Apple Inc.6 Born on April 1st, 1976 Formerly Apple Computer, Inc., is a multinational corporation that creates consumer electronics, computer software, and commercial servers. Apples core product lines are the iPad , iPhone, iPod music player, and Macintosh computer line-
The Beginnings of Apple7 After spending time in India in 1974, Jobs returned to America He visited with Woz the homebrew computer club, but was not content with just the creation of electronics. Jobs convinced Woz to help him create a personal computer, the Apple I Jobs, with marketing help from a friend, had the vision of creating a computer company that would make and sell pc‟s.
Apple Jobs and Woz sold the Apple I in 1976 for $666, making over $776,000 from sales In 1977, the two released the Apple II, a single board computer with onboard ROM and a color video interface.
The Macintosh In 1984, Apple released the Macintosh, the first personal computer with a graphical user interface. It had 128K of memory, and was expandable. Along with the mouse, the Macintosh was the most revolutionary computer made up to that point.
NeXT Jobs project in the late 1980’s to mid 90’s was NextStep A new computer company based on an object oriented software platform, NeXT failed first as a hardware company, then as a software company Apple similarly did very poorly in the early and mid 90’s, brought on by poor leadership and stagnating computer design
The Second Coming of Jobs In 1996, Apple bought NeXT, and with it came Steve Jobs. In 2000, Jobs became the full CEO of Apple, after the success of the iMac, the first computer mainly marketed for its looks.
Return to Profitability andInnovation Jobs continues to innovate the computer industry, spearheading projects like the iPod, iTunes and its Music Store, and high end computer Under Jobs’ watch, Apple has entered a new phase of growth and profitability, fueled by his imagination and quest for perfection
Apples Steve Jobs dead at 56 OCTOBER 05: Candles, flowers, and an iPhone with Steve Jobs photo displayed, are seen in remembrance of Steve Jobs, founder and former CEO of Apple Inc, outside the Apple Store at West 66th Street on October 5, 2011 in New York City.Jobs, 56, passed away October 5, 2011 after a long battle with pancreatic cancer. Jobs co- founded Apple in 1976 and is credited, along with Steve Wozniak, with marketing the worlds first personal computer in addition to the popular iPod, iPhone and iPad.
Components of Jobs leadership Focus Passion Risk taker Innovation Involvement Effective Communication
Components of Jobs17 leadership While Apple had six CEOs through the period of 1977-1985, it has become evident that it lacked both marketing and technological zeal and the CEO which the company needed had to combine the knowledge and vision of the future technology and marketing. Thus, one of the peculiarities of Jobs leadership style is that he sees the core companys activity through the marketing prism. Jobs was able to restructure the company and return it to the normal performance through the development of new products and making them popular among consumers.
The leadership style of Steve Jobs Transformational leadership like a transformational leader, he focuses on " transforming " others to help each other to be encouraging and harmonious, and to look out for the organizations a whole . His leadership creates valuable and positive change in the followers In his leadership he enhances the motivation performance of his followers group , some people also categorize him as a charismatic leader .
Cont‟d …19 ‟Innovation distinguishes between the leader and the follower‟ (Deutschman, 2001) – This quotation is the key to the leadership style of Steve Jobs; he has made innovations accessible to the customers so that they keep opening their wallets. (ICFAI, 2006).
Steve Jobs: an unconventional leader20 Steve Jobs was an unconventional leader. His management style wasnt the stuff of university textbooks, he wasnt known for his consultative or consensus building approach. He was a "high-maintenance co- worker" who demanded excellence from his staff and was known for his blunt delivery of criticism. But it was his sheer genius combined with his ability to articulate his vision and bring staff, investors and customers along on the journey ; plus the lessons learned in a major career setback , that made it work. The results: indisputable.
Cont‟d…21 one of the peculiarities of Jobs‟ leadership style is that he sees the core company‟s activity through the marketing prism. Jobs was able to restructure the company and return it to the normal performance through the development of new products and making them popular among consumers. ‟Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings‟ (Young, 2005) This is the mission statement which Apple follows at present.
22 Steve Jobs has brought Apple back from the verge of oblivion, racking up profits and restoring Apples image with the innovative iMac and iBook. Apple stock has increased more than 8 times since Jobs returned. And he left behind a company in the best financial shape of its 35-year history.
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP23 In the past, many felt that Steve Jobs charismatic leadership and idiosyncrasies caused some internal problems. At Apple, he was seen as a leader whose brilliance and idealistic vision of "providing computers as a tool to change the world," drew other talented people to him. By the same token, his management style tended toward throwing tantrums and to berating and humiliating employees who disagreed with his ideas. Also, his habit of making decisions and then suddenly changing his mind has been given as part of the reason he is difficult to work for.
