Polytechnic University of the Philippines<br />College of Arts<br />Department of Psychology<br />PY 303 – Counseling Theo...
Caring detachment
Trustworthiness
Warmth
Hope </li></ul>Answer: C. Warmth<br />Your word and body language should communicate a welcome to clients and an invitatio...
Attractiveness
Attentiveness
Genuineness
Effectiveness</li></ul>Answer: C. Genuineness <br />Genuineness is most easily seen through a convergence – or match – bet...
Seeking information
Supporting
Telling
Caring detachment</li></ul>Answer: C. Telling<br />Telling is really a combination of interpretation and evaluation. Some ...
Evaluative comments
Snap judgment
Discriminative comments
Unsolicited advice</li></ul>Answer: A. Evaluative Comments <br />Evaluative comments may direct the other person in a diff...
Telling
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Transcript of "D1 and d2 (test manuals)"

  1. 1. Polytechnic University of the Philippines<br />College of Arts<br />Department of Psychology<br />PY 303 – Counseling Theories and Techniques<br />Dr. Roxel A. Apruebo, R.L.G.C., C.C.L.P.<br />TEST MANUAL <br />CONTENT, PROCESS AND PRACTICE OF COUNSELING:<br />Core Elements in Facilitating Counseling<br />Counseling Methods and Techniques<br />Group Counseling<br />Counseling in Special Areas and Population<br />GROUP D1 & D2 <br />Peñaflor, Iris O.<br />Corazo, Ma. Claudine D. <br />Cape, Julie Carla C. <br />Dela Cruz, Christianne C.<br />BSCP 3-3S/Tu&Fr/3:00-4:30 p.m./W614<br />ANSWER KEY:<br /><ul><li>It is an internal condition in counseling wherein clients are encouraged to work hard on their problem and consider perspectives that are not easy for them.
  2. 2. Caring detachment
  3. 3. Trustworthiness
  4. 4. Warmth
  5. 5. Hope </li></ul>Answer: C. Warmth<br />Your word and body language should communicate a welcome to clients and an invitation to talk with you. Warmth can continue to be expressed even when you encourage clients to work hard on their problem and consider perspectives that are not easy for them. <br />Reference: Jennie Lindon and Lance Lindon, Mastering Counselling Skills, 2nd Ed., 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan, Copyright 2008, p.132<br /><ul><li>It is most easily seen through a convergence – or match – between what you say and do as a helper.
  6. 6. Attractiveness
  7. 7. Attentiveness
  8. 8. Genuineness
  9. 9. Effectiveness</li></ul>Answer: C. Genuineness <br />Genuineness is most easily seen through a convergence – or match – between what you say and do as a helper. Sometimes called being authentic with clients, is not possible if counselling skills are diverted to an unspoken objective of the helper. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 133<br /><ul><li>This is an approach that is not usually helpful. It is known as a combination of interpretation and evaluation.
  10. 10. Seeking information
  11. 11. Supporting
  12. 12. Telling
  13. 13. Caring detachment</li></ul>Answer: C. Telling<br />Telling is really a combination of interpretation and evaluation. Some people feel a great pressure to offer solutions to problems. It can feel very satisfying to hand out quick advice, but this approach is not usually helpful.<br />Reference: Ibid. p.136<br /><ul><li>Which of these kinds of comments may direct the client in a different direction?
  14. 14. Evaluative comments
  15. 15. Snap judgment
  16. 16. Discriminative comments
  17. 17. Unsolicited advice</li></ul>Answer: A. Evaluative Comments <br />Evaluative comments may direct the other person in a different direction. You will have opinions about people to whom you offer help, but evaluative comments are rarely, if ever, helpful. Such comments usually come across as if you are playing the expert and the moral authority. The other person may well feel that you are reprimanding them and being patronizing.<br />Reference: Jennie Lindon and Lance Lindon, Mastering Counselling Skills, 2nd Ed., 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan, Copyright 2008, p. 136 <br /><ul><li>This is the initial approach of experienced helpers regarding what the client is saying.
