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Electrical engineering know it all

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  • 1. Electrical Engineering
  • 2. Newnes Know It All SeriesPIC Microcontrollers: Know It AllLucio Di Jasio, Tim Wilmshurst, Dogan Ibrahim, John Morton, Martin Bates, Jack Smith, D.W. Smith, andChuck HellebuyckISBN: 978-0-7506-8615-0Embedded Software: Know It AllJean Labrosse, Jack Ganssle, Tammy Noergaard, Robert Oshana, Colin Walls, Keith Curtis, Jason Andrews,David J. Katz, Rick Gentile, Kamal Hyder, and Bob PerrinISBN: 978-0-7506-8583-2Embedded Hardware: Know It AllJack Ganssle, Tammy Noergaard, Fred Eady, Lewin Edwards, David J. Katz, Rick Gentile, Ken Arnold,Kamal Hyder, and Bob PerrinISBN: 978-0-7506-8584-9Wireless Networking: Know It AllPraphul Chandra, Daniel M. Dobkin, Alan Bensky, Ron Olexa, David Lide, and Farid DowlaISBN: 978-0-7506-8582-5RF & Wireless Technologies: Know It AllBruce Fette, Roberto Aiello, Praphul Chandra, Daniel Dobkin, Alan Bensky, Douglas Miron, David Lide,Farid Dowla, and Ron OlexaISBN: 978-0-7506-8581-8Electrical Engineering: Know It AllClive Maxfield, Alan Bensky, John Bird, W. Bolton, Izzat Darwazeh, Walt Kester, M.A. Laughton, AndrewLeven, Luis Moura, Ron Schmitt, Keith Sueker, Mike Tooley, DF Warne, Tim WilliamsISBN: 978-1-85617-528-9Audio Engineering: Know It AllDouglas Self, Richard Brice, Don Davis, Ben Duncan, John Linsely Hood, Morgan Jones, Eugene Patronis,Ian Sinclair, Andrew Singmin, John WatkinsonISBN: 978-1-85617-526-5Circuit Design: Know It AllDarren Ashby, Bonnie Baker, Stuart Ball, John Crowe, Barrie Hayes-Gill, Ian Grout, Ian Hickman, WaltKester, Ron Mancini, Robert A. Pease, Mike Tooley, Tim Williams, Peter Wilson, Bob ZeidmanISBN: 978-1-85617-527-2Test and Measurement: Know It AllJon Wilson, Stuart Ball, GMS de Silva, Tony Fischer-Cripps, Dogan Ibrahim, Kevin James, Walt Kester,M A Laughton, Chris Nadovich, Alex Porter, Edward Ramsden, Stephen Scheiber, Mike Tooley, D. F. Warne,Tim WilliamsISBN: 978-1-85617-530-2Mobile Wireless Security: Know It AllPraphul Chandra, Alan Bensky, Tony Bradley, Chris Hurley, Steve Rackley, John Rittinghouse, JamesRansome, Timothy Stapko, George Stefanek, Frank Thornton, Chris Lanthem, John WilsonISBN: 978-1-85617-529-6For more information on these and other Newnes titles visit: www.newnespress.com
  • 3. Electrical Engineering Clive Maxfield John Bird M. A.Laughton W. Bolton Andrew Leven Ron Schmitt Keith Sueker Tim Williams Mike Tooley Luis Moura Izzat Darwazeh Walt Kester Alan Bensky DF WarneAMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON NEW YORK • OXFORD • PARIS • SAN DIEGOSAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier
  • 4. Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USALinacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UKCopyright © 2008, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without the prior written permission of the publisher.Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology RightsDepartment in Oxford, UK: phone: (ϩ44) 1865 843830, fax: (ϩ44) 1865 853333,E-mail: permissions@elsevier.com. You may also complete your request onlinevia the Elsevier homepage (http://elsevier.com), by selecting “Support & Contact”then “Copyright and Permission” and then “Obtaining Permissions.”Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataApplication submittedBritish Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.ISBN: 978-1-85617-528-9 For information on all Newnes publications visit our Web site at www.elsevierdirect.comTypeset by Charon Tec Ltd., A Macmillan Company. (www.macmillansolutions.com)Printed in the United States of America08 09 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  • 5. ContentsAbout the Authors .............................................................................................................xvChapter 1: An Introduction to Electric Circuits ................................................................11.1 SI Units .......................................................................................................................11.2 Charge .........................................................................................................................21.3 Force ...........................................................................................................................21.4 Work ............................................................................................................................31.5 Power ..........................................................................................................................41.6 Electrical Potential and e.m.f. .....................................................................................51.7 Resistance and Conductance .......................................................................................51.8 Electrical Power and Energy .......................................................................................61.9 Summary of Terms, Units and Their Symbols............................................................71.10 Standard Symbols for Electrical Components ............................................................81.11 Electric Current and Quantity of Electricity ...............................................................81.12 Potential Difference and Resistance .........................................................................101.13 Basic Electrical Measuring Instruments ...................................................................111.14 Linear and Nonlinear Devices ..................................................................................111.15 Ohm’s Law ................................................................................................................121.16 Multiples and Submultiples ......................................................................................131.17 Conductors and Insulators ........................................................................................161.18 Electrical Power and Energy .....................................................................................161.19 Main Effects of Electric Current ...............................................................................20Chapter 2: Resistance and Resistivity ..............................................................................212.1 Resistance and Resistivity.........................................................................................212.2 Temperature Coefficient of Resistance .....................................................................25Chapter 3: Series and Parallel Networks .........................................................................313.1 Series Circuits ...........................................................................................................313.2 Potential Divider .......................................................................................................34 w w w.ne w nespress.com
