ENGL2-Field Research
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  • 1. CHAPTER 1<br />The Problem and It’s Background<br />Introduction<br />Music is an art form whose medium is sound1. Common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The word derives from Greek μουσική (mousike), " (art) of the Muses" . The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance), through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be divided into genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within " the arts" , music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and auditory art.<br />Rock music is a genre of popular music that entered the mainstream in the 1950s. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, rhythm and blues, country music and also drew on folk music, jazz and classical music. The sound of rock often revolves around the electric guitar, a back beat laid down by a rhythm section of electric bass guitar, drums, and keyboard instruments such as Hammond organ, piano, or, since the 1970s, synthesizers. Along with the guitar or keyboards, saxophone and blues-style harmonica are sometimes used as soloing instruments. In its " purest form" , it " has three chords, a strong, insistent back beat, and a catchy melody." Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated to R&B, is a genre of popular African American music that originated in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when " urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. Hip hop is a musical genre which developed alongside Hip Hop culture, defined by key stylistic elements such as rapping, DJing, sampling, scratching and beat boxing. Hip hop began in the South Bronx in the 1970s. The term rap is often used synonymously with hip hop, but hip hop denotes the practices of an entire subculture. Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative) is a genre of rock music that emerged in the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s. Alternative rock consists of various subgenres that have emerged from the independent music scene since the 1980s, such as grunge, Britpop, gothic rock, and indie pop. These genres are unified by their collective debt to the style and/or ethos of punk rock, which laid the groundwork for alternative music in the 1970s. At times alternative rock has been used as a catch-all phrase for rock music from underground artists in the 1980s, and all music descended from punk rock (including punk itself, New Wave, and post-punk). <br />According to the study from University of Leicester comparing people’s musical tastes to their lifestyle " , it was found out that fans of musicals have longest-lasting relationships; people who are fond of listening or watching operas have most likely to have a Doctoral Degree; blues are biggest smokers; dances take the most holidays; indie are most environmentally conscious, hip-hop are most likely arrested while 70 % of disco fans are retirees. Therefore, music reflects the personality of an individual. Although this study cannot be directly bear to the personality of an individual, Milton3 noted that even though experiences and personality of an individual is different, music are common for each of them. He defined that appreciation of music as the acquired ability to listen to music intelligently. Even though people have different aptitudes in their musical perceptiveness, no one is born with this ability, it is acquired. He also explicated that the greatest enjoyment from music must have some understanding of it, and no matter how sublime an experience a musical performance proves to be for you, any additional understanding which can bring pleasure to music will enhance one’s ultimate pleasure. There are four types of listening that can be distinguished in musical experience and these are passive listening, emotional listening, sensuous listening, and perceptive listening. Passive Listening is a situation not intended to claim full attention of the listener such as background music for a fine dining in a restaurant or a marching band on the football field. Sensuous Listening is where the listener obtains pleasure from an awareness of the sheer beauty of the sound such as the clear tones of a flute or distant bells, the sonority of a cathedral organ or a large choir, and the richness of a symphony orchestra. Emotional Listening is where the listener is concerned mainly with his own reactions to the music with the emotions and moods which the music arouses. It is concerned mainly in attitude towards music but does not require concentration or training while perceptive listening requires concentration on the music itself and a sharp awareness of what is going on musicality. Music appreciation in this sense means heard and thereby having an objective basis for experiencing musical art. Therefore, perceptive listening requires most effort among this attitudes and it is the attitude by which your own capacity to appreciate music in the fullest sense of the word grows through experience.