Chapter 2 Counseling Report


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Chapter 2 Counseling Report

  2. 2. Historical Developments in Counseling <ul><li>1900-1909 </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Parsons- “The Father of Guidance” </li></ul><ul><li>Clifford Beers- Publish influential book, a mind that found itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Jesse B. Davis- First set up systematize guidance program in public school. </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud- Psychoanalytic theory </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>1910’s </li></ul><ul><li>National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA), establish forerunner of American Counseling Association (ACA). </li></ul><ul><li>Passage of Smith-Hughes Act, which provide funding for public schools to support vocational education. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1920’s </li></ul><ul><li>First Certification of Counselors in Boston, New York </li></ul><ul><li>Publish Strong Vocational Interest Inventory (SVH) </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham and Hannah Stone – establish the first marriage andf family counseling center in New York City </li></ul><ul><li>Counselors begin broadcasting focus beyond vocational interest. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>1973 </li></ul><ul><li>In February, Derald Swing Sue (1953)- guest editor for special issue of Personnel and Guidance Journal by the title of “Asian-Americans : The Neglected Minority” </li></ul><ul><li>1975 </li></ul><ul><li>Thelma T. Daley- The first African-American President of the American Personnel and Guidance Association, 1975-1976 </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>1976 </li></ul><ul><li>Pederson, Lonner, and Draguns (1976) edit the first edition of their counseling across cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>1978, April </li></ul><ul><li>Paul B. Pedersen is the guest editor for the special issue for Guidance Journal by the title of “Counseling Across Culture” </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>1980’s </li></ul><ul><li>Saw the continuous growth of counseling as a profession </li></ul><ul><li>Health-care industry had a major impact.. </li></ul><ul><li>Published “The History of Counseling Psychology: A Historical Perspective” which documented the roots of counseling committee reports; as well as significant social forces and environmental influences affecting the field. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>1990’s </li></ul><ul><li>American Association for Counseling and Development modify its name ACA </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized the counseling as a primary health care profession compiled by the Center for Mental Health Services and The National Institute for Mental Health </li></ul><ul><li>Published the writings of the multicultural counseling competencies and standards by Sue, Arredondo and Mc Davis. </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth issue was a focus on health care and increase in managed health care organizations </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>1990 - Janet E. Helms- edited the first and comprehensive work on racial identity and counseling </li></ul><ul><li>1991- AMCD’s Professional Standards Committee develops 31 compentencies for multicultural counselors </li></ul><ul><li>1992 – Sue, Arredondo, and Davis author “Multicultural Counseling Competencies and Standards” </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick D. Harper- editor of special issue of JMCD entitled “ Gender and Relationships” </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>1994 – In October, Phoebe Dufrene and Roger Herring are guest of JMCD entitled “Native American Indians </li></ul><ul><li>1997 – In January, Daya S. Sandhu as guest editor of special issue of JMCD entitiled “Asian and Pacific Islander Americans” </li></ul><ul><li>Courtland C. Lee is the first African American male to become president of ACA. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>1998 – This year’s marks the significant international involvement and leadership of ACA and aMCD leaders and members in the International Association for Counseling. </li></ul><ul><li>Courtland C. Lee- elected secretary of the association </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick D. Harper –managing editor of IAC (International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling). </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 16, 1998, the multicultural and diversity list server is established, [email_address] as a forum for counseling professionals and counseling to exchange ideas and information about diversity and multiculturalism in counseling. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>2000’s – Multicultural summit at the Annual Conference of ACA in Washington D.C., feasibility, viability, and future of multicultural counseling. </li></ul><ul><li>2002 – With support of the IAC, the African Conference on Guidance and Counseling held in Nairobi, Kenya, April 22-26, resulting in the formation of the African Association for Guidance and Counseling </li></ul>
  13. 13. “ Historical and Professional Foundation of Counseling” <ul><li>Increase Emphasis on Human growth and development. </li></ul><ul><li>-Counseling emphasis on human growth and development during the 1980’s took several forms. </li></ul><ul><li>New behavioral expressions associated with Erick Erickson’s first’s five stages of life development were formulated. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>AAAD-Association for Adult Aging an Development, was form because an increased emphasis on the development of the adults and elderly </li></ul><ul><li>A second way that human growth and development was stressed because of an increase attention to gender issues and sexual preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>The third way in which human growth issues were highlighted is because of moral development. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Diversification in Counseling Settings <ul><li>1970s – The rapid growth of counseling outside educational institution, when mental health centers and community agencies began to employ counselors. </li></ul><ul><li>Before this time, almost all counselors had been employed in educational settings, usually in public schools. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The diversification of counseling meant that specialization training began to offered in counselor education programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Helping skills programs </li></ul><ul><li>In 1970s, the development of helping skills programs concentrated on relationship and communication skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Traux and Carkhuff(1976) and Ivey(1971) </li></ul><ul><li>- Taught the basic skills to professionals and nonprofessionals. </li></ul>
  17. 17. State Licensure <ul><li>By mid 1970s, state board of examinees for psychologists had become restrictive </li></ul><ul><li>Such as barring graduate of education department counseling programs from taking licensure exam, caused considerable tension, not only between APA and APG but also within the APA membership itself. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Standardization of Training and Certification <ul><li>In 1980, the council for accreditation of counseling and related educational programs CACREP. Was formed as an affiliated organization of APGA. </li></ul><ul><li>It refined the standards first proposed by ACES in the late 1970s and initially accredited four programs and grand-parented programs already recognized as accredited by the California State Counselor Association </li></ul>
  19. 19. Forces in Counseling <ul><li>Traditional counseling theory may have a limitations in terms of applicability in multicultural society. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi cultural counseling is becoming a new movement in the counseling profession </li></ul>
  20. 20. First forces/First source <ul><li>The first counseling force alluded to in Pederson’s (1990) typology is psychoanalytic and ego psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Therapy associated with personality changes is done by helping the client become more aware of unfinished business from their childhood. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Second Force/ Second Source <ul><li>The second force rely on addressing a range of client behaviors and cognitions that are creating problems for the client. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Force theories often initiate and innate dualistic problem, focusing mind against body, in lieu of the holistic nature of mental health seen in many cultures. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Third Force/Third source <ul><li>The primary goal of humanistic theories is to create a working environment where the client can achieve self actualization. </li></ul><ul><li>Third force theories emphasize the creation of the therapeutic environment that can hold the client’s problem in an accepting manner in order to allow the client to move toward self actualization </li></ul>
  23. 23. Current Status and Developing Trends <ul><li>Over the past decade or more, the field of culture and counseling has witnessed a significant increase in the publication of textbooks and the offering of counseling courses in multiculturalism and diversity throughout the United States. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Development of cultural Assessment Instrument <ul><li>An increasing number of cultural assessment instruments have been developed, researched, and written about in the past couple of decades, that is, instruments to measure multicultural counselor competencies, multicultural competence training, acculturation, cross-cultural counseling effectiveness, cultural lifestyle. Cultural stress and cultural adjustment. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Current Trends in the New Millennium <ul><li>Current concerns of professional counselors will take on added significance in the future because of unforeseen crisis, new developments and continuing dysfunctional patterns in people and system </li></ul><ul><li>The three common topics that counselors will probably face are the challenges dealing with managed care, the effective use of computers and technology and growth of leadership. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Challenge of Managed Care <ul><li>Manage care arrangements requires clients first to seek a gate keeper physician before they can be referred to a specialist such as a counselor. </li></ul><ul><li>Manage care has advance the counseling profession by including counselors on both care boards and as providers of services. </li></ul>
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