  18. 18. Telling
  19. 19. Understanding
  20. 20. Sympathizing
  21. 21. Interpreting</li></ul>Answer: B. Understanding<br />The initial approach of experienced helpers is most often to attempt to understand what the other person is saying and to show that they are working to grasp that perspective. Until people have experienced ideas and practice in counseling skills, this approach is less common than the others being described. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 138 <br /><ul><li>It is known as the counselor’s ability “to enter the client’s phenomenal world”.
  22. 22. Primary empathy
  23. 23. Personal constructs
  24. 24. Empathy
  25. 25. Communicative attunement</li></ul>Answer: C. Empathy<br />Rogers defined empathy as the counselor’s ability “to enter the client’s phenomenal world- to experience the client’s world as if it were your own without ever losing the ‘as if’ quality. <br />Reference: Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel and Lewis E. Patterson, The Counseling Process: A Multi-Theoretical Integrative Approach, 6th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, U.S.A.: Thomson Brooks/Cole, Copyright 2005, p. 52 <br /><ul><li>These are defined as unique set of thoughts a person uses to process information, order one’s world and make decisions.
  26. 26. Interpretations
  27. 27. Personal Constructs
  28. 28. Positive regard
  29. 29. Understanding</li></ul>Answer: B. Personal Constructs<br />George Kelley described the perceptual element of empathy as understanding the client’s constructs. He defined personal constructs as the unique set of thoughts a person uses to process information, give meaning to life events, order one’s world, explain cause-and-effect relationships and make decisions. <br />Reference: Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel and Lewis E. Patterson, The Counseling Process: A Multi-Theoretical Integrative Approach, 6th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, U.S.A.: Thomson Brooks/Cole, Copyright 2005, p. 53 <br /><ul><li>It is communicated through additive verbal responses wherein the counselor adds perceptions that the client implied but did not state directly.
  30. 30. Empathic rapport
  31. 31. Communication component of empathy
  32. 32. Perceiving
  33. 33. Advanced empathy</li></ul>Answer: D. Advanced Empathy<br />Advanced Empathy is communicated through additive verbal responses wherein the counselor adds perceptions that the client implied but did not state directly. The ability to hear these implied meanings grows with experience and with the quality of the counselor’s diagnostic thinking. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 54 <br /><ul><li>It is most often communicated through inter-changeable verbal and other verbal responses.
  34. 34. Issues
  35. 35. Themes
  36. 36. Empathic understanding
  37. 37. Primary empathy </li></ul>Answer: D. Primary Empathy<br />Primary empathy is the most often communicated through an inter-changeable verbal (though facial expressions and other verbal responses can also be used). It captures both the feeling and the meaning of the client’s previous disclosure in simple language that the client can understand.<br />Reference: Ibid. p. 54<br /><ul><li>This means caring for the client for no other reason than the fact that he or she is human and therefore worthy of care.
  38. 38. Unconditional Caring
  39. 39. Sensitivity
  40. 40. Respect
  41. 41. Positive Regard</li></ul>Answer: D. Positive Regard<br />Positive Regard is caring for the client for no other reason than the fact that he or she is human and therefore worthy of care. Positive regard is expressed by the enthusiasm one person shows for being in the presence of another and by the amount of time and energy one is willing to devote to another’s well-being. <br />Reference: Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel and Lewis E. Patterson, The Counseling Process: A Multi-Theoretical Integrative Approach, 6th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, U.S.A.: Thomson Brooks/Cole, Copyright 2005, p. 57<br /><ul><li>In this condition, the counselor promptly seeks specifics rather than vague generalities.
  42. 42. Concreteness
  43. 43. Expertise
  44. 44. Cultural Sensitivity
  45. 45. Internal Dialogue</li></ul>Answer: A. Concreteness<br />As Ivey and Ivey stated, “a concrete counselor promptly seeks specifics rather than vague generalities. As interviewers, we are most often interested in specific feelings, specific thoughts and specific examples of actions”. <br />Reference: Ibid. p.64 <br /><ul><li>A process of gathering information to identify and specify the problem or set of problem the client brings to counseling.