<br />Music with violent lyrics has significant effects on aggressive thoughts but not an aggressive feelings (Mahinay, 2005)4. Females were consistently affected by the lyrics that make both aggressive thoughts and feelings. He was recommended that educational systems must be aware of the possible effects lyrical content of music on their students. It is very evident that young people spend many hours listening to music. The educational system should strongly implement a policy of forbidding the use of any heavy metal music such as rap and rock in any part of the campus. Home deans should be vigilant to the kinds of music young people listen to because the study has proven the harmful effects of rap music on thoughts. He was also recommended that parents active guidance to a growing child is necessary. During teenage years, children begin finding their identity and one of the most important source of their models are from mass media. Teenagers, having unstable emotions are vulnerable to the lyrical contents and theme of the songs they mostly listen to. Based on his study, teenagers should be discouraged to songs that suggest aggression. Adolescents should understand how music insidiously affects teenagers’ values, moral reasoning, and the kind of life they choose. His study should instill in those young minds to be selective with the kind of music they listen to.<br />Therefore, this study intends to determine the different genres of music as perceived by the students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines during the summer period of 2010. This study is conducted to determine the current trends of music among teenagers.<br />Statement of the Problem<br />The purpose of this study was to determine the different genres of music as perceived among students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines during the summer of 2010. This study sought specific answers to the following sub problems:<br />1. What is the respondent’s favorite type of music?<br />2. What kind of music did they like to prefer in terms of their nationality?<br />3. How did they listen to your music?<br />4. Did they ever been to a concert?<br />5. Did they go through phases while listening to music?<br />6. Did they play an instrument?<br />7. If they play an instrument, is it because they like music with the instrument in it?<br />8. Did their music style reflect on what they have worn?<br />9. How many hours did they listen to music a day?<br />10. When do they listen to music?<br />Scope and Limitations<br />This investigation was conducted to determine the different genres of music as perceived among students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines during the summer period of 2010. The aspects looked are the respondents favorite type of music, preferred nationality of music, the way they listen to music; if they ever been into a concert; if they go through phases while listening to music; if they play an instrument; if they like music because of instrument; if their music style reflect on what they have worn, the duration of listening to music in a day, and reason of listening to music. <br />No attempt was made to compare the respondent’s preferred music to their behavior, attitude, and way of life. Because of limited time, 20 respondents are gathered to participate in the study.<br />Definition of Terms:<br />The following operational/conceptual definitions of terms are involved to enhance the understanding of readers to this study:<br />Aleatoric - characterized by chance or indeterminate elements. <br />Perceive - to attain awareness or understanding of ; to regard as being such or to become aware of through the senses.<br />Opera – plural form for opus ;  a musical composition or set of compositions usually numbered in the order of its issue<br />Indie - one that is independent; especially : an unaffiliated record or motion-picture production company ; something (as a record or film) produced by an indie<br />Genre - a category of artistic, musical, or literary composition characterized by a particular style, form, or content.<br />Aggressive - marked by obtrusive energy; marked by driving forceful energy or initiative.<br />Thoughts – past participle of think;  to form or have in the mind.<br />Research Methodology<br />Research Design – The descriptive method, particularly the survey was used in this study. Descriptive method of research is a fact-finding study with adequate and accurate interpretation of the findings. It describes with emphasis that actually exist such as current conditions, practices, or any phenomena. Since the present study was concerned in the perceived different genres of music among PUP students, the descriptive method of research was the most appropriate to use.<br />Respondents – The target population consisted of 20 students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines. The target population was considered quite small due to a limited time given, the researcher opted to involve all 20 students in the research as respondents.<br />Research Instrument – The research instrument used was a survey questionnaire/ checklist consists of prepared questions devised to gather the necessary data. The questionnaire was a multiple choice type that is only one answer is chosen from those given as options and mixed with dichotomous types which there are options and one is selected. A copy of the questionnaire is presented below.<br />Name:Sex:<br />Course:<br />General Directions: Please accomplish the questionnaire by placing a (√) check mark before each choice. Choose only one for each item and return it and as soon as possible.