Overview chap 2 2012


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Overview chap 2 2012

  1. 1. OVERVIEW CHAP 2 AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHYHistoric World Population
  2. 2. Hong KongLand Area: 402 sq milesPopulation: 7, 061,200 (July 2005 est.) Smithtown Land Area: 54 sq miles Population: 117,801
  3. 3. Problems of Population Growth• Soil erosion• Biological extinction• Destruction of ecosystems• Consumption of minerals and fuel• Water deficits 50,000 tons of blue fin tuna are The burning Amazon rain forest can& extracted from the Mediterranean be seen from space Atlantic each year 50,000 tons is approximately the weight of 3,000 school buses filled to capacity
  4. 4. Population Issues• Population shrinkage• Migration• Refugees• Food supply• Health• Status of women The second-grade class at the Kami Hinokinai school has only three children and their teacher, due to Japans low birthrate. The school closed in 2007.
  5. 5. Historically, population growth has not been linear
  6. 6. Population has always been unevenly distributed over the land Unequal distribution has increased during the 20th centuryPopulation density measures the number of people per square unit
  7. 7. Beware: Arithmetic Population Density No country has an evenly distributed population Territory Population A.P.D. Egypt: 384300 miles² 71.1 million 185 people/mile² 98% of population lives on 3% of the land
  8. 8. Solution: Physiologic Population Density• Number of people per unit area of agriculturally productive (arable) land• P.P.D. for Egypt = 9245 people/mile²• P.P.D. for U.S. = 423 people/mile²
  9. 9. On which landmass are the three largest population concentrations found? 4 billion of theglobal population of 6 billion Isopleth map of World Population Density Isoline & Choropleth
  10. 10. North America North America does not have large high density population zones like Eurasia Megalopolis
  11. 11. No major population No major population concentration population concentrations of 650 million concentrationsThe number of people that can be supported in a specific area (carrying capacity) depends upon the economic, political and technological conditions
  12. 12. Population Trends1965-69: Population growth of 2.1%1985-89: Population growth of 1.6% But Population base = 5 billion Population increase = 80 million Demographic Momentum!continued population increase despite reduced reproductive rates
  13. 13. Demographic Momentum Simplified Society “A” Society “B”
  14. 14. World Population Growth Declining Population Growth High Population Growth There have always been variations in the Population Growth Rate
  15. 15. Growth Rates Rate Characteristics• Low standing of women (Patriarchal)• Culturally traditional• Low education levels Bedouin woman from Oman Rate Characteristics• Urbanization• High education levels• Economic wealth• Social Dislocation
  16. 16. Sept 12 – Conception Day in RussiaThe Kartuzovs, shown in June, drive away in their new UAZ-Patriot SUV, which they won as a grand prize in a regionalcontest titled "Give Birth to a Patriot on RussiasIndependence Day."
  17. 17. 190,000,000 peoplePopulation Growth Rate can vary significantly within a country
  18. 18. Population Growth Today the population doubling time is 51 years US will double in 124 years Pakistan will double in 25 years
  19. 19. Population Explosion
  20. 20. Thomas Malthus• Wrote “An Essay on the Principle of Population” (1798)• Key idea: population growing more rapidly than food supply But….. • Food does not increase in a linear manner • Migration influences population • Global food economy
  21. 21. Neo-Malthusians
  22. 22. Match the Population Pyramid with the Country Japan China Gaza Strip France
  23. 23. Gaza Strip Smithtown Area: 138 square miles Area: 111 square milesion: 1,551,859 (estimate) Population: 115,715 44% below the age of 14
  24. 24. Terms to Know Demographythe study of population Natural increase# births - # deaths Crude birth rate (CBR)# live births/1000 Crude death rate (CDR)# deaths/1000 Total fertility rate (TFR)# children / woman
  25. 25. World Birth Rate Low birthrates associated with modernization (exception China)
  26. 26. World Mortality Rate Crude death rates include infant mortalityIs the infant mortality rate the same as the child mortality rate? Years 0-1 Years 1-5
  27. 27. How can this be explained? Crude Death Rates (2007) per 1,000 people Australia 7.6 Panama 5.4 Tunisia 5.2 Italy 10.5 United States 8.3
  28. 28. The Demographic Equation Original Population Deaths Emigration TP = OP + B – D + I - ETotal Population Births Immigration
  29. 29. Population in Europe These factors led to population decreaseLater population Increases• Second Agricultural Revolution• Public Health (Inoculation)
  30. 30. Demographic Transition Model  Births  Births  Births  Births  Deaths  Deaths  Deaths  Deaths Will the population bomb fizzle out?
  31. 31. Here’s the Issue:Britain had a population of 7-8 million when population began tochange. East and South Asia has a much greater population Eventually all countries may reach a Stationary Population Level (SPL) (stop growing) China may stabilize at India may stabilize at 1.7 billion in 2070 2 billion in 2070