  46. 46. Assessment
  47. 47. Diagnosis
  48. 48. Treatment
  49. 49. None of the above.</li></ul>Answer: A. Assessment<br />Assessment is a process of gathering information to identify and specify the problem (or set of problems the client brings to counseling and then deciding whether counseling is an appropriate intervention for resolving it. It involves a joint process of organizing information gathered and testing hypotheses about the nature of problems the client is experiencing.<br />Reference: Ibid. p. 117<br /><ul><li>It is a term that refers to the identification of a disease or dysfunction that is compromising a person’s health.
  50. 50. Bilateral Activity
  51. 51. Diagnosis
  52. 52. Psychological Survival
  53. 53. Self-Actualization</li></ul>Answer: B. Diagnosis<br />Diagnosis is a term borrowed from the medical lexicon, where it refers to the identification of a disease or dysfunction that is compromising a person’s health. Its use in the counseling literature has become commonplace, but real parallels to the medical definitions are limited. <br />Reference: Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel and Lewis E. Patterson, The Counseling Process: A Multi-Theoretical Integrative Approach, 5th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, USA: Thomson Brooks/Cole, Copyright 2000, p. 118<br /><ul><li>These act as ‘templates’ that indicate the client behaviors they consider most important.
  54. 54. Hypotheses
  55. 55. Assumptions
  56. 56. Theories
  57. 57. Information-gathering</li></ul>Answer: C. Theories<br />As Brammer, Shostrom, and Abrego suggest, “theories act as ‘templates’ that indicate the client behaviors they consider most important”. During the counseling process, counselors receive an overwhelming amount of information (both verbal and non-verbal) from the client.<br />Reference: Ibid. p. 121<br /><ul><li>It is known as first component of effective assessment.
  58. 58. Understanding of the boundaries of the problem
  59. 59. Pattern and Intensity of the problem
  60. 60. Assessment and Diagnosis in counseling
  61. 61. Theoretical Orientation </li></ul>Answer: A. Understanding of the boundaries of the problem<br />In the components of effective assessment, the first component is an understanding of the boundaries of the problem – that is, the scope and limits of the difficulty the client is experiencing. Attaining clarity about the scope of the problem involves understanding its boundaries in current functioning as well as its history and duaration. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 121<br /><ul><li>These are tools available to the counselor and the client that assists in understanding the presenting problems.
  62. 62. Standardized tests
  63. 63. Behavior rating measures
  64. 64. Observations of the client
  65. 65. All of the above</li></ul>Answer: D. All of the above<br />Counselors and clients have other tools available for them to assist in understanding the presenting problems. These include Standardized tests, Behavior rating measures, Observations of the client in their natural setting, input from significant others, and role-playing exercises. <br />Reference: Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel and Lewis E. Patterson, The Counseling Process: A Multi-Theoretical Integrative Approach, 5th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, U.S.A.: Thomson Brooks/Cole, Copyright 2000, p. 125<br /><ul><li>These are tests that compare the responses of the client to the responses of a norm group on a variety of dimensions of personality.
  66. 66. Personality tests
  67. 67. Mental Status Examination
  68. 68. Global Assessment of Functioning
  69. 69. None of the above</li></ul>Answer: A. Personality Tests<br />Personality Tests can be useful in situations in which the concerns are long-standing or relate to negative feeling about self of difficulties in interpersonal relationships. Such tests compare the responses of the client to the responses of a norm group on a variety of dimensions of personality. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 125 <br /><ul><li>These tests originated from the psychoanalytic tradition and assert that people project their unconscious difficulties onto their interpretation of ambiguous stimuli.
  70. 70. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
  71. 71. Myers-Briggs Type Inventory
  72. 72. All of the above
  73. 73. None of the above</li></ul>Answer: D. None of the above<br />Those with extensive, specialized training may find projective personality tests such as Thematic Apperception Tests or the Rorschach, helpful in exploring client feelings and attitudes not fully available in conscious thought. Projective Tests originated from the psychoanalytic tradition and assert that people project their unconscious difficulties onto their interpretation of ambiguous stimuli. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 125<br /><ul><li>It is an interview that involves a single meeting in which a counselor works with a client to gather information about the client.