Cont‟d…24 Harveys (2001) study of Steve Jobs charisma at Apple Corporation raises several important points.Jobs uses exemplification (embodying the ideal of being morally responsible, committed to the cause, and taking risks) and self-promotion (and less often organization-promotion) to enact his characterization of charismatic leadership (Harvey, 2001: 257). When leaders cast themselves in the charismatic roles and their followers are cast as allies in pursuit of the charismatic leaders vision (Gardner & Alvolio, 1998: 42; Harvey, 2001: 254), .
Visionary leadership .25 “Visionary” is how he is most often described in relation to Apple, the company he founded with high school buddy Steve Wozniak in 1976, was effectively fired from in 1985, and then returned to in 1997 with a renewed sense of purpose. And what a triumphant return it was. According the LA Times, the market value of Apples shares has grown from about $US5 billion in 2000 to $US351 billion today making it one of the biggest publicly listed companies in the US, up there with the likes of Exxon Mobil. He worked at Atari and travelled through India before seeing a commercial opportunity in the computer (the original Apple I) Wozniak had built to impress some friends.
On Recruiting talent26 “When I hire somebody really senior, competence is the ante. They have to be really smart. But the real issue for me is, Are they going to fall in love with Apple? Because if they fall in love with Apple, everything else will take care of itself. They‟ll want to do what‟s best for Apple, not what‟s best for them, what‟s best for Steve, or anybody else. “Recruiting is hard. It‟s just finding the needles in the haystack. We do it ourselves and we spend a lot of time at it. I‟ve participated in the hiring of maybe 5,000-plus people in my life. So I take it very seriously. You can‟t know enough in a one-hour interview. So, in the end, it‟s ultimately based on your gut. How do I feel about this person? What are they like when they‟re challenged? Why are they here? I ask everybody that: „Why are you here?‟ The answers themselves are not what you‟re looking for. It‟s the meta-data.” Passion rules! Passion is about our emotional energy and a love for what we do. Without passion it becomes difficult to fight back in the face of obstacles and difficulties. People with passion find a way to get things done and to make things happen, in spite of the obstacles and challenges that get in the way.
Problems faced and how did he28 overcome those ... " you have probably had somebody punch you in the stomach and it knocks the wind out of you and you cannot breathe . the harder you try to breathe , the more you cannot breathe. and you know that the only thing you can do is relax so you can start breathing again ." Steve Joabs, after he was ousted from Apple Computer ,in 1985.
Steve Jobs . Leadership Lessons29 Persistence is the key Steve Jobs was a very persistent person and it was most exemplified through his exit from Apple. He would not give up, but went on to start NeXT computers which would eventually be acquired by Apple Computers Inc. If Jobs was like most people, he would have given up and spent the rest of his life being bitter about his loss. As a leader, you have to be ready to face setbacks. Setbacks are a part of life and whether you become successful or not often depend on your ability not to give up. It is all the more important to display this attribute, especially if you want to build a never-say-die team.
Cont‟d …30 Innovation brings leadership Jobs saw the power of innovation in building his company. Till today, we can see the innovating power of Apple Computers Inc as it continues to take market leadership in the industry. If you want to maintain your leadership, you have to be the one who‟s constantly up with new ideas, new initiatives, all in the spirit of moving your organizational mission forward. In whatever industry you‟re in, your constant innovation in alignment with your mission will keep you ahead of the pack.
REFERENCES AND36 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bass, B.M., 1985. Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations . New York, NY: FreePress. Conger, J.A and Kanungo, R.N., 1987. Toward a behavioural theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review , 12 (4), pp. 637-647. Growthink, 2010. Entrepreneurial Leadership: The Definition of an Entrepreneur. [online] Available athttp://www.growthink.com/businessplan/help- center/entrepreneurial-leadership [Accessed 20 October 2010]. Gupta, A., 2010. Steve Jobs, CEO Apple. [online] Available at :http://www.practical- management.com/Leadership/Steve-Jobs-Apple.html[Accessed 20 October 2010]. Harvey, A., 2001. A Dramaturgical Analysis of Charismatic Leader Discourse. Journal of Organizational Change Management , 14 (3), pp. 253±265. Hormby, T., 2008. The Roots of Apple¶s Retail Stores. [online] Available at:http://lowendmac.com/orchard/08th/roots-of-the-apple-store .html[Accessed 10 November 2010]. Kahney, L., 2008. Inside Steves Brain. London: Atlantic Books. Moisescot, R., 2010. Steve Jobs: Long Bio. [online] Available at:http://www.allaboutstevejobs.com/bio/long/05.html[Accessed 20 October 2010]. Mullins, L.J., 2007. Management and Organizational Behaviour . 8 edition . Harlow: FT Prentice Hall. Northouse, G.N., 2010. Leadership: Theory and Practice . 5th ed. London: SAGEPublications