C1 and c2 (test manual)
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C1 and c2 (test manual) Document Transcript

  • 1. Multiple Choice.<br />
    • It is a cognitively oriented counseling approach which point of view stresses the individual’s need to develop his or her traits, interest, values, skills) as well as select environments that compliment those traits.
    • 2. Trait and Factor Viewpoint
    • 3. Rational Emotive Viewpoint
    • 4. Behavioral Counseling Viewpoint
    • 5. Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition
    Answer: a. Trait and Factor Viewpoint. The factor point of view stresses the individual’s need to develop his or her traits, interest, values, skills) as well as select environments that compliment those traits.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p130.<br />
    • One of the cognitively oriented counseling approaches that emphasize processes that is more cognitive in nature.
    • 6. Trait and Factor Viewpoint
    • 7. Rational Emotive Viewpoint
    • 8. Behavioral Counseling Viewpoint
    • 9. Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition
    Answer: c. Behavioral Counseling Viewpoint. Although still primarily concerned with behavioral change, behavioral counselors have begun to emphasize processes that are more cognitive in nature, recognizing for instance, that there is cognitive element operating whenever behavior changes as a result of its consequence.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p139.<br />
    • The major objective of this therapy is to help the individual resolve his basic problems and designed primarily for the treatment of neurosis.
    • 10. Client-Centered Counseling Viewpoint
    • 11. Psychoanalytic Viewpoint
    • 12. Gestalt Therapy
    • 13. Existential Viewpoint
    Answer: b. Psychoanalytic Viewpoint. The major objective of psychoanalytic therapy is to help the individual achieve an enduring understanding of his own mechanisms of adjustment and resolve his basic problems. It is designed primarily for the treatment of neurosis but has been used with a great variety of psychological disorders.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p162.<br />
    • This approach stresses the counselee’s ability to determine the issue important to him and to solve his own problems.
    • 14. Existential Viewpoint
    • 15. Gestalt Therapy
    • 16. Psychoanalytic Therapy
    • 17. Client-Centered Counseling Viewpoint
    Answer: d. Client-Centered Counseling Viewpoint. This approach stresses the counselee’s ability to determine the issue important to him and to solve his own problems. Counselor intervention is minimal. The most important quality of the counseling relationship is the establishment of warm, permissive, and accepting climate which permits the client to explore his self-structure in relation to his unique experience. <br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p180.<br />
    • One of the affectively oriented counseling approaches which view of human nature is to understand man most simply to understand as a being and becoming.
    • 18. Gestalt Therapy
    • 19. Psychoanalytic Therapy
    • 20. Existential Viewpoint
    • 21. Client-Centered Counseling Viewpoint
    Answer: c. Existential Viewpoint. Existentialism endeavors to understand man most simply to understand man most simply as a being and becoming. Being is man’s awareness of who he is man’s definition of himself what he makes of himself.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p195.<br />
    • It is a theory of personality and emotional disturbance that is central to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theory and practice.
    • 22. A-B-C Theory
    • 23. REBT Theory
    • 24. Psychoanalytic Theory
    • 25. Both A and B
    Answer: a. A-B-C Theory. The A-B-C theory of personality and emotional disturbance is central to REBT theory and practice. The A-B-C theory maintains that when people have an emotional reaction at point C (the emotional Consequence), after some Activating event that occurred at point A, it is not the event itself (A) that causes the emotional state (C), although it may contribute to it. It is the belief system (B), or the belief that people have about the event, that mainly creates C.<br />Reference: Corey, Gerald. Theory and Practice of Group Counseling (Fifth Edition). Wadsworth Thomson Learning USA. 2000, p398.<br />
    • One of the methods use in REBT that demonstrates to clients that their belief and self-talk are keeping them disturbed.
    • 26. Emotive Method
    • 27. Cognitive Method
    • 28. Behavioral Method
    • 29. All of the above
    Answer: a. Cognitive Method. From a cognitive perspective clients that their belief and self-talk are keeping them disturbed. It has various techniques for dispelling these self-defeating cognitions and teaching people how to acquire a rational approach to living. In a REBT group there is a heavy emphasis on thinking, disputing, debating, challenging, persuading, interpreting, explaining, and teaching<br />Reference: Corey, Gerald. Theory and Practice of Group Counseling (Fifth Edition). Wadsworth Thomson Learning USA. 2000, p404.<br />
    • A cognitive method of REBT where in the members of REBT groups are encouraged to practice and work hard outside of the therapy sessions as a pathway to personal change.