  74. 74. Intake Interview
  75. 75. Exit Interview
  76. 76. Partial Interview
  77. 77. In-depth Exploration</li></ul>Answer: A. Intake Interview<br />The intake interview usually involves a single meeting in which a counselor works with a client to gather information about the client’s presenting problem, general life situation, history, and interpersonal functioning. <br />Reference: Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel and Lewis E. Patterson, The Counseling Process: A Multi-Theoretical Integrative Approach, 5th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, U.S.A.: Thomson Brooks/Cole, Copyright 2000, p. 129<br /><ul><li>This term is used to describe any statement by the counselor that lets the client know what to expect of the process and the outcomes of the counseling.
  78. 78. Organizing
  79. 79. Arranging
  80. 80. Structuring
  81. 81. Composing</li></ul>Answer: C. Structuring<br />Structuring describes any statement by the counselor that lets the client know what to expect of the process and outcomes of counseling. It may address “the nature, conditions, limits, and goals” of counseling. <br />Reference: Ibid. p.135<br /><ul><li>It gives the client the freedom to talk about personal material without fear.
  82. 82. Discussion
  83. 83. Confidentiality
  84. 84. Assurance
  85. 85. Initial Interview</li></ul>Answer: B. Confidentiality<br />Confidentiality frees the client to talk about personal material without the fear that what they say will be repeated to others who might use the information against them or think less well of them as a result. Discussing confidentiality early in the counseling process and any other time it is introduced by the client is therefore important.<br />Reference: Ibid. 136. <br /><ul><li>This is a select of response that anticipates the client’s readiness to benefit from a particular response.
  86. 86. Encouragement
  87. 87. Leading
  88. 88. Lecturing
  89. 89. Structuring</li></ul>Answer: B. Leading<br />Robinson coined the term leading to describe the counselor’s selection of a response that anticipates the client’s readiness to benefit from a particular kind of response. Responses that include elements of confrontation and interpretation may be valid but nevertheless destructive to the purposes of counseling if introduced before the client is ready to accept and integrate the information contained in them.<br />Reference: Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel and Lewis E. Patterson, The Counseling Process: A Multi-Theoretical Integrative Approach, 5th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, U.S.A.: Thomson Brooks/Cole, Copyright 2000, p. 138<br /><ul><li>This is a part of counseling wherein the counselor directs the client to talk more about the specific subject.
  90. 90. A. Minimal encourager
  91. 91. B. Encouragement
  92. 92. C. General leads
  93. 93. D. Clarification </li></ul>Answer: A. Minimal encourager<br />Minimal encourager - The counselor directs the client to talk more about a specific subject with a statement such as “tell me what you mean” or “please say something more about that.” The client is expected to follow the counselor’s suggestion.<br />Reference: Ibid. p. 140<br /><ul><li>This is a continuum of lead where the counselor simply acknowledges the client’s previous statement with a response such as “yes”.
  94. 94. Acceptance
  95. 95. Organizing Lead
  96. 96. Reassurance
  97. 97. Affirmation</li></ul>Answer: A. Acceptance<br />Acceptance – The counselor simply acknowledges the client’s previous statement with a response such as “yes” or “uh-huh”. The client is verbally encouraged to continue but without content stimulus from the counselor. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 141<br /><ul><li>A part in counseling where the counselor uses psycho-diagnostic principles to suggest sources of the client’s stress or explanations for the client’s motivation or behavior.
  98. 98. Confrontation
  99. 99. Affirmation
  100. 100. Restatement
  101. 101. Interpretation</li></ul>Answer: D. Interpretation<br />Interpretation – The counselor uses psycho-diagnostic principles to suggest sources of the client’s stress or explanations for the client’s motivation or behavior. The counselor’s statements are presented as hypotheses, and the client is presented with potentially new ways of seeing self.<br />Reference: Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel and Lewis E. Patterson, The Counseling Process: A Multi-Theoretical Integrative Approach, 5th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, U.S.A.: Thomson Brooks/Cole, Copyright 2000, p. 141<br /><ul><li>This is known as the client’s disinclination to participate in counseling.
