• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content

Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

Artifacts in eeg final

on

  • 17,185 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
17,185
Views on SlideShare
16,906
Embed Views
279

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
753
Comments
2

1 Embed 279

http://sleeptechstudy.wordpress.com 279

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

12 of 2 previous next

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • great
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • this is agreat job

    god bless you
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Artifacts in eeg final Artifacts in eeg final Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction:
      • Unwanted electrical activity arising from different sources, other than cerebral activity
      • EEG -highly sensitive recording device, easily interrupted by other electrical activity of very high voltages
      • Some readily distinguished, others closely resemble cerebral activity .
    • Principles used to discriminate artifacts from EEG signals:
      • Physiological activity has a logical topographic field of distribution with an expected fall off of voltage potentials.
      • Artifacts have an illogical distribution that defies the principles of localization
    • Classification:
      • Physiological : from patient’s own physiological generator sources other than the brain
      • Extraphysiological : Externally generated e.g. instrumental & environmental
    • Physiological artifacts:
      • Cardiogenic-electrical
      • mechanical
      • Muscle activity
      • – Eye movement
      • – surface EMG
      • – Movement
      • glossokinetic
      • respiration
      • photomyoclonic
      • Skin artifacts
      • perspiration
      • salt bridges
      • Eye movements
      • Blink
      • flutter
      • Lateral gaze
      • Lateral rectus spike
      • Slow eye movements
      • Electroretinogram
      • REM sleep
    • Eye movement artifacts:
      • most common, due to cornea-retinal potentials. The cornea is positive to the retina by 50-100 mv
      • Fp1, Fp2, F7, F8 , amplitude is approx 50- 200uv
      • frontopolar rhythmic slow wave activity - simulating brain activity
      • Types of eye movement artifacts
      • – Eye open, eye closure and blink
      • – Eyelid flutter
      • – Eyeball movement (lateral, vertical and oblique eye movements
    • Eye opening and eye closure
    • Blink Eye blink is a “U” shape transient potential which appears in frontopolar electrodes which are closer to the eyes.
    • Eyelid flutter Fine eyelid movements may produce rhythmic 4-8 Hz activity in the frontal leads (disappear on fixation)
    • Lateral eyeball movements
    • Elimination:
      • close the eyes or eye fixation
      • close his eyes with his fingers or place a soft cloth or a cotton pads over the closed eyelids
      • Monitoring eye movements by placing extraocular electrodes will easily help to distinguish from frontal slow waves
    • Muscle (EMG) artifacts:
      • EMG artifacts are due to the muscle contraction
      • superimposed upon the EEG activity
      • The motor unit potentials (MUPs) arising from
      • the scalp muscles may cause misinterpretation by
      • resembling spike or cortical β-activity
    • Lateral rectus spikes:
    • Frontalis:
    • Temporalis: Clenching and grinding teeth
    • Swallowing: Swallowing of saliva usually produces a short burst activity
    • Chewing:
    • Sniffling artifact: Small EMG component with a slow wave
    • Facial myokymia:
    • Glossokinetic artifact: Movement of the tongue during speaking may produce synchronous intermittent rhythmic EEG activity (2-6 Hz) because the mass of the tongue acts as a charged body with a negative tip
    • Glossokinetic artifact:
    • Tremor:
    • Differentiation between EMG artifacts & the cortical spikes :
      • EMG potentials are of extremely short duration (2-20 msec) and spiky even on increasing paper speed to 60 mm/s
      • On basis of morphology and frequency
      • During sleep EMG activity is reduced whereas cortical spikes increase
      • Document using extra muscle electrodes
    • Reduction/elimination:
      • Frontalis - close eyelids lightly and relax
      • Temporalis - opening the mouth
      • Use of relaxation techniques (reassuring, comforting the patient),Massaging the particular muscle groups
      • Occipitalis - putting the pillow under the neck
      • As a last resort change the high frequency filter to 35/15 Hz
    • Cardiogenic artifacts:
      • EP arising in the cardiac muscles, high in amplitude
      • Spread to scalp by volume conduction
      • Prominent in babies, obese, short – neck, cardiomegaly
      • Referential montage picks up ECG artifact due to large interelectrode distances and close proximity of ear electrodes to the heart
      • Equipotential on the scalp - not picked up in bipolar montage
    • Types:
      • ECG
      • Pulse
      • Pacemaker
    • ECG Coming at regular intervals synchronising with ECG
    • ECG: Coming at regular intervals synchronising with ECG
    • Pulse
    • Pulse:
    • Elimination:
      • Changing the head position relative to the thorax
      • Lower the electrode resistance (A1 and A2) or use body earth (A1+A2)
      • Change reference to Cz
      • Shift the electrode a little - eliminate pulse wave
    • Sweat artifact:
      • Warm and humid recording room
      • Anxiety and emotional tension
      • Autonomic dysfunction
      • Electrical potentials due to sweat glands
      • Reduction in the skin resistance (GSR)
      • NaCl and lactic acid of sweat may produce large base line sways
    • Sweat: These are the slow waves of very low frequency (1/3-1/2 Hz)
    • Salt bridge: Electrolyte in sweat interact with electrode gel / paste to produce a salt bridge
    • Elimination:
      • Proper air conditioning
      • Reducing emotional stress
      • Sponging the patient’s face & forehead with alcohol/spirit
      • Setting the short time constant (LFF) if all the efforts fail
    • Movement artifacts:
      • Movement of head, body and limbs produce irregular high voltage potentials