<br />1. What is your favorite type of music?<br />___ Rock___ Alternative___Dance<br />___ RnB___ Hiphop___Classical<br />___Instrumental___Techno/ Electro<br />2. What kind of music did you like to prefer in terms of their nationality?<br />___Local___International<br />3. How do you listen to your music?<br />___Ipod/mp3___CD Player___Boombox<br />___ On the radio___Record Player___I don’t listen to music<br />4. Have you ever been to a concert?<br />____ Yes____No<br />5. Do you go through phases while listening to music?<br /> ____Yes____No____I don’t know what they are talking about____I just listen to things randomly<br />6. Do you play an instrument?<br />_____Yes_____No<br />7. If you play an instrument, is it because you like music with your instrument in it?<br />_____Yes_____No<br />8. Does your music style reflect on what you wear?<br />_____Yes_____No<br />9. How many hours do you listen to music a day?<br />_____0-1_____2-3______4-5_____6+_____All the time<br />10. When do you listen to music?<br />_____Whenever______In certain moods________Doing sports<br />_____Just chilling______With friends________Playing an instrument<br />_____In class______On the bus________While walking<br />_____Never<br />Data Gathering Procedure – The data were drawn from 20 students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines through the use of questionnaire/ checklist. Since this study was a group research, the distribution of questionnaire is equally shared to have a participation and quick retrieval of finished questionnaire.<br />Statistical Treatment – After retrieving the accomplished copies of the questionnaire, the researchers recorded the individual’s response in a questionnaire. Then, the data was transferred to tally sheet for statistical treatment and interpretation.<br />Statistical Formula – The researcher made use of the percentage to find the statistical significance of the data gathered for sub-problems 1 – 10. The formula is:<br />P = fN x 100where; p = percentage, f= frequency, N = no. of respondents<br />CHAPTER 2<br />Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data Gathered<br />This chapter presents the data gathered regarding the perceived different genres of music and current trends and proceeds to the analysis and interpretation of said data.<br />Sub-problem 1: What is the respondent’s favorite type of music?<br />TABLE 1<br />Respondent’s Favorite Type of Music<br />Favorite Type of MusicMale(n=10)%Female(n=10)%Total(n=20)%RankfFRock220%110%315%2RnB330%220%525%1Instrumental110%0015%3Alternative00330%315%2Hip-Hop330%00315%2Techno/Electro00110%15%3Dance00330%315%2Classical110%0015%3<br />Among the male respondents, RnB and Hip-hop both got 3 or 30% as their favorite music which was followed by rock music with 2 or 20%. Instrumental and classical music got 1 or 10% but alternative, techno, and dance music was not preferred as their favorite type of music. Among the female respondents, alternative and dance music was tied with 3 or 30% which was followed by RnB with 2 or 20%; rock and techno music with 1 or 10%, while instrumental, hip-hop, and classical are not favored as their type of music. As the whole, 50% favored RnB as their favorite type music; rock, alternative, hip-hop, and dance with both 30%; and instrumental, techno, and classical are the least of all with 10%.<br />Sub-problem 2: What kind of music did they prefer in terms of their nationality?<br />TABLE 2<br />Respondent’s Preferred Type of Music in terms of Nationality<br />Kind of Music in terms of NationalityMale(n=10)%Female(n=10)%Total(n=20)%RankfFLocal00330%315%2International10100%770%1785%1<br />Among the male respondents, no one was involve in preferring local music while international music got 10 or 100% which was occupied almost all. Among female respondents, preferred international music with 7 or 70% while local music got 3 or 30%. As a whole, 85% preferred international music while local music got 15%.<br />‘<br />Sub-problem 3: How they are listening to their music?<br />TABLE 3<br />Respondent’s Way of Listening to Music<br />Way of Listening to MusicMale(n=10)%Female(n=10)%Total(n=20)%RankfFIpod/MP3440%770%1155%1Radio220%220%420%2CD Player330%110%420%2Record Player110%0015%3Boombox0000000Not Listening 0000000<br />Among the male respondents, listening to music using Ipod/mP3 got 4 or 40% which was followed by CD player with 3 or 30%; listening of music to the radio got 2 or 20% while record player got 1 or 10%. No one was involved in choosing boombox including female respondents. Among the female respondents, listening to music using Ipod/mp3 got 7 or 70% which was followed by radio with 2 or 20% while CD player with 1 or 30%. As a whole, 55% are listening to music using Ipod/mp3 while was followed by radio and CD player both got 20%; and record player with 5%.<br />Sub-problem 4: Did the respondents are engaged into a concert?<br />TABLE 4<br />Respondent’s Engagement into a Concert<br />Engage into a ConcertMale(n=10)%Female(n=10)%Total(n=20)%RankfFYes440%660%1050%1No660%440%1050%1<br />Among the male respondents, 4 or 40% are engage into a concert while 6 or 60% did not watch a concert throughout their life. Among the female respondents, 6 or 60% are engaged into a concert while 4 or 40% did not watch a concert. As a whole, both respondents got 50% and shared the same rank.