    • 30. A-B-C Method
    • 31. Psychoeducational Method
    • 32. Disputing Irrational Belief Method
    • 33. Cognitive Homework
    Answer: b. Psychoeducational Method. Members of REBT groups are encouraged to practice and work hard outside of the therapy sessions as a pathway to personal change. Ellis, Abrams and Dengelegi (1992) have found that clients who read cognitive behavioral literature, use REBT audio and video cassettes, and attend lectures and workshops usually learn to apply REBT better than those who do not.<br />Reference: Corey, Gerald. Theory and Practice of Group Counseling (Fifth Edition). Wadsworth Thomson Learning USA. 2000, p405.<br />
    • It is an emotive method in REBT where in clients are shown how to imagine some of the worst thing they can think and then to train themselves to develop healthy emotions in place of disruptive ones.
    • 34. Unconditional Acceptance
    • 35. Shame-Attacking Exercises
    • 36. Rational Emotive Imagery
    • 37. Use of Humor
    Answer: c. Rational Emotive Imagery. Clients are shown how to imagine some of the worst thing they can think and then to train themselves to develop healthy emotions in place of disruptive ones. Clients are asked to imagine themselves in specific situations where they experience disturbing feeling. They then work actively on changing these feelings to healthy ones and consequently, changing their behavior in the situation.<br />Reference: Corey, Gerald. Theory and Practice of Group Counseling (Fifth Edition). Wadsworth Thomson Learning USA. 2000, p406.<br />
    • A behavioral method in REBT that trains clients in specific skills in which they are deficient has long been espoused.
    • 38. Reinforcement and Penalties
    • 39. Homework Assignments
    • 40. Role Playing
    • 41. Skill Training
    Answer: d. Skill Training. Training clients in specific skills in which they are deficient has long been espoused, as long as this training is done in the context of challenging them to their dysfunctional thinking (Ellis). Feel more confident about themselves and will experience significant changes in the way they think, feel and behave (Bernard, 1991, 1992; Bernard and Wolfe. 1993).<br />Reference: Corey, Gerald. Theory and Practice of Group Counseling (Fifth Edition). Wadsworth Thomson Learning USA. 2000, p410-411.<br />
    • It embodies the understanding of the individual in the cultural context and time as well as the nature, meaning and feelings of that existence. (Epp, 1998)
    Humanism<br />Existentialism<br />Gestalt<br />Holism<br />Answer: b. Existentialism. Existential theory is an emergent, vital part of the third force of psychology, attempting to look at the experiences, transitions, and meanings of our lives in the framework of development, culture and time.<br />Reference: Douglas R. Gross and David Capuzzi, Counseling and Psychotherapy, Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458, 2003, p131.<br />12. Existentialism was just negated into other interpersonal theories because it lacked something that other counseling theories have. What is the problem in regards in treating with existentialism therapy?<br />a. The techniques implied in existential therapies were just too complicated and difficult to understand and apply.<br />b. Existential therapy lacks the cognitive-behavioral function counseling.<br />c. The therapy is too much concerned in the affective and subjective side of the client.<br />d. The emphasis of most counseling theories is on the rational, objective and scientific techniques of behavioral, cognitive and cognitive-behavioral counseling.<br />Answer: d. The emphasis of most counseling theories is on the rational, objective and scientific techniques of behavioral, cognitive and cognitive-behavioral counseling. In essence, this emphasis has relegated existentialism to being combined with interpersonal theories such as humanism. Existentialists were the “homeless waifs who were not permitted into the better academic neighborhoods” (Yalom, 1980, p.21).<br />Reference: Douglas R. Gross and David Capuzzi, Counseling and Psychotherapy, Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458, 2003, p131.<br />
    • The main concept of existentialism that separates it from other counseling theories are:
    a. Meaning, subjectivity and process<br />b. Approach, actualization and process <br />c. Subjectivity, creativity and application <br />d. Complexity, flexibility and appropriateness<br />Answer: a. Meaning, subjectivity and process. For an existentialist, the journey is as important as the destination. Relationships are as important as the scientific advancement of a theory and individual experience is as important as the objective factual report (May, 1983; Weisman, 1993)<br />Reference: Douglas R. Gross and David Capuzzi, Counseling and Psychotherapy, Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458, 2003, p132.<br />
    • The focus of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic counselors and therapies that differs from the approach of existentialists.
