Race & ethnicity 2012
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  • 1. Race, Ethnicity& GenderDeBlij Chapter 5AP HUMANGEOGRAPHY
  • 2. Minorities in the USWhere do you think you would find thefollowing minorities in the US? – Hispanic Americans – African Americans – Native Americans (American Indians) – Asian Americans – Arab Americans
  • 3. Where does the largest population ofIranian descent live in the US? Los Angeles “Tehrangeles” 700,000 – 800,000 people
  • 4. GEOGRAPHY OF RACE Rejecting the Color Line
  • 5. RedliningBlockbusting
  • 6. GEOGRAPHY OF RACE • The term “race” originates in 16th cent. Europe – Skin color is not a reliable indication of genetic closenessRace is a political creation
  • 7. “Racial” ConflictThe Rwandan Genocide is often described as “racial” conflict Hutu Tutsi
  • 8. “Racial” Conflict The Yugoslav civil war is often described as “racial” conflictSamira Hasanvasic, left, a Bosnian Muslim girl and her Serb friend Romana Stjepic, right,
  • 9. Ethnic Cleansing
  • 10. Apartheid – South Africa Jim Crow – United States
  • 11. Britain Russia• Caribbean • Chechens• Africa• Indian subcontinent Who is classified asBrazil “black?”• The poor
  • 12. Global Standards of Beauty
  • 13. Skin Tone in India Aishwarya Rai
  • 14. Skin WhiteningMarket is approximately worth $500 million in India alone
  • 15. Ethnicity• Distinctiveness based on shared cultural traits – (history, cultural landscape, faith)• Ethnic divisions can cause conflict: – Liberia (Afro-Liberians vs. Americo-Liberians) – Corsica (Corsicans vs. French) – Sri Lanka (Sinhalese vs. Tamils) Ethnicity is based upon perception Most ethnic conflicts are between people who have no “racial” differences Armenian Genocide
  • 16. Northern IrelandWhich is the Catholic? Which is the Protestant? Ian Paisley John Hume
  • 17. Ethnic Space• Cities Little Italy, Chinatown etc.• Toponymy: New Orleans; New York• Rural “ethnic islands”
  • 18. Ethnic Island
  • 19. AcculturationWhat can save ethnicneighborhoods fromacculturation? •Cultural Revival •Cultural Linkage
  • 20. Immigration Intermarriage Cultural Revival
  • 21. Bostons oldest synagogue, the Vilna Shul on Beacon Hill,now serves as a cultural center and an informal place toexperience Judaism. David Gerzof, 30, standing at the rearduring a service, helps organize events at the shul.
  • 22. Quebec• Canada a plural society – Historically, Quebecers felt like “second class citizens” – 1970’s Bloc Quebecois – 1977 Businesses must function in French – 1980’s Native Americans claim also be a “distinct society”
  • 23. GENDERAREAS OF INEQUALITY• EDUCATION• WAGES• FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT• FORCED MARRIAGES• “HONOR” KILLINGS/DOWRY DEATHS• PHYSICAL VIOLENCE• “GLASS CEILING”
  • 24. WOMEN IN SAUDI ARABIA
  • 25. Gendered Space (GenderApartheid?)
  • 26. DEMOGRAPHY & HEALTH • LONGEVITY GAP – Europe – Women outlive men by 7 yrs – Russia – Women outlive men by 12 yrs – Sub-Saharan African – Women outlive men by 2 yrs
  • 27. Maternal Mortality Rate (#Deaths Per 100,000 Live Births)Country Mortality Ratio Lifetime RiskAfghanistan 1800 1 in 8US 11 1 in 4,800Iceland 4 1 in 12,700
  • 28. Female Infanticide (Gendercide?) • India – 873 girls for every 1,000 boys born (New Delhi • China – 1995 – 9/10 single 30 yr olds were male
  • 29. WOMEN IN IRAN
  • 30. WOMEN’S EDUCATION AS A RATIO TO MEN’S Primary school enrolment and attendance Afghanistan Male 66% Female 40% Nigeria Male 68% Female 58% Mexico Male 98% Female 97% Secondary school enrolment and attendance Nigeria Male 38% Female 33% Mexico Male 71% Female 70%
  • 31. CYCLE OF POVERTY WOMEN IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA… VIEWED AS THE LESS VALUABLE THAN BOYS & OFTEN MARRIED EARLY (9-14 YEARS) WILL NOT GET LACK BASIC EDUCATION LOANS FROMBECAUSE THEYMUST PERFORM BANKS HELP FROM HARD PHYSICAL LABOR TO GOVERNMENT MAINTAIN HOUSEHOLD ARE USUALLY POWERLESS IN MARRIAGE (PROPERTY HELD BY HUSBAND)
  • 32. Female SuffrageWhen did women get the right tovote?1893 Argentina Pakistan1917 Canada Russia1918 (3 countries) Cuba Switzerland1919 France UK1920 Germany USA1934 Iraq1944 Japan1947 (3 countries)1971 Kuwait1980 Netherlands2005 New Zealand
  • 33. Female Suffrage1893 New Zealand1917 Canada1918 UK, Germany, Russia1919 Netherlands1920 US1934 Cuba1944 France1947 Japan; Argentina; Pakistan1971 Switzerland1980 Iraq2005 Kuwait
  • 34. ENFRANCHISEMENT – “The Vote” GREATEST PARTICIPATION BY WOMEN IN GOVERNMENT – NORTHERN EUROPE FEMALE POLITICAL LEADERSCHANDRIKA KUMARATUNGA CORAZON AQUINO MARGARET THATCHER SRI LANKA PHILIPPINES BRITAIN
  • 35. WOMEN’S ENFRANCISEMENTPERCENTAGE OF SEATS IN PARLIAMENT OCCUPIED BY WOMEN IN 2008 SWEDEN 47% U.S. 17% RWANDA 46% JAPAN 14% IRAQ 26% IRAN 3% CHINA 21% SAUDI ARABIA 0