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  • 1. The Incredible Reflection
  • 2. and there we go..! ● ● Classes like Class, Method, etc.. A running program examining itself and it's environment..
  • 3. Some reflective jargon & The definition ● Metadata, MetaObjects, Introspection, etc.. ● Definition ○ ○ ○ The ability of a running program to examine itself and its software environment introspect, and behave accordingly. This self-examination requires a self-representation - metadata. In an OO world, metadata is organized into objects - metaobjects.
  • 4. Feature set Methods of Class for field introspection: Field getField( String name) Returns a Field object that represents the specified public member field of this class/interface. Field[] getFields() Returns an array of Field objects that represents all the accessible public fields of the this class/interface. Field[] getDeclaredField( String name ) Returns a Field object representing the specified declared field by this class/interface. Field[] getDeclaredFields() Returns an array of Field objects that represents all the that represents each field declared by this class/interface.
  • 5. Feature set cont.d.. Methods of Class for field introspection: Class getType(), Class getDeclaringClass(), String getName(), int getModifiers(), Object get( Object obj ), void set( Object obj, Object value ), On the similar lines, there are set of methods available for Method, Constructor & Annotations. Hierarchy of members within reflection API: Member Method Field Constructor
  • 6. Armoury.. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● java.lang.Class java.lang.reflect.Array java.lang.reflect.AccessibleObject java.lang.reflect.Constructor java.lang.reflect.Field java.lang.reflect.Member java.lang.reflect.Method java.lang.reflect.Modifier java.lang.reflect.Proxy - And many more..
  • 7. Loading & Constructing at will..(1 of 2) ● ● What web servers do? ○ loading and executing new code.. Load at will ○ Class.forname(String className) ■ Doesn't require class name at compile time ● Examples: ○ ○ Class cls = Class.forName("java.lang.String") Class cls = Class.forName("java.lang.String[]"); ■ System.out.println(String[].class.getName()); - Prints [Ljava.lang.String; ○ ○ ○ Class cls = Class.forName("[Ljava.lang.String;"); Will primitives work..? Will primitive arrays work..?
  • 8. Loading & Constructing at will..(2 of 2) ● Reflective Construction ○ Class.newInstance() ■ ○ Doesn't require class name at compile time java.lang.reflect.Constructor ■ cls.getConstructor( new Class[] {String.class, String.class} ) ● introspects for a constructor of cls Class that takes two String parameters. Flavours: getConstructor(Class[]), getDeclaredConstructor(Class[]), getConstructors(), getDeclaredConstructors() ○ Constructing Arrays ■ ■ ■ ■ Array.newInstance() Array.newInstance(String.class, 5); Array.newInstance(String[].class, 5); Array.newInstance(String.class, new int[] {2, 3});
  • 9. The Joy of Breaking the laws.. #1 Accessing nonpublic members Output: Executing private method 120
  • 10. The Joy of Breaking the laws.. #2 Breaking Immutability: Output: rue String is mutable String is mutable
  • 11. Back to reality.. Plugging in the security module - SecurityManager - An object that defines a security policy for an application. - Any action not allowed in the policy throws SecurityException . - Application can query its security manager for allowed actions - Default policy file location : java.homelibsecurityjava.policy - Specifying additional policy file at run time: java -Djava.security.manager -Djava.security.policy=someURL SomeApp
  • 12. Mastering the cross cutting issues.. What are cross cutting issues in an application? Business flow Vs Logging Business flow Vs Exception Handling Business flow Vs Atomicity Aspect Oriented Programming Increasing modularity by allowing separation of cross cutting concerns Logging Exception Handling Logging Synchronizing Business Logic Synchronizing Exception Handling Business Logic
  • 13. Dynamic Proxy The Players: java.lang.reflect.Proxy - dynamic proxy-creation facility Has methods to create a class that can work as a proxy for another class. Proxy instance provided, can implement the interfaces implemented by the actual class; the class for which it acts as a proxy. java.lang.reflect.InvocationHandler - Each proxy instance has an associated invocation handler. When a method is invoked on a proxy instance, the method invocation is encoded and dispatched to the invoke method of its invocation handler. Object InvocationHandler.invoke(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args) throws Throwable method - the Method instance corresponding to the interface method invoked on the proxy instance. args - an array of objects containing the values of the arguments passed in the method invocation on the proxy instance. => Proxy can provide a Class or an instance that implements a given set of interfaces, of which every method call is intercepted and provided with an opportunity to do some something extra..