    a. Focus on abnormal behaviors<br />b. Focus on deficiency<br />c. Focus on the unconscious<br />d. Focus on the primitive instincts of individuals<br />Answer: b. Focus on deficiency. Existentialists are different because they hope to aid individuals in developing schemata to understand and cope with their lives.<br />Reference: Douglas R. Gross and David Capuzzi, Counseling and Psychotherapy, Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458, 2003, p132.<br />15. It is suggested that Freudian and behaviorism approaches implied negativistic and limited aspects that the humanism approach can provide.<br />a. Love, freedom with responsibility, self-actualization, potential, transcendence, uniqueness, choice, creativity <br />b. Application, objectivity, cognitive aspects, preference, intricacy<br />c. Prejudice, pride, patience, prudence, behavioral modifications<br />d. Effectiveness, dependability, reliability, affection, conscientiousness, prospective, selection<br />Answer: a. Love, freedom with responsibility, self-actualization, potential, transcendence, uniqueness, choice and creativity. The limitations of Freudian and behaviorist approaches were complemented by the suggestion of positive aspects of humanness by humanism.<br />Reference: Gross, Douglas R., Capuzzi, David: Counseling and Psychotherapy. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, 2003. Page 134<br />16. The anxiety produced by the awareness of existence is overwhelming especially to the young child. This anxiety is called: <br />a. Transference of fear<br />b. Nexus of unfreedom<br />c. Death anxiety<br />d. General anxiety<br />Answer: c. Death anxiety. Death anxiety is concerned with the realities of mortality and aloneness. To deal with this anxiety, parents and adults foster denial in the first phases of life by avoidance and hesitant confrontation.<br />Reference: Douglas R. Gross and David Capuzzi, Counseling and Psychotherapy, Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458, 2003, p136.<br />17. This relationship implies treating the other individual as a person.<br />a. “We to we”<br />b. “You to them”<br />c. “Us to them”<br />d. “I to you”<br />Answer: d. “I to you”. The encounter involves two rather than one to an object or one to a despised part.<br />Reference: Gross, Douglas R., Capuzzi, David: Counseling and Psychotherapy. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, 2003. Page 141<br />18. In existential theory, it is a separation from oneself as much as from others.<br />a. Isolation<br />b. Culture<br />c. Freedom<br />d. Dream Work<br />Answer: a. Isolation. The isolation from our true self keeps us from connecting and contributing to the larger social order in more productive ways. We are isolated by our own false identities. Out of our own fears, we erect walls to prohibit the connections we most desire.<br />Reference: Douglas R. Gross and David Capuzzi, Counseling and Psychotherapy, Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458, 2003, p139.<br />
    • It is the most unsettling of all mental disorders in the existentialism viewpoint.
    a. Schizophrenia<br />b. “Wrecked by success”<br />c. Existential isolation <br />d. Major Depressive Disorder<br />Answer: c. Existential isolation. When individuals fail to develop inner strength, worth and identity, they move beyond from being isolated to feeling a profound sense of loneliness. Existential isolation occurs when an individual fails to develop an authentic sense of self in the world.<br />Reference: Douglas R. Gross and David Capuzzi, Counseling and Psychotherapy, Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458, 2003, p149.<br />20. It comes after our confrontation with our inaccurate representation of ourselves.<br />a. Freedom <br />b. Death<br />c. Distance<br />d. Culture<br />Answer: a. Freedom. Freedom emerges only after we realize that the world is an arbitrary construction of our awareness. Hence, we can make each moment the way we wish, and make our future different from any moments in our past.<br />Reference: Douglas R. Gross and David Capuzzi, Counseling and Psychotherapy, Pearson Education Inc. Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458, 2003, p139.<br />What counseling technique is it that was classified in terms of the traditional schools of thought?<br />a. Transcendent Counseling<br />b. Cognitive-Behavioral Model<br />c. Eclectic Counseling<br />d. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy<br />Answer: b. Cognitive-Behavioral Model. In a previous publication on transcendent counseling, we reluctantly classified the theory as a cognitive-behavioral model (Harper & Stone). Just recently, Exum, Moore and Watt (1999) categorized transcendent counseling as a behavioral model of counseling, perceiving it as having a central focus on learning principles.<br />Reference: Frederick D. Harper and John McFadden, Culture and Counseling (New Approaches), Pearson Education Inc. United States of America, 2003, p233.<br />22. This can be viewed as a multicultural, cross-cultural, transcultural, intracultural, transethnic, transnational, transgender and metalcultural theory of counseling. What counseling technique is this?