Can you name the• 11 states that made up the Confederate States of America?• 5 border states?
The President Lincoln in 1860 1865 Were white southerners justified in fearing that Lincoln?“If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and ifI could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could saveit by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that.”
Union ConfederacyAdvantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages• Larger • Lack of Cause • Strategic • Less Industry Population • Military Position • Less Technology• More Leadership • Strong • Fewer Economic Economic • Knowledge of Military Resources Resources Land Preparation • Smaller Population• Stronger • Supplying Troops • Strong • Weak Political Political Military • Few North/South Leadership Leadership Leadership Railroads • Weak Navy• World • Strong Morale Recognition• Strong Navy
Anaconda Plan• Blockade the South• Control the Mississippi• Capture Richmond
Copperheads or Peace Democrats
The Economics of the WarNorth• Demand for war materials• European demand for agricultural goods• Taxation & LoansSouth• Inflation• Northern blockade - no tariff income• Problem - decentralized gov’t
Washington, D.C., vicinity. 15-in. gun and mounting
Civil Liberties • Lincoln’s Actions – Southern sympathizers arrested in border Washington DC states – Habeas Corpus suspended – Martial law established
Ex Parte Merryman (1861)• Could the President suspend the right of habeas corpus? – John Merryman- arrested as a Southern sympathizer (denied habeas corpus rights ) – Decision: the President could not suspend habeas corpus (power of Congress) – Lincoln continued to arrest Southern sympathizers. Congress suspended Habeas Corpus in 1863
Ex Parte Milligan (1866)• Could a military tribunal sentence a civilian to death? – Milligan was accused of conspiracy against US – Found guilty by military tribunal; sentenced to hang. – Supreme Court: Military tribunals could not try civilians in places where civilian courts were open even during war.
Early Military Events• Bull Run (VA) – CSA victory!• Antietam (VA) – Stalemate – But Lincoln claims victory • Emancipation Proclamation – McClellan had a copy of Lee’s battle plans! – Lee able to withdraw – McClellan fired
Civil War Casualties UNITED STATES CONFEDERATE STATES• Battle Deaths 110,070 • Battle Deaths 94,000• Disease etc 250,152 • Disease etc 165,000• Total 360,222 • Total 258,000 5 costliest battles of the Civil WarBattle of Gettysburg (1863) casualties = 51,112Battle of Chickamauga (1863) casualties = 34,624Battle of Chancellorsville (1863) casualties = 30,099Battle of Spotsylvania (1864) casualties = 27,399Battle of Antietam (1862) casualties = 26,134
Clara Barton Dorothea DixAmerican Red Cross Superintendent of Army Nurses
Fredericksburg, Va. Nurses and officers of the U.S. Sanitary Commission
Emancipation Proclamation (1863)• Freed slaves only in areas of rebellion
Turning Point• Gettysburg, PA – US victory – Turning point – Lee tries to bring the war home to the North – 3 day battle – Pickett’s Charge repulsed – Lee forced to retreat
Gettysburg AddressFour score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, anew nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all menare created equal.Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or anynation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a greatbattle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a finalresting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It isaltogether fitting and proper that we should do this. ………
New York City Draft Riots (1863)
Military Conclusion• South won’t surrender• Becomes war of attrition• Sherman’s March to the Sea – Total War – Atlanta to Savannah to Columbia SC
Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman to the Mayor and Councilmen of Atlanta Gentleman: I have your letter…in the nature of a petition to revoke my orders removing all the inhabitants from Atlanta. I have read it carefully, and give full credit to your statements of distress ….and yet shall not revoke my orders, because they were not designed to meet the humanities of the cause, but to prepare for the future struggles in which millions of good people outside of Atlanta have a deep interest. We must have peace, not only at Atlanta, but in all America. To secure this, we must stop the war that now desolates our once happy and favored country. To stop war, we must defeat the rebel armies which are arrayed against the laws and Constitution that all must respect and obey. To defeat those armies, we must prepare the way to reach them in their recesses, provided with the arms and instruments which enable us to accomplish our purpose.….You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty, and you cannot refineit; and those who brought war into our country deserve all the curses and maledictions apeople can pour out. I know I had no hand in making this war, and I know I will makemore sacrifices to-day than any of you to secure peace. But you cannot have peace and adivision of our country. If the United States submits to a division now, it will not stop, butwill go on until we reap the fate of Mexico, which is eternal war.
Atlanta: Before & After Sherman
Atlanta, Ga. The shell-damaged Potter house
Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, VA
Images of the Civil War Photography of Matthew Brady
Cold Harbor, Va. African Americans collecting bones of soldiers killed in the battle
A harvest of death, Gettysburg, July, 1863
Spotsylvania Court House, Va., vicinity.Body of a Confederate soldier near Mrs. Alsops house
Andersonville, Georgia, became notorious POW campIn operation from February 1864 to April 186513,700 men died within thirteen months
The Civil War cost approx $6.7 billion$6,700,000,000• could have purchased all the slaves at 1860 prices• given each slave family 40 acres & a mule• And still had $3.5 billion left over.
1870: 25% of the Mississippi budget was spenton artificial limbs
The state flag of Mississippi
December 19, 2010The Charleston Secession Gala (150 year anniversary) At the dance…… and outside