Electrical engineering know it all

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Electrical engineering know it all

  1. 1. Electrical Engineering
  2. 2. Newnes Know It All SeriesPIC Microcontrollers: Know It AllLucio Di Jasio, Tim Wilmshurst, Dogan Ibrahim, John Morton, Martin Bates, Jack Smith, D.W. Smith, andChuck HellebuyckISBN: 978-0-7506-8615-0Embedded Software: Know It AllJean Labrosse, Jack Ganssle, Tammy Noergaard, Robert Oshana, Colin Walls, Keith Curtis, Jason Andrews,David J. Katz, Rick Gentile, Kamal Hyder, and Bob PerrinISBN: 978-0-7506-8583-2Embedded Hardware: Know It AllJack Ganssle, Tammy Noergaard, Fred Eady, Lewin Edwards, David J. Katz, Rick Gentile, Ken Arnold,Kamal Hyder, and Bob PerrinISBN: 978-0-7506-8584-9Wireless Networking: Know It AllPraphul Chandra, Daniel M. Dobkin, Alan Bensky, Ron Olexa, David Lide, and Farid DowlaISBN: 978-0-7506-8582-5RF & Wireless Technologies: Know It AllBruce Fette, Roberto Aiello, Praphul Chandra, Daniel Dobkin, Alan Bensky, Douglas Miron, David Lide,Farid Dowla, and Ron OlexaISBN: 978-0-7506-8581-8Electrical Engineering: Know It AllClive Maxfield, Alan Bensky, John Bird, W. Bolton, Izzat Darwazeh, Walt Kester, M.A. Laughton, AndrewLeven, Luis Moura, Ron Schmitt, Keith Sueker, Mike Tooley, DF Warne, Tim WilliamsISBN: 978-1-85617-528-9Audio Engineering: Know It AllDouglas Self, Richard Brice, Don Davis, Ben Duncan, John Linsely Hood, Morgan Jones, Eugene Patronis,Ian Sinclair, Andrew Singmin, John WatkinsonISBN: 978-1-85617-526-5Circuit Design: Know It AllDarren Ashby, Bonnie Baker, Stuart Ball, John Crowe, Barrie Hayes-Gill, Ian Grout, Ian Hickman, WaltKester, Ron Mancini, Robert A. Pease, Mike Tooley, Tim Williams, Peter Wilson, Bob ZeidmanISBN: 978-1-85617-527-2Test and Measurement: Know It AllJon Wilson, Stuart Ball, GMS de Silva, Tony Fischer-Cripps, Dogan Ibrahim, Kevin James, Walt Kester,M A Laughton, Chris Nadovich, Alex Porter, Edward Ramsden, Stephen Scheiber, Mike Tooley, D. F. Warne,Tim WilliamsISBN: 978-1-85617-530-2Mobile Wireless Security: Know It AllPraphul Chandra, Alan Bensky, Tony Bradley, Chris Hurley, Steve Rackley, John Rittinghouse, JamesRansome, Timothy Stapko, George Stefanek, Frank Thornton, Chris Lanthem, John WilsonISBN: 978-1-85617-529-6For more information on these and other Newnes titles visit: www.newnespress.com
  3. 3. Electrical Engineering Clive Maxfield John Bird M. A.Laughton W. Bolton Andrew Leven Ron Schmitt Keith Sueker Tim Williams Mike Tooley Luis Moura Izzat Darwazeh Walt Kester Alan Bensky DF WarneAMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON NEW YORK • OXFORD • PARIS • SAN DIEGOSAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier
  4. 4. Newnes is an imprint of Elsevier30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USALinacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UKCopyright © 2008, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted inany form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without the prior written permission of the publisher.Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology RightsDepartment in Oxford, UK: phone: (ϩ44) 1865 843830, fax: (ϩ44) 1865 853333,E-mail: permissions@elsevier.com. You may also complete your request onlinevia the Elsevier homepage (http://elsevier.com), by selecting “Support & Contact”then “Copyright and Permission” and then “Obtaining Permissions.”Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataApplication submittedBritish Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.ISBN: 978-1-85617-528-9 For information on all Newnes publications visit our Web site at www.elsevierdirect.comTypeset by Charon Tec Ltd., A Macmillan Company. (www.macmillansolutions.com)Printed in the United States of America08 09 10 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  5. 5. ContentsAbout the Authors .............................................................................................................xvChapter 1: An Introduction to Electric Circuits ................................................................11.1 SI Units .......................................................................................................................11.2 Charge .........................................................................................................................21.3 Force ...........................................................................................................................21.4 Work ............................................................................................................................31.5 Power ..........................................................................................................................41.6 Electrical Potential and e.m.f. .....................................................................................51.7 Resistance and Conductance .......................................................................................51.8 Electrical Power and Energy .......................................................................................61.9 Summary of Terms, Units and Their Symbols............................................................71.10 Standard Symbols for Electrical Components ............................................................81.11 Electric Current and Quantity of Electricity ...............................................................81.12 Potential Difference and Resistance .........................................................................101.13 Basic Electrical Measuring Instruments ...................................................................111.14 Linear and Nonlinear Devices ..................................................................................111.15 Ohm’s Law ................................................................................................................121.16 Multiples and Submultiples ......................................................................................131.17 Conductors and Insulators ........................................................................................161.18 Electrical Power and Energy .....................................................................................161.19 Main Effects of Electric Current ...............................................................................20Chapter 2: Resistance and Resistivity ..............................................................................212.1 Resistance and Resistivity.........................................................................................212.2 Temperature Coefficient of Resistance .....................................................................25Chapter 3: Series and Parallel Networks .........................................................................313.1 Series Circuits ...........................................................................................................313.2 Potential Divider .......................................................................................................34 w w w.ne w nespress.com
  6. 6. vi Contents3.3 Parallel Networks ......................................................................................................373.4 Current Division........................................................................................................433.5 Relative and Absolute Voltages ................................................................................48Chapter 4: Capacitors and Inductors ...............................................................................534.1 Introduction to Capacitors ........................................................................................534.2 Electrostatic Field .....................................................................................................534.3 Electric Field Strength ..............................................................................................554.4 Capacitance ...............................................................................................................564.5 Capacitors .................................................................................................................564.6 Electric Flux Density ................................................................................................584.7 Permittivity ...............................................................................................................594.8 The Parallel Plate Capacitor......................................................................................614.9 Capacitors Connected in Parallel and Series ............................................................644.10 Dielectric Strength ....................................................................................................704.11 Energy