<br />a. Eclectic Counseling<br />b. Transcendent Counseling <br />c. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy<br />d. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy<br />Answer: b. Transcendent Counseling. As regards culture and diversity, transcendent counseling can be viewed as a multicultural, cross-cultural, transcultural, intracultural, transethnic, transnational, transgender and metacultural theory of counseling (Harper & Stone, 1999). In other words, theoretical approach can be used across cultures, within cultures, across ethnic groups, across nations, across gender lines and even beyond cultures.<br />Reference: Frederick D. Harper and John McFadden, Culture and Counseling (New Approaches), Pearson Education Inc. United States of America, 2003, p234.<br />23. What counseling technique has the primary goal of changing lifestyle positively?<br />a. Transcendent Counseling<br />b. Gestalt Therapy<br />c. Client-Centered Therapy<br />d. Eclectic Counseling<br />Answer: a. Transcendent Counseling. The primary goal of transcendent counseling is positive lifestyle change. A person’s lifestyle reflects his or her values in life and attitudes about living. Moreover, as appropriate to the client’s concerns or problems, secondary goals of counseling are need-fulfillment, holistic health, meaningful work or activity, self-understanding and improved with others.<br />Reference: Frederick D. Harper and John McFadden, Culture and Counseling (New Approaches), Pearson Education Inc. United States of America, 2003, p235.<br />24. What counseling technique is it that the five steps in counseling are represented by the acronym APART?<br />a. Eclectic Counseling<br />b. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy<br />c. Transcendent Counseling<br />d. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy<br />Answer: c. Transcendent Counseling. Represented by the acronym APART, the five steps of transcendent counseling are (1)assessment, (2)prescription, (3)action, (4)review) and (5)transcendence. Symbolically, the APART acronym connotes the term apart, as in apart from the old self or old lifestyle and toward a new self and a new way of living.<br />Reference: Frederick D. Harper and John McFadden, Culture and Counseling (New Approaches), Pearson Education Inc. United States of America, 2003, p237.<br />26. What kind of counseling technique have the six modules that are related to the goals of counseling and represent the lifestyle areas of the client’s problem or concerns based on the counselor’s assessment?<br />a. Eclectic Counseling<br />b. Gestalt Therapy<br />c. Client-Centered Therapy<br />d. Transcendent Counseling<br />Answer: d. Transcendent Counseling. The modules are (1)survival), (2)holistic health, (3)human/ethnic relations, (4)knowledge about self and ling, (5)meaningful and productive work or activity, and (6)self-regulation. These modules are not mutually exclusively but may overlap in terms of areas of living.<br />Reference: Frederick D. Harper and John McFadden, Culture and Counseling (New Approaches), Pearson Education Inc. United States of America, 2003, p243.<br />27. Which of the following Phases of Multiethnic Identity Development demonstrates the person accepts new ideas about his or her ethnicity and culture?<br />a. Panethnicity<br />b. Transethnicity<br />c. Ethnosyncretism<br />d. Ethnocentrism<br />Answer: c. Ethnosyncretism. The person accepts new ideas about his or her ethnicity and culture. At the same time, the person accepts new ideas and practices from other cultures without sacrificing his or her own cultural identity.<br />Reference: Frederick D. Harper and John McFadden, Culture and Counseling (New Approaches), Pearson Education Inc. United States of America, 2003, p243.<br />28. This serves as adjuncts to counseling for the purpose of facilitating lifestyle changes. What part of transcendent counseling is this?<br />a. Modalities of Counseling<br />b. Modules of Living<br />c. Phases of Multiethnic Identity Development<br />d. All of the above<br />Answer: a. Modalities of Counseling. The modalities are designed to bring about the lifestyle changes for the purpose of therapy and prevention as related to specific lifestyle modules.<br />Reference: Frederick D. Harper and John McFadden, Culture and Counseling (New Approaches), Pearson Education Inc. United States of America, 2003, p245.<br />28. Which of the following statements about the Transcendent Being of the Counselor is true?<br />a. The counselor attempts to understand and help while avoiding bias against and prejudicial judgment about the client as a member of any socially defined group.<br />b. Transcendent counselor does not perceive the counseling relationship as an opportunity for professional and personal self-growth.<br />c. Transcendent counselor continually strives to seek and acquire cultural education and experiences that will promote professional growth only.<br />d. All of the above<br />Answer: a. The counselor attempts to understand and help while avoiding bias against and prejudicial judgment about the client as a member of any socially defined group. The transcendent counselor believes that all clients, regardless of culture, ethnicity, social class, gender, sexual identity, or state of ability, are equally worthy of help, growth and holistic health to the highest degree possible.