      • Movement of the head during HV or respiration can produce occipital electrode artifacts
      • Movement associated with seizure may obscure cerebral activity
      • Artifacts may occur in essential tremors, Parkinson disease and other movement disorders
    • Head movement: Movement between the head and the pillow
    • Movement associated with seizure: Contraction of skeletal muscles before the seizure activity starts
    • Movement associated with seizure: Difficult to determine the origin of the seizure activity
    • Patting artifacts: Mother patting baby
    • Respiration artifacts: More commonly seen during HV as slow wave activity
    • Reduction/elimination:
      • Solicit the co-operation of the patient to be calm and still
      • Changing the position or turning the patient over will diminish tremor artifacts
      • Placing a roll of towel or firm material under the neck may do away with respiratory artifacts
    • Extra physiological artifacts:
            • Electrode –electrode pop, contact
            • Technical-lead movement, placement
            • Instrumental –AC 60hz artifact ventilator, circulatory pumps
            • Iv fluids
            • Environmental-mobile, TV, radio, electromagnetic
      • The scalp-electrode junction is an important and delicate link in the whole system
      • Electrode artifacts occur due to the change in the resistance or electrode potential between the scalp and the electrode
      • Poor contact, improper electrolyte application, broken lead, poor contact at the junction box, dry out of electrode paste
      Electrode artifacts:
    • Electrode pop: A sudden change in the electrical potential between the electrode and scalp gives rise to the ‘pop’
    • Electrode artifact: Loose contact of the electrode with the scalp
    • Electrode movement artifact: This is movement of electrode on the scalp, because of excessive jelly
      • Recognition & differentiation from cerebral activity:
      • Electrode artifact is strictly confined to one lead or channels having input from this electrode, where as cerebral activity would usually spread to the adjacent electrodes
      • In a bipolar montage, the artifacts show mirror images (like phase reversals) in two adjacent channels
      • Wave morphology may change from time to time
      Electrode artifacts:
      • Elimination
      • Applying proper electrolyte
      • Check electrode impedance & continuity
      • Change the electrode
      • If it still present change the position at a distance of 0.5-1cm
      Electrode artifacts:
      • due to the malfunctioning of certain parts of the machine
      • -Pen deflection
      • -Amplifier
      • -Galvanometer
      • -Faulty ground
      • -Photic stimulator
      Instrumental:
      • Non-symmetrical electrode placement
      • Erroneous settings of different channels
      • Unequal electrode impedances result in loss of common mode rejection and recording of AC artifact
      Technical artifacts:
    • Pen deflection:
    • A1- disconnected:
    • Photic:
    •  
    • Interchanging electrode placement: Interchanging the Fp2 electrode with O2
    • AC artifact:60 hz artifact Very high electrode impedance of more than 25 k 
      • troublesome as they cannot be easily controlled by the technologist
      • Movement of other persons
      • Types of environmental artifacts:
      • – Electromagnetic Interference
      • – Electrostatic Induction
      • – Radio frequency Interference
      • As technology expands – new artifacts appear
        • Mobile phone artifacts
      Environmental artifacts:
    • Electromagnetic interference:
      • Current flowing through an electrical conductor (main power supply), produces a magnetic lines of force around the conductor
      • The greater the current, the stronger the field
      • Occurs between mains and patient or electrode attached to the scalp or junction box
      • Common sources – power transformers
        • Electric motors in lifts, fans, air-conditioners
      • AC interference (result of capacitance or inductive effects on wires leading from the scalp to the junction box)
    • Electrostatic Induction:
      • Opposite polarities of two charged bodies produces electrostatic induction when negative electric charge is applied
      • Presence of several instruments adjacent to the EEG machine (like fluorescent light, ventilators etc.)
      • Movement of any charged body near the patient (like plastic, rubber, synthetic fibres etc)
      • Often the technologist himself is the recipient of this discharge
      • Low electrical resistance between patient and the environment
    • Static artifact: Produced by placing a charged synthetic paper near the patient
    • Static artifact: walking in to collect a report
    • Electrostatic artifact: Startle or clap response can also cause static artifact
    • AC Interference
    • Cell phone artifact:
      • Minimisation/removal of environmental artifacts:
      • Keeping electrode leads close together.
      • Move away from source (at least 10 feet)
      • (since electrostatic induction is inversely proportional to the distance between patient and source)
      • Changing the orientation of the patient/source parallel to the electromagnetic lines of force
      • Locate the EEG lab at least 50 feet away from AC feeders, transformers etc.
      • One earthing point common to all equipment
      • Shielding the source of artifact and machine with earthed metal shield
    • Artifacts are also useful:
      • Slow lateral eye movements and disappearance or reduction of EMG are a valuable sign of drowsiness/sleep
      • Eye open and eye closure artifacts record the precise point where the patient opened or closed his eyes
      • Short bursts of EMG activity may mark the occurrence of myoclonic jerks
    • Environment for artifact free recording
      • Quiet atmosphere
      • Comfortable bed
      • No synthetic carpeting
      • Convenient control of lighting
      • Proper earthing / shielding
      • Different power supply to equipment and air conditioner
      • Comfortable temperature and humidity levels to avoid sweating, tension, restlessness
      • Thank you