Stored............................................................................................................714.12 Practical Types of Capacitors....................................................................................724.13 Inductance .................................................................................................................764.14 Inductors ...................................................................................................................784.15 Energy Stored............................................................................................................80Chapter 5: DC Circuit Theory ..........................................................................................815.1 Introduction ...............................................................................................................815.2 Kirchhoff’s Laws ......................................................................................................815.3 The Superposition Theorem......................................................................................895.4 General DC Circuit Theory.......................................................................................955.5 Thévenin’s Theorem .................................................................................................995.6 Constant-Current Source.........................................................................................1065.7 Norton’s Theorem ...................................................................................................1075.8 Thévenin and Norton Equivalent Networks............................................................1115.9 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem .......................................................................117Chapter 6: Alternating Voltages and Currents ..............................................................1236.1 The AC Generator ...................................................................................................1236.2 Waveforms ..............................................................................................................124w ww. n e w n e s p r e s s .c o m
  7. 7. Contents vii6.3 AC Values ...............................................................................................................1266.4 The Equation of a Sinusoidal Waveform ................................................................1336.5 Combination of Waveforms ....................................................................................1396.6 Rectification ............................................................................................................146Chapter 7: Complex Numbers ........................................................................................1497.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................1497.2 Operations involving Cartesian Complex Numbers ...............................................1527.3 Complex Equations .................................................................................................1557.4 The polar Form of a Complex Number...................................................................1577.5 Applying Complex Numbers to Series AC Circuits ...............................................1587.6 Applying Complex Numbers to Parallel AC Circuits .............................................171Chapter 8: Transients and Laplace Transforms ............................................................1858.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................1858.2 Response of R-C Series Circuit to a Step Input ......................................................1858.3 Response of R-L Series Circuit to a Step Input ......................................................1928.4 L-R-C Series Circuit Response ...............................................................................1998.5 Introduction to Laplace Transforms........................................................................2058.6 Inverse Laplace Transforms and the Solution of Differential Equations ................215Chapter 9: Frequency Domain Circuit Analysis ...........................................................2299.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................2299.2 Sinusoidal AC Electrical Analysis ..........................................................................2299.3 Generalized Frequency Domain Analysis ..............................................................257 References ...............................................................................................................315Chapter 10: Digital Electronics ......................................................................................31710.1 Semiconductors .......................................................................................................31710.2 Semiconductor Diodes ............................................................................................31810.3 Bipolar Junction Transistors ...................................................................................31910.4 Metal-oxide Semiconductor Field-effect Transistors .............................................32110.5 The transistor as a Switch .......................................................................................32210.6 Gallium Arsenide Semiconductors .........................................................................32410.7 Light-emitting Diodes .............................................................................................32410.8 BUF and NOT Functions ........................................................................................327 w w w.ne w nespress.com
  8. 8. viii Contents10.9 AND, OR, and XOR Functions ............................................................................32910.10 NAND, NOR, and XNOR Functions ....................................................................32910.11 Not a Lot ...............................................................................................................33110.12 Functions Versus Gates .........................................................................................33210.13 NOT and BUF Gates .............................................................................................33310.14 NAND and AND Gates ........................................................................................33510.15 NOR and OR Gates...............................................................................................33610.16 XNOR and XOR Gates .........................................................................................33710.17 Pass-Transistor Logic............................................................................................33910.18 Combining a Single Variable With Logic 0 or Logic 1 ........................................34210.19 The Idempotent Rules ...........................................................................................34210.20 The Complementary Rules ...................................................................................34310.21 The Involution Rules .............................................................................................34410.22 The Commutative Rules .......................................................................................34410.23 The Associative Rules...........................................................................................34410.24 Precedence of Operators .......................................................................................34510.25 The First Distributive Rule ...................................................................................34610.26 The Second Distributive Rule ...............................................................................34610.27 The Simplification Rules ......................................................................................34810.28 DeMorgan Transformations ..................................................................................34910.29 Minterms and Maxterms .......................................................................................35110.30 Sum-of-Products and Product-of-sums .................................................................35110.31 Canonical Forms ...................................................................................................35210.32 Karnaugh Maps .....................................................................................................35310.33 Minimization Using Karnaugh Maps ...................................................................35410.34 Grouping Minterms...............................................................................................35510.35 Incompletely Specified Functions .........................................................................35610.36 Populating Maps Using 0s versus 1s.....................................................................35910.37 Scalar Versus Vector Notation ..............................................................................36010.38 Equality Comparators ...........................................................................................36110.39 Multiplexers ..........................................................................................................36310.40 Decoders ...............................................................................................................36410.41 Tri-State Functions................................................................................................36510.42 Combinational Versus Sequential Functions ........................................................36710.43 RS Latches ............................................................................................................367w ww. n e w n e s p r e s s .c o m
