Counseling Nd Anaphy


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Counseling Nd Anaphy

  1. 1. the chemistry of compounds containing carbon (originally defined as the chemistry of substances produced by living organisms but now extended to ... w Organic chemistry is a discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and ... e A branch of chemistry dedicated to the study of the structures, synthesis, and reactions of carbon-containing compounds. p The role played by organic chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry continues to be one of the main drivers in the drug discovery process. ... w the study of the carbon atom and the compounds it forms, mainly with the 20 lightest elements, especially hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Some 3 million organic compounds have been identified and named. w A branch of chemistry specialising in the structure, properties, and reactions of molecules made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. w The study of substances which have carbon-hydrogen bonds. e (p. 322) - the study of compounds in which carbon is the principal element e the chemistry of compounds that do not contain hydrocarbon radicals w Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and behavior of inorganic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (compounds containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry. ... e Inorganic Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, published since 1962 by the American Chemical Society. ... e (p. 322) - the study of all compounds and elements in which carbon is not the principal element What is an Atom ? All substances are made up of matter and the fundamental unit of matter is the atom. The atom constitutes the smallest particle of an element. The atom is made of a central nucleus containing protons (positively-charged) and neutrons (with no charge). The electrons (negatively-charged with negligible mass) revolve around the nucleus in different imaginary paths called orbits or shells. What is an Element ?
  2. 2. An element is a substance made up of atoms of one kind. There are about 82 naturally-occurring elements and about 31 artificially-made elements as listed in the Periodic Table . What is Atomic Number and Atomic Weight ? • Atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Since atoms are electrically neutral, the number of protons equal the number of electrons in an atom. • Atomic weight (or relative atomic mass) of an element is the number of times an atom of that element is heavier than an atom of hydrogen. The atomic weight of hydrogen is taken to be unity [1]. • Mass number of an element is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. The elements are arranged according to increasing atomic numbers (along with their atomic mass) in a table called the Periodic Table. What is a Molecule ? A molecule is formed when atoms of the same or different elements combine. A molecule is the smallest particle of a substance that can normally exist independently. Examples: • Two atoms of oxygen combine to form a molecule of oxygen [O2]. • One atom of carbon combines with two atoms of oxygen to form a molecule of carbon dioxide [CO2]. What is a Compound ? A compound is formed when atoms or molecules of different elements combine. In a compound, elements are chemically combined in a fixed proportion. Examples: • Hydrogen and oxygen are combined in a fixed proportion of 2:1 to form the compound water [H2O]. • Carbon and oxygen are combined in a fixed proportion of 1:2 to form the compound carbon dioxide [CO2]. 3 types of carbohydrates • monosaccharides • disaccharides
  3. 3. • polysaccharides monosaccharides-Monosaccharides (simple sugars) have a carbon skeleton of 3 or more carbons depending on the monosaccharide. The most familiar monosaccharide is Glucose (C6 H12 O6). A ball and stick model of glucose is shown here in its ring form, which is the form it takes in water. As a solid, glucose has a straight chain form which is not shown. monosaccharides Disaccharides
  4. 4. Disaccharides. Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharides linked together by a dehydration synthesis. Sucrose is common disaccharide which functions as a transport sugar in plants. The production of sucrose by means of a dehydration synthesis is shown here. Each sucrose molecule is made by chemically combining a glucose and a fructose molecule. A hydrogen is removed from the glucose and a hydroxyl(OH) from the fructose leaving an oxygen to link the two molecules together. Lactose, another disaccharide, is commonly called milk sugar. This diagram shows the synthesis of sucrose from glucose and fructose via a dehydration synthesis. Polysaccharides
  5. 5. Polysaccharides are the most abundant organic compounds in the biosphere. The most commonly seen polysaccharide is cellulose and scientist estimate that over one trillion tons of cellulose are synthesized by plants each year. Cellulose forms the cell wall of plants. Starches can be digested by animals but cellulose cannot. Most animals that injest grass or wood have special micro organisms living in their gut that digest the cellulose and the animals in turn absorp the breakdown product This diagram compares the way the glucose units bond in starch versus cellulose. What differences do you observe? These differences are largely responsible for the quite different properties of starches and cellulose.