Hypothesis A HYPOTHESIS IS A STATEMENT OF THEPREDICTED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO OR MORE VARIABLES
Purposes Allow theoretical propositions to be tested in the real world. Guide the research design. Dictate the type of statistical analysis for the data Provide the reader with an understanding of the researchers expectations about the study before data collecting begins.
The rationale or sources of hypothesis From the researchers own experiences. From previous research studies. From theoretical propositions. This is the most important source of a hypothesis. This process of a hypothesis derivation involves deductive reasoning. A propositional statement is isolated from the study frame work and empirically tested
Constructing hypotheses: As a researcher you do not know about a phenomenon, but you do have a hunch to form the basis of certain assumption or guesses. You test these by collecting information that will enable you to conclude if your hunch was right. The verification process can have one of the three outcomes. Your hunch may prove to be: 1. right; 2. partially right; or 3. wrong.
Without this process of verification, you cannot conclude anything about the validity of your assumption. Hence, a hypotheses is a hunch, assumption, suspicion, assertion or an idea about a phenomenon, relationship or situation, the reality or truth of which you do not know. A researcher calls these assumptions/ hunches hypotheses and they become the basis of an enquiry
In most studies the hypotheses will be based upon your own or someone else’s observation. Hypotheses bring clarity, specificity and focus to a research problem. However, You can conduct a valid investigation without constructing formal hypotheses in sub-problems
The functions of hypotheses • The formulation of hypothesis provides a study with focus. It tells you what specific aspects of a research problem to investigate. • A hypothesis tells you what data to collect and what not to collect, thereby providing focus to the study. • As it provides a focus, the construction of a hypothesis enhances objectivity in a study. • A hypothesis may enable you to add to the formulation of a theory. It enables you to specifically conclude what is true or what is false
Classifications of hypothesis Simple or complex: A Simple hypothesis: concerns the relationship between one independent and one dependent variable (bivariate study). In experimental studies the independent variable may be considered the cause, and the dependent variable may be considered as the effect.
A complex hypothesis: Concerns a relationship where two or more independent variables, two or more dependent variables, or both, are examined in the same study (multivariate).
Guidelines for critiquing hypothesis and research Questions Is the hypothesis clearly worded and concise? Is the hypothesis written in a declarative sentences? Is each hypothesis directly tied to the study problem? Does the hypothesis contain the population and at least two variables? Is it apparent that each hypothesis contain only one prediction? if the study contains research questions, are the questions precise and specific? Do the research questions further delineate the problem area of the study?