<br />Reference: Frederick D. Harper and John McFadden, Culture and Counseling (New Approaches), Pearson Education Inc. United States of America, 2003, p246.<br />29. It takes the viewpoint that thoughts drive not only behavior but also lifestyle. What counseling technique is this?<br />a. Eclectic Counseling<br />b. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy<br />c. Transcendent Counseling<br />d. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy<br />Answer: c. Transcendent Counseling. The counseling process aims to assist and persuade the client to change ways of thinking and thus change undesirable ways of living; in other words to modify his or her lifestyle.<br />Reference: Frederick D. Harper and John McFadden, Culture and Counseling (New Approaches), Pearson Education Inc. United States of America, 2003, p247.<br />30. What category of verbal counseling skills the transcendent counselors employs information giving, modeling and advice giving?<br />a. Supportive Skills<br />b. Teaching Skills <br />c. Action-provoking/Action-Sustaining Skills<br />d. Both A and C<br />Answer: b. Teaching Skills. Information giving: the transcendent counselor shares with the client; the information should be related to the client’s problem, concern or lifestyle goals. Modeling: The counselor considers the use of models that reflect a client’s ethnic or cultural image or a client’s gender or identity. Advice giving: The counselor shares a number of options, courses of action, or solutions for the client’s consideration.<br />Reference: Frederick D. Harper and John McFadden, Culture and Counseling (New Approaches), Pearson Education Inc. United States of America, 2003, p248.<br />31. It is an effective therapy use in treating trauma for having a considerable evidence of it in reducing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people with chronic PTSD.<br />a. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy<br />b. Gestalt Therapy<br />c. Behavioral Therapy<br />d. Cognitive Therapy<br />Answer: a. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) typically comprises psychoeducation, anxiety management, stress inoculation, cognitive restructuring, imaginal and in vivo exposure and relapse prevention.<br />Reference: Victori M. Follette and Josef I. Ruzek, Cognitve-Behavioral Therapies for Trauma (Second Edition), Gulford Press Spring Street New York, 2005, p208.<br />32. A problem that can occur in ASD because of the prevalence of this in this condition. <br />a. Excessive Avoidance<br />b. Dissociation<br />c. Trauma<br />d. All of the above<br />Answer: b. Dissociation. The emotional detachment associated with dissociative responses ca impede engagement with traumatic memories and thereby limit the utility of any therapy approach that requires emotional processing (Foa & Hearstlkeda, 1996). This problem can occur in ASD because of the prevalence of dissociation in this condition. <br />Reference: Victori M. Follette and Josef I. Ruzek, Cognitve-Behavioral Therapies for Trauma (Second Edition), Gulford Press Spring Street New York, 2005, p211.<br />
    • It protects a person from being overwhelmed by anxiety.
    • 42. Defense Mechanisms
    • 43. Rationalization
    • 44. Projection
    • 45. Introjection
    Answer: a. Defense Mechanisms. Defense mechanisms protect a person from being overwhelmed by anxiety through adaptation to situations or through distortion or denial of events. They are normal and operate on an unconscious level.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p167.<br />s<br />
    • This affectively oriented counseling technique views that the organism cannot be separated from the environment.
    • 46. Trait and Factor Viewpoint
    • 47. Rational Emotive Viewpoint
    • 48. Gestalt Therapy
    • 49. Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition
    Answer: c. Gestalt Therapy. Man viewed as a whole: the organism cannot be separated from the environment. The boundary between individual and the environment, according to Peris, I experiences simply as what is inside the skin and what is outside the skin. The ego boundary is the differentiation between self and others.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p206.<br /> It is an action-oriented method of psychotherapy particularly applicable to group therapy or group counseling.<br />Client-Centered Therapy<br />Trait and Factor Approach <br />Psychoanalytic Therapy <br />Rational Emotive Therapy<br />Answer: d. Rational Emotive Therapy- Frequently referred to as Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and believed to encompass a mix of modalities from the two approaches just presented: behavioral and psychoanalytic.<br /> <br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology: Theory and Practice (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p134.<br />
    • A therapy that is different from other approaches in that the feelings of clients are secondary to client behavior and the counselor focuses on inappropriate learning as the reason for client problems.
