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Race & ethnicity 2012
 

Race & ethnicity 2012

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    Race & ethnicity 2012 Race & ethnicity 2012 Presentation Transcript

    • Race, Ethnicity& GenderDeBlij Chapter 5AP HUMANGEOGRAPHY
    • Minorities in the USWhere do you think you would find thefollowing minorities in the US? – Hispanic Americans – African Americans – Native Americans (American Indians) – Asian Americans – Arab Americans
    • Where does the largest population ofIranian descent live in the US? Los Angeles “Tehrangeles” 700,000 – 800,000 people
    • GEOGRAPHY OF RACE Rejecting the Color Line
    • RedliningBlockbusting
    • GEOGRAPHY OF RACE • The term “race” originates in 16th cent. Europe – Skin color is not a reliable indication of genetic closenessRace is a political creation
    • “Racial” ConflictThe Rwandan Genocide is often described as “racial” conflict Hutu Tutsi
    • “Racial” Conflict The Yugoslav civil war is often described as “racial” conflictSamira Hasanvasic, left, a Bosnian Muslim girl and her Serb friend Romana Stjepic, right,
    • Ethnic Cleansing
    • Apartheid – South Africa Jim Crow – United States
    • Britain Russia• Caribbean • Chechens• Africa• Indian subcontinent Who is classified asBrazil “black?”• The poor
    • Global Standards of Beauty
    • Skin Tone in India Aishwarya Rai
    • Skin WhiteningMarket is approximately worth $500 million in India alone
    • Ethnicity• Distinctiveness based on shared cultural traits – (history, cultural landscape, faith)• Ethnic divisions can cause conflict: – Liberia (Afro-Liberians vs. Americo-Liberians) – Corsica (Corsicans vs. French) – Sri Lanka (Sinhalese vs. Tamils) Ethnicity is based upon perception Most ethnic conflicts are between people who have no “racial” differences Armenian Genocide
    • Northern IrelandWhich is the Catholic? Which is the Protestant? Ian Paisley John Hume
    • Ethnic Space• Cities Little Italy, Chinatown etc.• Toponymy: New Orleans; New York• Rural “ethnic islands”
    • Ethnic Island
    • AcculturationWhat can save ethnicneighborhoods fromacculturation? •Cultural Revival •Cultural Linkage
    • Immigration Intermarriage Cultural Revival
    • Bostons oldest synagogue, the Vilna Shul on Beacon Hill,now serves as a cultural center and an informal place toexperience Judaism. David Gerzof, 30, standing at the rearduring a service, helps organize events at the shul.
    • Quebec• Canada a plural society – Historically, Quebecers felt like “second class citizens” – 1970’s Bloc Quebecois – 1977 Businesses must function in French – 1980’s Native Americans claim also be a “distinct society”
    • GENDERAREAS OF INEQUALITY• EDUCATION• WAGES• FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT• FORCED MARRIAGES• “HONOR” KILLINGS/DOWRY DEATHS• PHYSICAL VIOLENCE• “GLASS CEILING”
    • WOMEN IN SAUDI ARABIA
    • Gendered Space (GenderApartheid?)
    • DEMOGRAPHY & HEALTH • LONGEVITY GAP – Europe – Women outlive men by 7 yrs – Russia – Women outlive men by 12 yrs – Sub-Saharan African – Women outlive men by 2 yrs
    • Maternal Mortality Rate (#Deaths Per 100,000 Live Births)Country Mortality Ratio Lifetime RiskAfghanistan 1800 1 in 8US 11 1 in 4,800Iceland 4 1 in 12,700
    • Female Infanticide (Gendercide?) • India – 873 girls for every 1,000 boys born (New Delhi • China – 1995 – 9/10 single 30 yr olds were male
    • WOMEN IN IRAN
    • WOMEN’S EDUCATION AS A RATIO TO MEN’S Primary school enrolment and attendance Afghanistan Male 66% Female 40% Nigeria Male 68% Female 58% Mexico Male 98% Female 97% Secondary school enrolment and attendance Nigeria Male 38% Female 33% Mexico Male 71% Female 70%
    • CYCLE OF POVERTY WOMEN IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA… VIEWED AS THE LESS VALUABLE THAN BOYS & OFTEN MARRIED EARLY (9-14 YEARS) WILL NOT GET LACK BASIC EDUCATION LOANS FROMBECAUSE THEYMUST PERFORM BANKS HELP FROM HARD PHYSICAL LABOR TO GOVERNMENT MAINTAIN HOUSEHOLD ARE USUALLY POWERLESS IN MARRIAGE (PROPERTY HELD BY HUSBAND)
    • Female SuffrageWhen did women get the right tovote?1893 Argentina Pakistan1917 Canada Russia1918 (3 countries) Cuba Switzerland1919 France UK1920 Germany USA1934 Iraq1944 Japan1947 (3 countries)1971 Kuwait1980 Netherlands2005 New Zealand
    • Female Suffrage1893 New Zealand1917 Canada1918 UK, Germany, Russia1919 Netherlands1920 US1934 Cuba1944 France1947 Japan; Argentina; Pakistan1971 Switzerland1980 Iraq2005 Kuwait
    • ENFRANCHISEMENT – “The Vote” GREATEST PARTICIPATION BY WOMEN IN GOVERNMENT – NORTHERN EUROPE FEMALE POLITICAL LEADERSCHANDRIKA KUMARATUNGA CORAZON AQUINO MARGARET THATCHER SRI LANKA PHILIPPINES BRITAIN
    • WOMEN’S ENFRANCISEMENTPERCENTAGE OF SEATS IN PARLIAMENT OCCUPIED BY WOMEN IN 2008 SWEDEN 47% U.S. 17% RWANDA 46% JAPAN 14% IRAQ 26% IRAN 3% CHINA 21% SAUDI ARABIA 0