  102. 102. Hesitance
  103. 103. Reluctance
  104. 104. Deviance
  105. 105. Resistance</li></ul>Answer: B. Reluctance<br />Reluctance is simply a disinclination to participate in counseling. Reluctant clients are aware for being reluctant, though they may not have focused on or articulated those reasons. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 149 <br /><ul><li>Which of the following beliefs can often contribute to client’s reluctance?
  106. 106. only crazy people need counselors
  107. 107. one doesn’t need help and/or ought to be able to “stand alone”
  108. 108. one will lose autonomy over life issues and that the counselor will take over control
  109. 109. All of the above</li></ul>Answer: D. All of the above<br />Each of the following can contribute to reluctance: <br /><ul><li>Embarrassment and wish for privacy
  110. 110. Unfamiliarity with counseling
  111. 111. Lack of faith that talking can help
  112. 112. Belief that one doesn’t need help and/or ought to be able to “stand alone”
  113. 113. Fear that one will lose autonomy over life issues and that the counselor will take control
  114. 114. Belief that only crazy people need counselors
  115. 115. Discomfort with the setting
  116. 116. Discomfort with the personal characteristics of the assigned counselor
  117. 117. Concern about fees and expenses of counseling</li></ul>Reference: Ibid. p. 150 - 151<br /><ul><li>It is an unconscious process whose purpose is to protect the client from having to explore and claim feelings and motivations that roots in his or her past.
  118. 118. Sense of futility
  119. 119. Self-defeating Response
  120. 120. Defiance
  121. 121. Resistance</li></ul>Answer: D. Resistance<br />Resistance is an unconscious process whose purpose is to protect the client from having to explore and claim feelings and motivations that roots in his or her past. “Resistance includes everything in the words and behaviors of the clients that prevent access to unconscious material” and thus resistance opposes the purpose of counseling.<br />Reference: Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel and Lewis E. Patterson, The Counseling Process: A Multi-Theoretical Integrative Approach, 5th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, U.S.A.: Thomson Brooks/Cole, Copyright 2000, p. 151<br /><ul><li>It is an important manifestation of resistance underlying the behavior of ambivalent, indifferent and especially oppositional clients.
  122. 122. Unwillingness
  123. 123. Frustration
  124. 124. Transference
  125. 125. Hostility</li></ul>Answer: C. Transference<br />It is an important manifestation of resistance underlying the behavior of ambivalent, indifferent and especially oppositional clients is transference. Transference is the “repetition of past relationships with significant others such that these earlier feelings, behaviors, and attitudes are ‘transferred’ or projected onto the therapist or others outside the therapeutic setting.<br />Reference: Ibid. p. 151<br /><ul><li>This type of client outcome measurement is generally used a screening instrument to identify which specific individuals have or will develop target condition.
  126. 126. Predictive measure
  127. 127. Discriminative measure
  128. 128. Evaluative measure
  129. 129. Psychological measure</li></ul>Answer: A. Predictive measure<br />A predictive measure classifies individuals into categories when a gold standard is available, either concurrently or prospectively to determine whether individuals have been classified correctly. This type of client outcome measurement is generally used a screening instrument to identify which specific individuals have or will develop target condition.<br />Reference: Stephen D. Brown and Robert W. Lent, Handbook of Counseling Psychology, 4th Ed., 111 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Copyright 2008, p. 233 <br /><ul><li>It is central to evaluating the effects of counseling and psychotherapy and improving therapeutic services.
  130. 130. Alter treatment strategies
  131. 131. Measurement of client outcome
  132. 132. Determine client’s appropriateness for a type of treatment
  133. 133. Provide recommendation to improve client health care</li></ul>Answer: B. Measurement of client outcome<br />The measurement of client outcome is central to evaluating the effects of counseling and psychotherapy and to improving therapeutic services (Kendall, Holmbeck, & Verduin, 2004).<br />Reference: Stephen D. Brown and Robert W. Lent, Handbook of Counseling Psychology, 4th Ed., 111 River Street, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Copyright 2008, p. 233 <br /><ul><li>This is an appropriate way of selecting methods and measures of client outcome.
