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  1. 1. Unit 3 - Culture • De Blij Chapters –4 - Culture –5 - Identity –6 - Language –7 - Religion
  2. 2. OVERVIEW of Religion de Blij Chapter 7 AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
  3. 3. Religious Composition of the USWhat percentage of the US population do you thinkidentifies as: • Christian – Protestant, Catholic, Mormon, Orthodox etc. • Other Religions – Jewish, Buddhist, Muslim, Hindu etc. • Unaffiliated with any religion – (atheist, agnostic, no religion in particular) What do you think is the largest single religious denomination in the US?
  4. 4. What parts of the US do you think have the greatest percentage of religious adherents?
  5. 5. What is Religion?• Worship of ancestral souls living in the natural world• Worship of an individual who possesses power granted by a supreme being• Belief in deity/deities Basic definition: traditions, beliefs, rituals, organizations relating to a god or gods
  6. 6. Religions of the World• Widespread religions have one characteristic in common: they are universalizing religions (global religions). They actively seek converts because they view themselves as offering belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal.• Ethnic religions (cultural religions) do not seek converts outside of the group that gave rise to the religion. They tend to be spatially concentrated.
  7. 7. Put the following in order from greatest to least number of adherents: Buddhism Chinese Religions Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism No Religion Sikhism
  8. 8. Estimated Adherents to Major World Religions • Christianity 2.0 billion • Islam 1.5 billion • No Religion 1.1 billion • Hinduism 900 million • Chinese Religions 390 million • Buddhism 370 million • Sikhism 24 million • Judaism 15 million
  9. 9. Syncretic Religions• Elements of different cultural sources are combined in a distinct way
  10. 10. Christmas Ancient Northern Europe • Winter Solstice on December 21 • Norse celebration “Yule” • Yule log & feast • Green Tree: reminder of Spring • Winter ending Ancient Rome • Winter Solstice “Saturnalia” (god of agriculture) • Feast of plentiful food & drink • Dec. 25: Holiday for Mithra (God of the Sun)Christianity co-opts Saturnalia & Yule with Christmas
  11. 11. Vocabulary• Secularism – Indifference or rejection of organized religious affiliations and ideas• Monotheism – worship of a single deity• Polytheism – worship of more than deity• Animistic religion – inanimate objects possess spirits and should be revered
  12. 12. Major Religions & Cultural Hearths Judaism Hinduism Christianity Buddhism Islam
  13. 13. Hindu TempleTamil Nadu, India
  14. 14. Hindu TempleFlushing, NY
  15. 15. Temple in Bali
  16. 16. Temple in Britain
  17. 17. Jainism
  18. 18. Sheetalnath Jain Temple, Calcutta, India
  19. 19. Jain Center ofAmerica
  20. 20. Buddhism
  21. 21. Shwedagon Stupa Myanmar (Burma)
  22. 22. Borobudur, Indonesia Borobudur, Indonesia
  23. 23. Taoism• Qi (Chi) - energy• Feng Shui - Geomancy
  24. 24. Feng-ShuiTomb locations are of greatimportance because deceasedancestors are believed to exertgreat influence on the living.Therefore, it is important fortombs to be located inharmony with the naturalforces.Many factors were involved inthe location of a tomb includinggeographic requirements. Forexample, steep slopes, difficultterrain, angular cliffs should beavoided as sources of discord.