  • 14. Call Stacks & Stack Frames 1 of 2 - Each thread of execution has a call stack consisting of stack frames. - Each frame in the call stack represents a method call. Call Stack Stack Frames - Stack frames contain information pertinent to the associated method. - Each new method call corresponds to a new stack frame. - Frame at the bottom of a call stack will be main() or run() StackTraceElement[] java.lang.Throwable.getStackTrace() - new Throwable().getStackTrace() - returns StackFrames Since the main() or run() StackTraceElement provides following details: File name, Line number, Class name, method name
  • 15. Call Stacks & Stack Frames 2 of 2 Uses: 1. Logging 2. Security - Based on the caller's package or class access can be denied new Throwable().getStackTrace()[1] = ? Sample Usage: main() method1() method2() method3() { { { { #16 m1(); #27 } } m2(); #38 m3() ; #56 StackTraceElement[] elt = new Throwable().getStackTrace(); } } Output: elt[0] = Class : call.stack.introspection.CallStack1SampleApp File : CallStack1SampleApp.java Line : 56 Method : method3 elt[1] = Class : call.stack.introspection.CallStack1SampleApp File : CallStack1SampleApp.java Line : 37 Method : method2 elt[2] = Class : call.stack.introspection.CallStack1SampleApp File : CallStack1SampleApp.java Line : 27 Method : method1 elt[3] = Class : call.stack.introspection.CallStack1SampleApp File : CallStack1SampleApp.java Line : 16 Method : main
  • 16. Is performance overstated? "We should forget about small efficiencies, say about 97% of the time: premature optimization is the root of all evil. Yet we should not pass up our opportunities in that critical 3%. A good programmer will not be lulled into complacency by such reasoning, he will be wise to look carefully at the critical code; but only after that code has been identified" — Donald Knuth Reflective flexibility = Binding the names on run time.. ● Categorizing performance impact: ○ Construction overhead - One time ■ Dependency injection (Spring) ■ Dynamic Proxy for specific methods ■ Reflective code generation ○ ○ ● Execution Overhead ■ Method.invoke() ■ Forwarding method through a proxy. Granularity Overhead ■ Method.invoke() end up doing a lot of unnecessary checks Granularity overheads should be narrowed whenever possible.
  • 17. Through the JDKs.. ● JDK 1.0 ○ ● Class, Object, ClassLoader JDK1.1 ○ ● java.lang.reflect, Field, Method, Constructor JDK1.2 ○ ● ● ● ● ● AccessibleObject, ReflectPermission JDK1.3 ○ Proxy, InvocationHandler, UndeclaredThrowableException, InvocationTargetException JDK1.4 ○ StackTraceElement JDK1.5 ○ Generics support, Annotations JDK1.6 ○ 'Generified' some methods in Class: getInterfaces(), getClasses() , etc ○ The final parameter of Array.newInstance(Class, int...) is of variable arity. JDK7 ○ ReflectiveOperationException - A "Common superclass of exceptions thrown by reflective operations in core reflection.
  • 18. References 'Standing on the shoulders of giants' Java Reflection in Action (In Action series) - Ira Forman and Nate Forman http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-09-1997/jw-09-indepth.html?page=1 http://java.sun.com/developer/technicalArticles/ALT/Reflection/ http://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/essential/environment/security.html http://docs.oracle.com/javase/1.4.2/docs/guide/security/PolicyFiles.html http://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/reflect/TOC.html http://java.sun.com/developer/technicalArticles/DynTypeLang/ http://stackoverflow.com/
  • 19. Appendix 1