  134. 134. Constant adjustment of counseling and psychotherapy procedures
  135. 135. Client must always show progress throughout the counseling process
  136. 136. Psychometric strengths and availability of norms
  137. 137. All of the above</li></ul>Answer: C. Psychometric strengths and availability of norms<br />Lambert et. al. suggested that the following criteria consistently emerge as an appropriate means of selecting methods and measures of outcome: Relevance to target group, Simple, teachable methods; Use of measures with objective referents; Psychometric strengths and availability of norms; Low measure cost relative to use; Understanding by nonprofessional audiences, easy feedback, uncomplicated interpretation; Useful in-clinical services<br />Reference: Ibid. p. 234 <br /><ul><li>Which of these types of group tends to be didactic and instructional rather than experiential and focused on feelings?
  138. 138. Human Potential Group
  139. 139. Training Group
  140. 140. Guidance Group
  141. 141. Encounter Group </li></ul>Answer: C. Guidance Group <br />In contrasts to the relatively unstructured format of many growth groups, guidance groups usually have a definite agenda. Furthermore, they tend to be didactic and instructional rather than experiential and focused on feelings. They often have planned, structured activities and fairly definite goals that are identified by the leader, who operates in an instructor/facilitator role. <br />Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler and Robert W. Brown, Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling: Voices from the Field, 4th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, USA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Copyright 2000, p. 221 <br /><ul><li>The techniques and strategies in this counseling approach are all designed to help resolve interpersonal conflict and help the individual to eliminate their self-defeating behaviors.
  142. 142. Group Counseling
  143. 143. Self-help Group
  144. 144. Guidance Group
  145. 145. Support Group </li></ul>Answer: A. Group Counseling<br />Group Counseling is the modality most appropriate for students using this text. The techniques and strategies are all designed to help resolve interpersonal conflict, promote greater self awareness and insight, and help individual members work to eliminate their self-defeating behaviors. Most often, the clientele have few manifestations of psychopathology: they simply wish to work on personal concerns in daily living. <br />Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler and Robert W. Brown, Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling: Voices from the Field, 4th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, USA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Copyright 2000, p. 222 <br /><ul><li>This is a form of group therapy that often takes place in hospital, medical, or clinic settings with patients who are diagnosed with severe psychological disorders.
  146. 146. Drug Therapy
  147. 147. Psychotherapy
  148. 148. Electro-convulsive Therapy
  149. 149. None of the above </li></ul>Answer: B. Psychotherapy<br />Psychotherapy in groups most often takes place in hospital, medical, or clinic settings with patients who are diagnosed as having some form of psychoneurosis, personality disorder, or psychosis. These severe disorders require longer treatment, intensive analysis, and structural personality changes. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 223 <br /><ul><li>This kind of group often does not have a professionally trained leader and, instead, use a more experienced member who has hopefully resolved the issues with which others are struggling.
  150. 150. Self-help Groups
  151. 151. Guidance Groups
  152. 152. Group Dynamics
  153. 153. Encounter Groups</li></ul>Answer: A. Self-Help Groups<br />Self-help groups often do not have a professionally trained leader and, instead, use a more experienced member who has hopefully resolved the issues with which others are struggling. The purpose of self-help groups is to provide emotional and social support, to develop new ideas about coping with a common issue, and to provide constructive direction for members. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 224 <br /><ul><li>It is a kind of group that is often developed and sponsored by professional organizations or professional individuals.
  154. 154. Self-help Groups
  155. 155. Support Groups
  156. 156. Guidance Groups
  157. 157. Growth Groups</li></ul>Answer: B. Support Group <br />Support Groups are often developed and sponsored by professional organizations or professional individuals, and they rely on the resources of the sponsoring organization/individual to a greater extent than self-help groups. Examples of support groups might include breast cancer survivors, Parents Anonymous, Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Disorders, and spouse loss/grief groups. <br />Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler and Robert W. Brown, Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling: Voices from the Field, 4th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, USA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Copyright 2000, p.224<br /><ul><li>Which of these groups can develop into a surrogate family, without the rigid, authoritarian hierarchies of some natural families?