<br />Sub-problem 5: Did they go through phases while listening to music?<br />TABLE 5<br />Respondents’ Understanding in Listening to Music<br />ListenersUnderstanding to MusicMale(n=10)%Female(n=10)%Total(n=20)%RankfFYes660%880%1470%1No110%220%315%2Don’t know what they are talking about0000003Listen to things randomly330%00315%2<br />Among the male respondents, 6 or 60% saids that they go through phases while listening to music which was followed by listening to things randomly with 3 or 30%. Only 1 or 10% are not understanding to contents of music but no one was involve that they are not listening to the music. Among the female respondents, 8 or 80% are go through phases of music they are listening, while 2 or 20% does not go through phases of music and the remaining are not involve in choosing it. As the whole, 70% go through phases of music while those who does not listening to the phases of music and listening to things randomly with 3 or 15%. <br />Sub-problem 6: Did they play an instrument?<br />TABLE 6<br />Response in Playing an Instrument<br />Playing an InstrumentMale(n=10)%Female(n=10)%Total(n=20)%RankfFYes550%330%840%2No550%770%1260%1<br />Among the male respondents, both choices got 5 or 50% if they are playing an instrument. Among female respondents, 7 or 70% saids that they are not playing an instrument and 3 or 30% are only playing. As the whole, 60% are not playing instrument while 40% are playing an instrument.<br />Sub-problem 7: If they play an instrument, is it because they like music with their instrument in it?<br />TABLE 7<br />Respondent’s Reaction if they are playing with an Instrument <br />Playing with an InstrumentMale(n=10)%Female(n=10)%Total(n=20)%RankfFYes330%330%630%2No770%770%1470%1<br />Among the male respondents, 7 or 70% did not play an instrument because they like it while the remaining 3 or 30% are playing an instrument with their music. Among the female respondents, 7 or 70% did not play an instrument with their music while 3 or 30% likes instrument with their music. As the whole, 70% did not play an instrument even though they like their music while 30% responded that they like music with an instrument.<br />Sub-problem 8: Did the music reflects on what they have wear?<br />TABLE 8<br />Respondent’s Reaction if their Music reflects on what they have wear<br />ResponseMale(n=10)%Female(n=10)%Total(n=20)%RankfFYes660%330%945%2No440%770%1155%1<br />Among the male respondents, 6 or 60% reflects music to their wearing while 4 or 40% does not reflect music on their wear. Among the female respondents, 7 or 70% does not reflect music on what they are wearing while 3 or 30% reflects music on that they are wearing. As the whole, 55% does not reflect music on what they are wearing while 45% reflects music.<br />Sub-problem 9: How does they are listen to a music a day?<br />TABLE 9<br />Respondent’s Duration in Listening to Music<br />DurationMale(n=10)%Female(n=10)%Total(n=20)%RankfF0-1220%440%630%22-3550%220%735%14-5330%330%630%26+0000004All00110%05%3<br />Among the male respondents, 5 or 50% that they have listening to music for 2-3 hours followed by 4-5 hours with 3 or 30% while 2 or 20% for 0-1 hour. 6 hours onwards of listening to music are not involve. Among the female respondents, 4 or 40% are listening to music for 0-1 hour followed by 4-5 hours with 3 or 30%; 2 or 20% for 2-3 hours while 1 or 10% for listening to music for the whole day. As the whole, 35% of those listening to music for 2-3 hours; 0-1 and 4-5 hours shared the same rank with 30% while 5% to the whole day.<br />Sub-problem 10: When did they listen to music?<br />TABLE 10<br />Respondent’s Reason in Listening to Music<br />ReasonMale(n=10)%Female(n=10)%Total(n=20)%RankfFWhenever00110%15%4Doing Sports220%110%315%2With Friends110%220%315%2In class00110%15%4While walking110%220%315%2Never0000005Certain Moods00220%210%3Just chilling440%00420%1With an instrument220%00210%3On the bus00110%15%4<br />Among the male respondents, 4 or 40% that they listening to music for chilling, followed by doing sports and playing an instrument both got 2 or 20% while 1 or 10% to those who listen with friends and while walking. Among the female respondents, listening to music with friends, while walking, and for certain moods shared the same rank with 2 or 20% while 1 or 10% for those who listening to music whenever they want, doing sports, on the class, or on the bus. As a whole, 20% of them are listening to music for chilling; 15% in doing sports, with friends, and while walking; 10% for certain moods and while playing instrument; and 5% that they listening to music whenever it is needed, while in class, and inside the bus.<br />CHAPTER 3<br />Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations<br />The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived different genres of music among students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines during the summer period of 2010. Using the descriptive method, particularly the survey, the researchers gathered data from 20 students of P.U.P. The data were quantified using percentage.<br />Summary of Findings<br />Sub-problem 1: What is the respondent’s favorite type of music?<br />
    • 50% favored RnB music
    • 2. 30% likes rock, alternative, hip-hop, and dance music