    Behavior Therapy<br />Trait and Factor Approach <br />Psychoanalytic Therapy <br />Rational Emotive Therapy<br />Answer: a. Behavior Therapy- Basically, behavior therapy attempts to help clients, alter maladaptive behavior, learn the decision-making process and prevent problems by strengthening desirable behaviors.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology: Theory and Practice (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p140.<br />
    • This counseling method utilizes any number of various methods of counseling.
    • 50. Gestalt Therapy
    • 51. Psychoanalytic Therapy
    • 52. Existential Viewpoint
    • 53. Eclectic Counseling
    Answer: d. Eclectic Counseling. The term eclectic means “coming from various sources”. Hence, this method utilizes any number of methods just discussed. This might also involve a change in the environment as when it has been diagnosed that the problem stems from a conflicting situation in the home.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology: Theory and Practice (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p149.<br />
    • It is a defense mechanism which involves avoiding painful feelings.
    • 54. Repression
    • 55. Rationalization
    • 56. Isolation
    • 57. Projection
    Answer: c. Isolation. Isolation involves avoiding painful feelings by detachment from the source of such feelings.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology: Theory and Practice (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p170.<br />
    • This is a counseling technique which the anxiety is inhibited by contradictory responses.
    • 58. Gestalt Therapy
    • 59. Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition
    • 60. Existential Viewpoint
    • 61. Eclectic Counseling
    Answer: b. Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. A process of pairing threatening cues with non-anxious response; the anxiety would be overcome. The anxiety is inhibited by reciprocal (contradictory) responses, under the reasoning that anxiety can’t co-exist with relaxation or assertiveness.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology: Theory and Practice (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p143.<br />
    • A process of Psychoanalytic treatment where in the individual tells all that comes to mind especially about early trauma regardless of how irrelevant or objectionable it may seem to him.
    • 62. Free association
    • 63. Dream analysis
    • 64. Interpretation
    • 65. Transference
    Answer: a. Free association. The individual tells all that comes to mind (free association) especially about early trauma (or shock) regardless of how irrelevant or objectionable it may seem to him.<br />Reference: De Jesus, Evangeline M., Counseling Psychology: Theory and Practice (First Edition), Educational Publishing House United Nations Avenue Ermita Manila, 2006, p175.<br />
    • It is a phase of the Therapeutic Process where the psychotherapist makes use of transference and countertrasference.
    • 66. The Initial Stage
    • 67. The Middle Stage
    • 68. The Final Stage
    • 69. The Termination Stage
    Answer: a. The Initial Stage – In the initial stage, the psychotherapist makes use of transference and countertransference. These are identified and interpreted in various contexts, mainly exclusively in terms of the relationship between counselor and client.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. (2004) Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. U.S.A., Houghton Muffin Company. p. 70.<br />
    • It is the counselor’s inference to the client’s behavior that always arrived for her sessions about one minute late, and then proceeded to gushingly apologize and lengthily explain her lateness.
    • 70. The client has an instance of avoidance
    • 71. The client has an instance of resistance
    • 72. The client wants to be sure that the counselor was not in complete control of her actions
    • 73. The client is not at all interested in the sessions
    Answer: b. The client has an instance of resistance - The client’s slight but constant lateness and explanations could be seen as an instance of resistance. No matter how distressing, the territory we know is less threatening than the territory we haven’t explored. Clients will display some clinging to the status quo by being late, missing sessions, denying interpretations’ accuracy, refusing to speak, creating distractions from touchy subjects, and so on.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. (2004) Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. U.S.A., Houghton Muffin Company. p. 91.<br />
    • It is a code of psychoanalysis where a client describes a daydream of running away and living on an isolated island, but the analyst did not chime in, remarking how sometimes the analyst would like to do that too.