  158. 158. Church Groups
  159. 159. Work Groups
  160. 160. Therapeutic Groups
  161. 161. Core Groups</li></ul>Answer: C. Therapeutic Groups <br />A therapeutic group can develop into a surrogate family, without the rigid, authoritarian hierarchies of some natural families. Such experience an even be sampled within the relative artificiality of your classroom. Although the physical environment, seating arrangement, competition, professional authority, and threat of grading are something less than ideal circumstances for promoting a sense of true cohesion, there is nevertheless a feeling of belongingness that develops among classmates.<br />Reference: Ibid. p. 231 <br /><ul><li>It operates in high-functioning groups in which members genuinely and authentically cares for one another and this deep regard is indeed a healing force beyond anything else that transpires.
  162. 162. Cohesion
  163. 163. Group Love
  164. 164. Support
  165. 165. Team building</li></ul>Answer: B. Group Love <br />Bemak and Epp more unabashedly claim that love should be considered the twelfth agent of healing in groups. More than mere support in groups, they believe that a kind of “group love” operates in high-functioning groups in which members genuinely and authentically cares for one another and this deep regard is indeed a healing force beyond anything else that transpires. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 231<br /><ul><li>This is a stage in group process where recruitment and screening take place in which members are often prepared for the group of what to expect and helped to get ready.
  166. 166. Forming Stage
  167. 167. Initial Stage
  168. 168. Transition Stage
  169. 169. Working Stage</li></ul>Answer: A. Forming Stage <br />Forming Stage. A group begins before its first session. Recruitment and screening take place in which members are often prepared for the group of what to expect and helped to get ready for the first meeting. <br />Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler and Robert W. Brown, Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling: Voices from the Field, 4th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, USA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Copyright 2000, p. 236<br /><ul><li>In this stage of group process, introductions are made, the purpose is determined, ground rules are established and trust issues are initially explored.
  170. 170. Forming Stage
  171. 171. Initial Stage
  172. 172. Transition Stage
  173. 173. None of the above</li></ul>Answer: B. Initial Stage <br />Initial Stage. The beginning stage is the time when introductions are made, the purpose is determined, ground rules are established, and trust issues are initially explored. The initial stage is not only building trust but also establishing norms that are likely to be helpful throughout the tenure of the group. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 237 <br /><ul><li>During this group process stage, members work on specific issues, confront inconsistencies, explore issues and share personal material.
  174. 174. Initial Stage
  175. 175. Transition Stage
  176. 176. Working Stage
  177. 177. Closing Stage</li></ul>Answer: C. Working Stage <br />Working Stage. In a healthy, high-functioning group it is safe to focus on deeper issues and to interact in new ways. During this group process stage, members work on specific issues, confront inconsistencies, explore issues and share personal material. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 238<br /><ul><li>In this group process stage, members attempt to resolve unfinished issues within the group, evaluate the performance of the group, and say good-bye and deal with ending issues.
  178. 178. Exit Stage
  179. 179. Last Stage
  180. 180. Closing Stage
  181. 181. End Stage</li></ul>Answer: C. Closing Stage<br />Closing Stage. In this stage, members attempt to resolve unfinished issues within the group, evaluate the performance of the group, and say good-bye and deal with ending issues. This stage generally takes anywhere from one to several sessions. Its primary purpose is help members keep their momentum going after the group ends.<br />Reference: Jeffrey A. Kottler and Robert W. Brown, Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling: Voices from the Field, 4th Ed., 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, California, USA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Copyright 2000, p. 239 <br /><ul><li>This is a most recent mode of delivery of counseling to become established.
  182. 182. Counseling by e-mail
  183. 183. Group Counseling
  184. 184. Telephone Counseling
  185. 185. Non-professional Counseling</li></ul>Answer: A. Counseling by e-mail<br />The most recent mode of delivery of counseling to become established is counseling by e-mail. There are counselors and support groups who advertise their services on the Internet, on a variety of different types of home pages, and it is possible for a client in any country to access a counselor anywhere in the world, at any time of the day or night.<br />Reference: John McLeod, An Introduction to Counselling, 3rd Ed., Shoppenhangers Road, Maidenhead, Berkshire, London: Open University Press, McGraw Hill House, Copyright 2003, p. 442 <br /><ul><li>The concept of this therapy refers to the therapeutic effects of reading books.
