World war i 2012

98 views
36 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
98
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

World war i 2012

  1. 1. World War I US History & Government Do Now Open to page 9 and identify and categorize the countries labeled with a number.
  2. 2. Causes of World War I • M – Militarism • A – Alliance System • I – Imperialism • N – Nationalism • When a country builds up its army • Groups of nations who promise to help each other if attacked • European nations were competing for the same colonies • Extreme Pride in one’s country
  3. 3. How the war starts in Europe June 28, 1914 • Heir to the Austrian throne is assassinated by a Serb rebel. • Austria invades Serbia starting World War I Archduke Franz Ferdinand of the Austro- Hungarian Empire
  4. 4. US Reaction to WWI in 1914 “The people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations now at war. It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy …. with regard to the issues and circumstances of the conflict. Some will wish one nation, others another, to succeed in the momentous struggle. It will be easy to excite passion and difficult to [quiet] it….” - Woodrow Wilson Why does Wilson support neutrality?
  5. 5. Why Neutrality? “….It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world…” Where did this statement come from?
  6. 6. But, it’s difficult to stay neutral
  7. 7. Lusitania Torpedoed by a U-boat in May 1915 1000 people killed - 128 Americans
  8. 8. The US Responds Wilson believes in Freedom of the Seas US is neutral – so Americans should not be attacked Germany promises to end unrestricted submarine warfare. They will now board ships and then decide if they need to be sunk
  9. 9. US Exports But, it’s difficult to stay neutral
  10. 10. Why was the US favoring the Allies by 1917?
  11. 11. Zimmerman Telegram (1917) “We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal or alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.”
  12. 12. US Declares War April, 1917 “The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no [compensation] for ourselves…. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when those rights have been made as secure as the faith and the freedom of nations can make them.” Wilson before Congress
  13. 13. Selective Service Act • 18-45 year olds • 2 million men served in France Almost 25% of draftees were rejected for medical reasons
  14. 14. General John J. Pershing Commanded the American Expeditionary Forces
  15. 15. On the Home Front
  16. 16. On the Home Front
  17. 17. 300,000 African-Americans fought in World War I
  18. 18. The Battlefield
  19. 19. On the Home Front Committee on Public Information – produced anti German propaganda
  20. 20. On the Home Front Liberty Bonds • Government issued bond to raise money for the war • Buyers would be paid back with interest after the war.
  21. 21. On the Home Front
  22. 22. On the Home Front Food Administration • Rationing • “Victory gardens” • “Meatless Tuesdays” • Horse steaks
  23. 23. On the Home Front War Industries Board • Coordinated industry to produce war materials National Labor Relations Board • Prevented strikes
  24. 24. On the Home Front • Espionage and Sedition Acts – Banned ‘treasonous’ material from the mail – Banned ‘disloyal’ speech
  25. 25. Turn to page 13 of your packet. Read ‘Assert Your Rights’ and answer the questions
  26. 26. On the Home Front • Charles Schenck produces a pamphlet that opposed the draft • Schenck was arrested and convicted of breaking the Espionage Act
  27. 27. On the Home Front Schenck vs.. United States (1919) “We admit that in many places and in ordinary times the defendants in saying all that was said in the circular would have been within their constitutional rights. But the character of every act depends upon the circumstances in which it is done. The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theatre and causing a panic. The question in every case is whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent.…. When a nation is at war many things that might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort that their utterance will not be endured so long as men fight and that no Court could regard them as protected by any constitutional right.” Was Charles Schenck anti-draft pamphlet protected by Amendment 1?
  28. 28. Do Now: • What does the term “clear and present danger” mean within the context of the Schenck case? • Do you think that Schenck constituted a “clear and present danger?” • Do you agree with Justice Holmes’ assertion that there is a difference in how the rights afforded by the first amendment should be interpreted in times of war and peace? Explain • Define ‘freedom of speech’
  29. 29. The War Ends • 11/11/1918 – Germany surrenders • Woodrow Wilson proposes his Fourteen Points plan
  30. 30. The 14 Points – Page 14
  31. 31. Italy – Before and After World War I
  32. 32. The Fourteen Points • No secret alliances • Freedom of the seas • Reduction in arms • Self determination • League of Nations Woodrow Wilson wanted World War I to be “the war to end all wars.”
  33. 33. Countries Total Mobilized Killed & Died Wounded Prisoners & Missing Total Casualties Casualties % of Mobilized Allied Powers             Russia 12,000,000 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 9,150,000 76.3 France 8,410,000 1,357,800 4,266,000 537,000 6,160,800 76.3 British Empire 8,904,467 908,371 2,090,212 191,652 3,190,235 35.8 Italy 5,615,000 650,000 947,000 600,000 2,197,000 39.1 United States 4,355,000 126,000 234,300 4,500 364,800 8.2 Japan 800,000 300 907 3 1,210 0.2 Romania 750,000 335,706 120,000 80,000 535,706 71.4 Serbia 707,343 45,000 133,148 152,958 331,106 46.8 Belgium 267,000 13,716 44,686 34,659 93,061 34.9 Greece 230,000 5,000 21,000 1,000 17,000 11.7 Portugal 100,000 7,222 13,751 12,318 33,291 33.3 Montenegro 50,000 3,000 10,000 7,000 20,000 40.0 Total 42,188,810 5,152,115 12,831,004 4,121,090 22,104,209 52.3 Central Powers             Germany 11,000,000 1,773,700 4,216,058 1,152,800 7,142,558 64.9 Austria-Hungary 7,800,000 1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000 7,020,000 90.0 Turkey 2,850,000 325,000 400,000 250,000 975,000 34.2 Bulgaria 1,200,000 87,500 152,390 27,029 266,919 22.2 Total 22,850,000 3,386,200 8,388,448 3,629,829 15,404,477 67.4 Grand Total 65,038,810 8,538,315 21,219,452 7,750,919 37,508,686 57.6
  34. 34. Treaty of Versailles (1919) • Peace treaty to end WWI • “Big Four” Allies write the terms – US, UK, Italy, France • US wants 14 Points • UK & France want vengeance
  35. 35. Treaty of Versailles (1919) • Peace Deal – German war guilt – Germany must pay reparations • $32 Billion (approx $400 Billion today) – Germany’s military strictly limited – Germany must give up land & colonies – League of Nations
  36. 36. 19191913
  37. 37. League of Nations League of Nations • Collective Security: if one member of the League was attacked all must come to its defense • Would this affect Congress power to declare war? • Republicans oppose the League – The Senate never ratifies it (CHECKS & BALANCES!!!)

×