The New World Order “Now, we can see a new world coming into view. A world in which there is the very real prospect of a new world order. In the words of Winston Churchill, a "world order" in which "the principles of justice and fair play ... protect the weak against the strong ..." A world where the United Nations, freed from cold war stalemate, is poised to fulfill the historic vision of its founders. A world in which freedom and respect for human rights find a home among all nations.” George H. W. Bush (1991)
Devolution• The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government – Can be caused by • Suprantionalism • Ethnonationalism • Economics
Ethno-nationalismEthno-nationalism: when ethnic groups seethemselves as distinct nations
Geography & Devolution• Devolution often occurs near the boundaries of nations or on islands – France (Corsica) – Tanzania (Zanzibar) – US (Hawaii; “Cascadia” NW)
Gateway Theory• Political entities near border zones may become gateway states that absorb surrounding cultures and become something different.
Devolution in USSROccurred in 1990’s• Reasons: – USSR loses Eastern Europe – economic problems – ethnic diversityReplaced by the CISRise of ethnic conflictDisplaced peoplesThe “Near Abroad” The Putin Generation
The New World Order• States are still important BUT – Provinces matter – Influence of non-state entities – Increasing influence of religion – Cross border issues – Growth of supranational organizations
FRAGMENTATION & COHESION Centripetal Forces Centrifugal Forces (promote unity) (promotes division)Federalism TribalismLeadership Regional inequalitiesExternal threat IsolationNational education New forms of communicationNational ideologyMovement within country
Why do states cooperate andsometimes unite with other states?
SUPRANATIONALISM3 or more states involving formal – Political – Economic – Cultural cooperation is based on shared objectives
THE UNITED NATIONS (1945) SECRETARIATE SECURITY COUNCIL GENERAL ASSEMBLYECONOMIC & SOCIAL COUNCIL INTERNATIONAL COURT UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE OF JUSTICE http://whc.unesco.org/
UN Peacekeepers• Not a UN force (troops come from member nations)• Troops commanded by UN general
MARITIME LAW• UN Conference on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) – Territorial seas = 14 miles – Exclusive Economic Zone = 230 miles • Median Line Principle – Mineral resources in open seas should be for all humanity (US objection)
REGIONAL MULTINATIONALISM First multinational union: Benelux (1944) •Belgium •Netherlands •Luxembourg
ECSC (1952) European Coal & Steel CommunityLifted restrictions governing the flow of coal, iron and steel 1. Germany 2. France 3. Italy 4. Netherlands 5. Belgium 6. Luxembourg
Common Market (1958)Elimination of tariffs on other commodities 1. German 2. France 3. Italy 4. Netherlands 5. Belgium 6. Luxembourg 7. Britain 8. Ireland 9. Denmark 10.Spain 11.Portugal 12.Greece
European Union (1992)Objective:• Economic and POLITICAL union• Common currencyProblems:• uneven economic development• fear of loss of local autonomy• dominance of Germany Can you name the• national rivalries 27 members of the EU?