  186. 186. Poetry Therapy
  187. 187. Bibliotherapy
  188. 188. Art Therapy
  189. 189. Group Therapy</li></ul>Answer: B. Bibliotherapy <br />Reading and writing are important components in e-mail therapy. However, counseling based on these forms of communication have been in use for many years, as bibliotherapy and guided writing. The concept of ‘bibliotherapy’ refers to the therapeutic effects of reading books. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 443 <br /><ul><li>They are individuals who must monitor the relationships between himself or herself and the group members.
  190. 190. Group Facilitators
  191. 191. Professional Sponsors
  192. 192. Therapists
  193. 193. Supervisors</li></ul>Answer: A. Group Facilitator <br />The group facilitator must monitor the relationships between himself or herself and the group members, but also those occurring between group members. The facilitator also needs to have a sense of what is happening to the group as a whole system. <br />Reference: John McLeod, An Introduction to Counselling, 3rd Ed., Shoppenhangers Road, Maidenhead, Berkshire, London: Open University Press, McGraw Hill House, Copyright 2003, p. 447 <br /><ul><li>This research is of particular interest to many group facilitators because it is grounded in the perceptions of clients regarding what is helpful or otherwise, and because it provides valuable pointers to how the group might be run.
  194. 194. Integrative Approach
  195. 195. Curative Factors Research
  196. 196. In-depth Exploration
  197. 197. Encounter Groups Study</li></ul>Answer: B. Curative Factors Research<br />Bloch et. al. have developed a similar approach based on asking group members at the end of each group session to write briefly about what they found helpful. The ‘curative factors’ research is of particular interest to many group facilitators because it is grounded in the perceptions of clients regarding what is helpful or otherwise, and because it provides valuable pointers to how the group might be run.<br />Reference: Ibid. p. 449 <br /><ul><li>This specific group of people seek counseling because they recognize that their problems are rooted in their relationship rather than being attributable to individual issues.
  198. 198. Group counseling
  199. 199. Culturally-sensitive counseling
  200. 200. Couples counseling
  201. 201. Guidance counseling</li></ul>Answers: C. Couples counseling<br />A substantial number of people seek counseling as a couple, because they recognize that their problems are rooted in their relationship rather than being attributable to individual issues. The field of couples counseling is dominated by two major approaches: psychodynamic and behavioral. <br />Reference: Ibid. p. 450<br /><ul><li>This therapy may not only be inappropriate but actually harmful when working with clients from a different cultural group.
  202. 202. Individual Therapy
  203. 203. Group Therapy
  204. 204. Psychotherapy
  205. 205. None of the above</li></ul>Answer: A. Individual Therapy<br />Individual therapy along Western Lines may not only be inappropriate but actually harmful when working with clients from a different cultural group. This is especially true with groups tied into a more traditional social organization, where the extended family acts as the main source of support. <br />Reference: Barbara Lawton and Colin Feltham, Taking Supervision Forward: Enquiries and Trends in Counselling and Psychotherapy, 6 Bonhill Street, London: Sage Publishing Ltd., Copyright 2000, p. 100 <br /><ul><li>Which of these variables determine the level at which any intervention needs to focus in order to work with the actual problem the client has brought to the session?
  206. 206. Identity, modality, agency, timing and context
  207. 207. Complexity, contracting and authority
  208. 208. Values, beliefs, preference and habits
  209. 209. Humility and clarity</li></ul>Answer: A. identity, modality, agency, timing and context <br />We need to explore the match between cultural frameworks and political values which inform this shared learning. Identity, modality, agency, timing and context are some of the variables which come into play and determine the level at which any intervention needs to focus in order to work with the actual problem the client has brought to the session. We need to discover how values and beliefs affect our preferences, tastes, and habits.<br />Reference: Ibid. p.102 <br />

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