  9. 9. Contents ix10.44 D-Type Latches .....................................................................................................37310.45 D-Type Flip-Flops.................................................................................................37410.46 JK and T Flip-Flops ..............................................................................................37710.47 Shift Registers .......................................................................................................37810.48 Counters ................................................................................................................38110.49 Setup and Hold Times ...........................................................................................38310.50 Brick by Brick .......................................................................................................38410.51 State Diagrams ......................................................................................................38610.52 State Tables ...........................................................................................................38710.53 State Machines ......................................................................................................38810.54 State Assignment ..................................................................................................38910.55 Don’t Care States, Unused States, and Latch-Up Conditions...............................392Chapter 11: Analog Electronics .....................................................................................39511.1 Operational Amplifiers Defined ............................................................................39511.2 Symbols and Connections .....................................................................................39511.3 Operational Amplifier Parameters ........................................................................39711.4 Operational Amplifier Characteristics ..................................................................40211.5 Operational Amplifier Applications......................................................................40311.6 Gain and Bandwidth .............................................................................................40511.7 Inverting Amplifier With Feedback ......................................................................40611.8 Operational Amplifier Configurations ..................................................................40811.9 Operational Amplifier Circuits .............................................................................41211.10 The Ideal Op-Amp ................................................................................................41811.11 The Practical Op-Amp ..........................................................................................42011.12 Comparators ..........................................................................................................45011.13 Voltage References................................................................................................459Chapter 12: Circuit Simulation ......................................................................................46512.1 Types of Analysis ..................................................................................................46612.2 Netlists and Component Models ...........................................................................47612.3 Logic Simulation...................................................................................................479Chapter 13: Interfacing ..................................................................................................48113.1 Mixing Analog and Digital ...................................................................................48113.2 Generating Digital Levels From Analog Inputs....................................................484 w w w.ne w nespress.com
  10. 10. x Contents13.3 Classic Data Interface Standards ..........................................................................48713.4 High Performance Data Interface Standards.........................................................493Chapter 14: Microcontrollers and Microprocessors......................................................49914.1 Microprocessor Systems .......................................................................................49914.2 Single-Chip Microcomputers ................................................................................49914.3 Microcontrollers....................................................................................................50014.4 PIC Microcontrollers ............................................................................................50014.5 Programmed Logic Devices ..................................................................................50014.6 Programmable Logic Controllers..........................................................................50114.7 Microprocessor Systems .......................................................................................50114.8 Data Representation ..............................................................................................50314.9 Data Types ............................................................................................................50514.10 Data Storage ..........................................................................................................50514.11 The Microprocessor ..............................................................................................50614.12 Microprocessor Operation ....................................................................................51214.13 A Microcontroller System ....................................................................................51814.14 Symbols Introduced in this Chapter......................................................................523Chapter 15: Power Electronics .......................................................................................52515.1 Switchgear ............................................................................................................52515.2 Surge Suppression.................................................................................................52815.3 Conductors ............................................................................................................53015.4 Capacitors .............................................................................................................53315.5 Resistors ................................................................................................................53615.6 Fuses .....................................................................................................................53815.7 Supply Voltages ....................................................................................................53915.8 Enclosures .............................................................................................................53915.9 Hipot, Corona, and BIL ........................................................................................54015.10 Spacings ................................................................................................................54115.11 Metal Oxide Varistors ...........................................................................................54215.12 Protective Relays ..................................................................................................54315.13 Symmetrical Components .....................................................................................54415.14 Per Unit Constants ................................................................................................54615.15 Circuit Simulation .................................................................................................547w ww. n e w n e s p r e s s .c o m
