  4. 4. Stimuli for Sensory and Muscular Tension</li></ul>PART 2 – THE TRACE CONDITION<br /><ul><li>Simple Reaction Time in Visual and Motor Response
  5. 5. Stimuli for Sensory and Muscular Tension</li></ul>Discussion:<br />The graph shows the relationship between the two modes of response: the motor and verbal response. Based on the computed mean reaction time for each response, the motor response (Trace Condition) is faster than the verbal response (Say Condition). Reaction time is a measure of how quickly an organism can respond to a particular stimulus. Reaction time has been widely studied, as its practical implications may be of great consequence, e.g. a slower than normal reaction time while driving can have grave results. Many factors have been shown to affect reaction times, including age, gender, physical fitness, fatigue, distraction,<br />alcohol, personality type, and whether the stimulus is auditory or visual. The model for information flow within an organism can be represented in this way:<br />Stimulus 􀃆 Receptor 􀃆 Integrator 􀃆 Effector 􀃆 Response<br /> More specifically, in vertebrates, information flow can be represented in this way:<br />Stimulus 􀃆 Sensory Neuron 􀃆 Spinal Cord or Brain 􀃆 Motor Neuron 􀃆 Response<br /> Sensory neurons convert a stimulus into an electro-chemical signal, which flows the length of the sensory neuron(s), then through a neuron or neurons of the central nervous system, and then through the length of the motor neuron(s). Generally, motor neurons will cause a muscle to contract or a gland to secrete a substance. Reactions that involve only the receptor, the spinal cord, and the effector, are faster than those which involve processing in the brain. Reactions which only travel to, through, and from the spinal cord are often called spinal reflexes or cordmediated<br />reflexes; withdrawing one’s hand from a hot stove is an example of such a reflex(1).<br />The subject uses her forefinger as a trace for the direction of arrow to easily speak off those vernacular directions while in the verbal response, she speak off vernacular directions followed by tracing.<br />In relation to the experiment, the first theoretical postulate of Clark Leonard Hull is applied(2). It is termed as “Sensing the External Environment and the Stimulus Trace” which states that external stimulation triggers an afferent (sensory) neural impulse that outlasts the environmental stimulation. Because this afferent neural impulse becomes associated with a response were he change the traditional S-R formula to S-s-r-R where S is the external stimuli; s is the stimulus trace; r is the firing motor response and R is the overt response.<br />References:<br /><ul><li>http://www.radford.edu/~jkell/Reaction%20Times.pdf
  6. 6. An Introduction to theories of learning / B.R. Hergenhahn, Matthew H. Olson. - 5th ed. - Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, c1997. - x, 502 p. : ill. ; 25 cm. pp.492-498

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