    • 74. Code of Ethics
    • 75. Code of Neutrality
    • 76. Code of Abstinence
    • 77. Code of Anonymity
    Answer: c. Code of Abstinence - Psychoanalysts endorse a code of Abstinence, means that they do not participate in client’s fantasies or desires, to protect against fulfilling the analysts’ own needs instead of the clients’. <br />Reference: Day, Susan X. (2004) Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. U.S.A., Houghton Muffin Company. p. 93.<br />
    • These are the cornerstones of self psychology treatment.
    • 78. Defense mechanisms such as regression and displacement
    • 79. Therapist empathy and client introspection
    • 80. Good interpretation of the analyst
    • 81. All of the above
    Answer: b. Therapist empathy and client introspection – The fact that counselor is no judgmentally trying to enter the client’s world encourages the client to describe feeling that he otherwise hides from self and others, and to identify the ways in which he hides them; frequently, rage, and withdrawal.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. (2004) Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. U.S.A., Houghton Muffin Company. p. 95.<br />
    • The goals of this psychotherapy are embedded in its philosophy: The client should deal more effectively with fears and anxieties about the inescapable problems of life (meaningless, freedom, isolation, and death).
    • 82. Psychoanalysis
    • 83. Gestalt Therapy
    • 84. Behavioral Therapy
    • 85. Existential Psychotherapy
    Answer: d. Existential Psychotherapy - The goals of existential psychotherapy is embedded in its philosophy: The client should deal more effectively with fears and anxieties about the inescapable problems of life, meaninglessness, freedom, isolation, and death. Successful clients make better use of their potentials, whether their talents lie in running a household smoothly or in creating timeless art.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. (2004) Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. U.S.A., Houghton Muffin Company. p. 172<br />
    • It is the therapy that aims to produce the fully functioning person.
    • 86. Person-Centered Therapy
    • 87. Existential Psychotherapy
    • 88. Psychoanalysis
    • 89. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
    Answer: a. Person-Centered Therapy – This therapy aims to produce the fully functioning person, someone who accepts herself and her feelings, is self-confident and self-directed, perceives things flexibly, is realistic in goals, behaves with maturity, is open to experience, and accepts others.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. (2004) Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. U.S.A., Houghton Muffin Company. p. 174.<br />
    • A technique of logotherapy where the counselor tries to counter the client’s preoccupation by prescribing situations that encourage the client to focus on something else.
    • 90. Dereflection
    • 91. Hyperreflection
    • 92. Paradoxical Intention
    • 93. Attitude Adjustment
    Answer: a. Dereflection – Another technique of logotherapy is dereflection, a cousin of Adlerian prescriptions for social service. Many clients come to therapy totally focused on themselves and their inner states. The counselor tries to counter this preoccupation by prescribing situations that encourage the client to focus on something else.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. (2004) Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. U.S.A., Houghton Muffin Company. p. 177.<br />
    • It refers to a counselor’s talk in session about her own thoughts, feelings, and experiences.
    • 94. Defense Mechanism
    • 95. Self-disclosure
    • 96. Group Work
    • 97. Play Therapy
    Answer: b. Self-disclosure – It refers to a counselor’s talk in session about her own thoughts, feelings, and experiences. It is a controversial therapeutic technique, with some training programs banning it completely and others encouraging certain types of disclosure.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. (2004) Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. U.S.A., Houghton Muffin Company. p. 179.<br />
    • It is the technique that is seen most often on depictions of Gestalt therapy, both fictional and real.
    • 98. Empty-Chair Technique
    • 99. Dream Work
    • 100. Role Playing
    • 101. Experimentation
    Answer: a. Empty-Chair Technique – It is the one you see most often in depictions of Gestalt therapy, both fictional and real. It’s also a technique frequently borrowed by counselors of other types, probably due to its dramatic effectiveness in helping clients and their therapists grasp an individual’s unique dynamics.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. (2004) Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. U.S.A., Houghton Muffin Company. p. 202.<br />
    • It is analyzing and manipulating preceding contingencies.
    • 102. Contingency Management
    • 103. Stimulus Control
    • 104. Shaping
    • 105. Differential Reinforcement and Response Withdrawal
    Answer: b. Stimulus Control – Analyzing and manipulating preceding contingencies is called stimulus control. Skinner’s recommendations about creating a comfortable site for writing and making sure you are in a good physical state before writing are examples.<br />Reference: Day, Susan X. (2004) Theory and Design in Counseling and Psychotherapy. U.S.A., Houghton Muffin Company. p. 278.<br />