    • 3. 10% favored instrumental, techno, and classical music
    Sub-problem 2: What kind of music did they prefer in terms of their nationality?<br />85% preferred international music<br />15% choose local music<br />Sub-problem 3: How they are listening to their music?<br />55% listened to music with Ipod/mp3<br />20% radio and CD player preferred<br />5% likes record player<br />Sub-problem 4: Did the respondents are engaged into a concert?<br />60% engaged into a concert<br />40% are not yet watched a concert<br />Sub-problem 5: Did they go through phases while listening to music?<br />70% go through phases of music<br />15% do not understand the content if music and randomly listen to thing<br />Sub-problem 6: Did they play an instrument?<br />60% are not playing an instrument<br />40% are playing an instrument<br />Sub-problem 7: If they play an instrument, is it because they like music with their instrument in it?<br />70% did not play an instrument even though they like their music<br />30% play an instrument because they like their music<br />Sub-problem 8: Did the music reflect on what they have worn?<br />55% does not reflect music on what they have wear<br />45% reflect music on what they have wear<br />Sub-problem 9: How does they are listen to a music a day?<br />35% are listened to music for 2-3 hours<br />0-1 and 4-5 hours listened for music with 30%<br />5% listened to music for a whole day<br />Sub-problem 10: When did they listen to music?<br />
    • 20% are listened to music for chilling
    • 4. 15% in doing sports, together with friends, and while walking
    • 5. 10% for certain moods and playing an instrument
    • 6. 5% listened to music whenever it is needed, while in class, and inside the bus
    Conclusions<br />Based on the findings, the researcher arrived at these conclusions:<br />
    • Favorite music of the respondents – Majority of the respondents are in favor of listening to RnB music.
    • 7. Kind of music in terms of nationality – The respondents are preferred in listening to international music rather than local music.
    • 8. The respondent’s way of listening – Through the use of Ipod/mp3 are more useful than the others because the songs can be downloaded.
    • 9. Engagement into a concert – Some of the respondents are already watched a concert despite of financial insufficiency.
    • 10. Understanding of music – The respondents are go into phases of music they have heard because the message that can be applied into everyday life.
    • 11. Playing an Instrument – Some of the respondents are not playing an instrument but rather they want to listen.
    • 12. Likeness of music with an Instrument – The respondents are like their type of music but they don’t like instrument with it. Instead, they only want to listen and grasp some lessons which can be use in guiding their life.
    • 13. Reflection of music to lifestyle – Majority of the respondents don’t reflect music on what they have wearing. The important is they have shirts to be wear but not excluding their music. Because music is not expensive. It is common for all of us.
    • 14. Duration of music – Respondents only listen for 2-3 hours a day. Too much exhaustion into earphone and audio devices can deteriorate sense of hearing.
    • 15. Reason of listening to music – Some of the respondents listened to music for chilling. That is, they want to calm their mind, heart, and body for a short period of time.
    Recommendations<br />Based on the conclusions, the researchers endorse some ways to make the students in choosing their kind of music and suggestions to be improve for the study.<br />
    • Students should be aware of what music they are listening because it may influence their attitudes, feelings, and thoughts. It was suggested that a comprehensive educational program to be develop to prohibit music that suggest aggression and bad acts.
    • 16. Filipino song composers and producers should decrease their reviving of songs from foreign countries because it was found out that students prefer the songs from other country. It was suggest that a music which is originally composed from our country should be prioritized to give value by the Filipino citizens.
    • 17. Students should lessen listening to music for a long period of time that might damage the sense of hearing which is very important in giving balance to body coordination.
    • 18. Work Cited
    • 19. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music
    • 20. “In Tune With Your Personality”. The Readers Digest. January 2007: 15
    • 21. Miller, Hugh. Introduction to Music: A Guide to Good Listening. Manila: National Bookstore, 1971; p. 1,2-5.
    • 22. Mahinay, Kitt S. The Effect of Music with Violent Lyrics on Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings. Graduate School of Adventist University of the Philippines. March 2005: p. 85.
    Different Genres of Music as Perceived by the Students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines during Summer 2010<br />A Field Research<br />Presented To<br />English 2 – Writing in the Discipline<br />Polytechnic University of the Philippines<br />Sta. Mesa, Manila<br />By:<br />Perez, Raphael Ray L.<br />Quiñonez, Cielo P.<br />Nicdao, Ann O.<br />Cartativo, Jaypei M.<br />Gochangco, Jenghis A.<br />May 2010<br />