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Active and Passive

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  • 1. Active and PassiveSl.No Tense Forms Active Passive 1 Simple Present S + V (s) + O N.S + (am / is / are) + v3 + N.O N.S + (am / is / are) + being + v3 + 2 Present continuous S +(am / is / are) + V + ing + O N.O N.S + (has / have) + been + v3 + 3 Present Perfect S + (has / have) + V3 + O N.O N.S + (has / have) + been + being + 4 Present Perfect Continuous S +(has / have) + been + V + ing + O v3 + N.O 5 Simple Past S + V2 (Past Form) + O N.S + (was / were)+ v3 + N.O N.S + (was / were)+ being + V3 + 6 Past Continuous S + (was / were)+ V + ing + O N.O 7 Past Perfect S + {had} + V3 + O N.S + {had} + been + v3 + N.O N.S + {had} + been + being + v3 + 8 Past Perfect Continuous S + {had} + been + v + ing + O N.O 9 Simple Future S + (will / shall )+ v + O N.S + (will / shall )+ be + v3 + N.O N.S +(will / shall ) + be + being + 10 Future Continuous S + (will / shall )+ be + V + ing + O v3 + N.O N.S + (will / shall )+ have + been + 11 Future Perfect S +(will / shall ) + have + v3 + O v3 + N.O N.S + (will / shall )+ have + been + 12 Future Perfect Continuous S +(will / shall ) + been + V + ing + O being + v3 + N.O Active Voice -> Subject -> Passive Voice - > New Object (N.O) Active Voice -> Object -> Passive Voice - > New Subject (N.S)
  • 2. Active and PassiveRule 1 : When the verb in the active voice takes two objects, it is more usual in English to make the personal object, the subject of the passive voice. Act : His master forgave him his fault Pass: He was forgiven his fault by his masterRule 2 : In all passive voice exercises the use of by with the agent must be suppressed, expect in those examples where the use of the agent is unavoidable. Act : someone has stolen my pen Pass : My pen has been stolenRule 3 : Prepositions or adverb particles must not be left out with verbs requiring them. Act : She will look after you well Pass : You will be well locked after by herRule 4 : Sometimes the agent is omitted in the passive and then it much be supplied in the active. Pass : They were refused protection Act : The enemy refused them protectionRule 5 : When a sentence is changed from Active to Passive, the object of the active verb becomes the subject of the Passive. Thus it follows that intransitive verbs cannot have a passive voice, as there is no object to make into the new subject. i) Sai laughed ii) his father has died iii) i fell down in the street iv) she slept peacefully throughout the night.
  • 3. Rule 6 : There are some cases where the passive voice is not used even though the verbs are transitive. The sentence “he caught a thief” will become “ a thief was caught by him” in passive voice But the sentence “he caught an infection” should not be transformed into the passive voice. In such case the passive voice has to be avoided.Rule 7 : When the agent is mentioned, it is preceded by “by”? Act : Who gave it? Pass : By whom was it given? Act : What caused this trouble? Pass : What was this trouble caused by? Note : However, the following examples in which we are not dealing with the agents, but with the materials used : Act : Smoke filled the cave Pass : The cave was filled with smoke Act : Rust covered the key Pass : The key was covered with rustRule 8: When a verb + preposition + object put into the passive, the preposition will remain immediately after the verb: Act : I must write to him Pass : He must be written to Act : He can play with these kitten Pass: These kitten can be played with
  • 4. Rule 9: The infinitive constructions after the following verbs in the passive forms: After think, find, report, say, consider, know, acknowledge, believe, understand, claim, two possible passive forms can be used: one by a subordinate clause and the other by the infinitive. Act : They find that he is hardworking Pass: It is found that he is hardworking (clause) He is found to be hardworking (infinitive)Rule 10: An infinitive placed after a passive verb is normally a full infinitive, i.e. an infinitive with to Act : I saw him come in Pass : He was seen to come in Act : He made us work Pass : We were made to work Let is used without to Act : The teacher let us go Pass : We were let goRule 11: Generally the active voice is used when the agent or doer of the action is to be made prominent. Whereas the passive voice is used when the agent is unknown, or when we do not care to name him; also when the person or thing acted upon is to be made prominent.