  25. 25. Repulse Bay, Hong Kong
  26. 26. SynagoguePrague, (1280)
  27. 27. Synagogue Toledo, Spain
  28. 28. Torah Ark
  29. 29. ChartresCathedral
  30. 30. St. Basil’s ChurchMoscow
  31. 31. Nieuwe Kerk ,Amsterdam
  32. 32. Ethiopian ChurchesLalibela, Ethiopia
  33. 33. Countries with the Largest Muslim Populations (2009) Estimated Muslim % of the population %of the world Population that is Muslim Muslim populationIndonesia 202,867,000 88.2% 12.9%Pakistan 174,082,000 96.3 11.1India 160,945,000 13.4 10.3Bangladesh 145,312,000 89.6 9.3Egypt 78,513,000 94.6 5.0Nigeria 78,056,000 50.4 5.0Iran 73,777,000 99.4 4.7Turkey 73,619,000 ~98 4.7Algeria 34,199,000 98.0 2.2Morocco 31,993,000 ~99 ~2
  34. 34. Isfahan, Iran
  35. 35. Mosque, Samarkand, Uzbekistan
  36. 36. Mihrab (niche) indicates the Qibla (direction to Mecca)
  37. 37. Mosque, Djenne, Mali
  38. 38. Mosque, Toledo, Ohio
  39. 39. Kaaba “cube” Masjid al-HaramCapacity – 4 million people
  40. 40. Megalithic Tomb
  41. 41. Japanese Gravestones Memorialize the Dead With QR CodesQR codes are practically everywhere inJapan nowadays, but here’s a unique takeon the technology: Japanese gravestonemaker Ishi no Koe ("Voice of the Stone")recently announced plans to begin sellinggravestones with the two-dimensional barcodes embedded into them.By simply snapping a shot of the tag withtheir cellphones, visitors will be able to viewphotos, videos and other information aboutthe deceased. The device would also keepa log of each time the code was scannedso family members can keep up to datewith when other relatives last visited thesite.In the future, Ishi no Koe hopes to use thistechnology to develop a new way to payrespect to the dead that wouldnt requireyou to actually be at the cemetery inperson. The company sees this as analternative especially fitting for today’syounger generation.
  42. 42. One of the greatest cities of the world, Cahokia was larger than London was in AD 1250.
  43. 43. Hopewell Serpent Mound, Ohio
  44. 44. Tower of Silence
  45. 45. Religion & Conflict
  46. 46. Identify conflicts in the world that is (was) between competing religious groups?
  47. 47. Country Main religious groups involvedAfghanistan Extreme, Fundamentalist Muslim terrorists & non-MuslimsBosnia Serbian Orthodox Christians, Roman Catholics, MuslimsCôte dIvoire Muslims, Indigenous, ChristianCyprus Christians & MuslimsEast Timor Christians & MuslimsIndia Animists, Hindus, Muslims & SikhsIndonesia, province of Ambon Christians & MuslimsIndonesia, province of Halmahera Christians & MuslimsIraq Kurds, Shiite Muslims, Sunni Muslims, western forcesKashmir Hindus & MuslimsKosovo Serbian Orthodox Christians & MuslimsKurdistan Christians, MuslimsMacedonia Macedonian Orthodox Christians & MuslimsMiddle East Jews, Muslims, & ChristiansNigeria Christians, Animists, & MuslimsNorthern Ireland Protestants, CatholicsPakistan Sunni & Shiite MuslimsPhilippines Christians & MuslimsRussia, Chechnya Russian Orthodox Christians, MuslimsSouth Africa Animists & "Witches"Sri Lanka Buddhists & HindusSudan Animists, Christians & MuslimsThailand Buddhists & MuslimsTibet Buddhists & CommunistsUganda Animists, Christians, & Muslims
  48. 48. Interfaith Boundaries can divide countries
  49. 49. Hausa-Fulani (Muslim)Yoruba & Ibo (Christian/ Animist)
  50. 50. Women and motorbike taxi riders are defying a newban in the Nigerian state of Kano that stops womentravelling on the bikes by pretending to be related.According to Sharia law, men and women are notallowed to travel together on public transport, butwomen can travel with their male relations.State authorities say mobile magistrate courts willimpose on-the-spot fines on offenders of the law fromMonday. Women say there are not enough alternativesfor them to get around.
  51. 51. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi wasassassinated by her Sikh bodyguards in 1984
  52. 52. Babri MosqueAyodhya, IndiaMore than 2000 killed insubsequent riots
  53. 53. Christian Shiite Muslim Exclave EnclaveA piece of land of a particular state that A piece of territory that is surrounded byis separated from it by another state another political union of which it is not part
  54. 54. “Ethnic Cleansing” moved Muslims and others from their homes
  55. 55. In Srebrenica, Bosnia approximately 8,000 Muslim boys and men were killed
  56. 56. Cave of the Patriarchs
  57. 57. Intrafaith Conflict
  58. 58. More than 3,200 people were killed in Northern Ireland’s “Troubles” 1969-1998