  • 6. vi Contents3.3 Parallel Networks ......................................................................................................373.4 Current Division........................................................................................................433.5 Relative and Absolute Voltages ................................................................................48Chapter 4: Capacitors and Inductors ...............................................................................534.1 Introduction to Capacitors ........................................................................................534.2 Electrostatic Field .....................................................................................................534.3 Electric Field Strength ..............................................................................................554.4 Capacitance ...............................................................................................................564.5 Capacitors .................................................................................................................564.6 Electric Flux Density ................................................................................................584.7 Permittivity ...............................................................................................................594.8 The Parallel Plate Capacitor......................................................................................614.9 Capacitors Connected in Parallel and Series ............................................................644.10 Dielectric Strength ....................................................................................................704.11 Energy Stored............................................................................................................714.12 Practical Types of Capacitors....................................................................................724.13 Inductance .................................................................................................................764.14 Inductors ...................................................................................................................784.15 Energy Stored............................................................................................................80Chapter 5: DC Circuit Theory ..........................................................................................815.1 Introduction ...............................................................................................................815.2 Kirchhoff’s Laws ......................................................................................................815.3 The Superposition Theorem......................................................................................895.4 General DC Circuit Theory.......................................................................................955.5 Thévenin’s Theorem .................................................................................................995.6 Constant-Current Source.........................................................................................1065.7 Norton’s Theorem ...................................................................................................1075.8 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Networks............................................................1115.9 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem .......................................................................117Chapter 6: Alternating Voltages and Currents ..............................................................1236.1 The AC Generator ...................................................................................................1236.2 Waveforms ..............................................................................................................124w ww. n e w n e s p r e s s .c o m
  • 7. Contents vii6.3 AC Values ...............................................................................................................1266.4 The Equation of a Sinusoidal Waveform ................................................................1336.5 Combination of Waveforms ....................................................................................1396.6 Rectification ............................................................................................................146Chapter 7: Complex Numbers ........................................................................................1497.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................1497.2 Operations involving Cartesian Complex Numbers ...............................................1527.3 Complex Equations .................................................................................................1557.4 The polar Form of a Complex Number...................................................................1577.5 Applying Complex Numbers to Series AC Circuits ...............................................1587.6 Applying Complex Numbers to Parallel AC Circuits .............................................171Chapter 8: Transients and Laplace Transforms ............................................................1858.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................1858.2 Response of R-C Series Circuit to a Step Input ......................................................1858.3 Response of R-L Series Circuit to a Step Input ......................................................1928.4 L-R-C Series Circuit Response ...............................................................................1998.5 Introduction to Laplace Transforms........................................................................2058.6 Inverse Laplace Transforms and the Solution of Differential Equations ................215Chapter 9: Frequency Domain Circuit Analysis ...........................................................2299.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................2299.2 Sinusoidal AC Electrical Analysis ..........................................................................2299.3 Generalized Frequency Domain Analysis ..............................................................257 References ...............................................................................................................315Chapter 10: Digital Electronics ......................................................................................31710.1 Semiconductors .......................................................................................................31710.2 Semiconductor Diodes ............................................................................................31810.3 Bipolar Junction Transistors ...................................................................................31910.4 Metal-oxide Semiconductor Field-effect Transistors .............................................32110.5 The transistor as a Switch .......................................................................................32210.6 Gallium Arsenide Semiconductors .........................................................................32410.7 Light-emitting Diodes .............................................................................................32410.8 BUF and NOT Functions ........................................................................................327 w w w.ne w nespress.com
  • 8. viii Contents10.9 AND, OR, and XOR Functions ............................................................................32910.10 NAND, NOR, and XNOR Functions ....................................................................32910.11 Not a Lot ...............................................................................................................33110.12 Functions Versus Gates .........................................................................................33210.13 NOT and BUF Gates .............................................................................................33310.14 NAND and AND Gates ........................................................................................33510.15 NOR and OR Gates...............................................................................................33610.16 XNOR and XOR Gates .........................................................................................33710.17 Pass-Transistor Logic............................................................................................33910.18 Combining a Single Variable With Logic 0 or Logic 1 ........................................34210.19 The Idempotent Rules ...........................................................................................34210.20 The Complementary Rules ...................................................................................34310.21 The Involution Rules ..........................................................