  11. 11. Contents xi15.16 Simulation Software .............................................................................................55115.17 Feedback Control Systems....................................................................................55215.18 Power Supplies......................................................................................................559Chapter 16: Signals and Signal Processing ...................................................................60916.1 Origins of Real-World Signals and their Units of Measurement ..........................60916.2 Reasons for Processing Real-World Signals .........................................................61016.3 Generation of Real-World Signals ........................................................................61216.4 Methods and Technologies Available for Processing Real-World Signals ...........61216.5 Analog Versus Digital Signal Processing .............................................................61316.6 A Practical Example .............................................................................................614 References .............................................................................................................617Chapter 17: Filter Design ...............................................................................................61917.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................61917.2 Passive Filters .......................................................................................................62117.3 Active Filters .........................................................................................................62217.4 First-Order Filters .................................................................................................62817.5 Design of First-Order Filters.................................................................................63017.6 Second-Order Filters .............................................................................................63217.7 Using the Transfer Function .................................................................................63617.8 Using Normalized Tables ......................................................................................64117.9 Using Identical Components .................................................................................64117.10 Second-Order High-Pass Filters ...........................................................................64217.11 Bandpass Filters ....................................................................................................65017.12 Switched Capacitor Filter .....................................................................................65417.13 Monolithic Switched Capacitor Filter...................................................................65717.14 The Notch Filter ....................................................................................................65917.15 Choosing Components for Filters .........................................................................66317.16 Testing Filter Response .........................................................................................66517.17 Fast Fourier Transforms ........................................................................................66617.18 Digital Filters ........................................................................................................694 References .............................................................................................................732Chapter 18: Control and Instrumentation Systems .......................................................73518.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................735 w w w.ne w nespress.com
  12. 12. xii Contents18.2 Systems .................................................................................................................73718.3 Control Systems Models .......................................................................................74118.4 Measurement Elements .........................................................................................74718.5 Signal Processing ..................................................................................................76118.6 Correction Elements .............................................................................................76918.7 Control Systems ....................................................................................................78018.8 System Models ......................................................................................................79118.9 Gain .......................................................................................................................79318.10 Dynamic Systems .................................................................................................79718.11 Differential Equations ...........................................................................................81218.12 Transfer Function ..................................................................................................81618.13 System Transfer Functions ...................................................................................82218.14 Sensitivity .............................................................................................................82618.15 Block Manipulation ..............................................................................................83018.16 Multiple Inputs ......................................................................................................835Chapter 19: Communications Systems...........................................................................83719.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................83719.2 Analog Modulation Techniques ............................................................................83919.3 The Balanced Modulator/Demodulator ................................................................84819.4 Frequency Modulation and Demodulation ...........................................................85019.5 FM Modulators .....................................................................................................86019.6 FM Demodulators .................................................................................................86219.7 Digital Modulation Techniques.............................................................................86519.8 Information Theory ...............................................................................................87319.9 Applications and Technologies .............................................................................899 References .............................................................................................................951Chapter 20: Principles of Electromagnetics ..................................................................95320.1 The Need for Electromagnetics ............................................................................95320.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum .............................................................................95520.3 Electrical Length ...................................................................................................96020.4 The Finite Speed of Light .....................................................................................96020.5 Electronics ............................................................................................................96120.6 Analog and Digital Signals ...................................................................................96420.7 RF Techniques ......................................................................................................964w ww. n e w n e s p r e s s .c o m
  13. 13. Contents xiii20.8 Microwave Techniques .........................................................................................96720.9 Infrared and the Electronic Speed Limit ...............................................................96820.10 Visible Light and Beyond .....................................................................................96920.11 Lasers and Photonics ............................................................................................97120.12 Summary of General Principles ............................................................................97220.13 The Electric Force Field........................................................................................97320.14 Other Types of Fields ............................................................................................97520.15 Voltage and Potential Energy ................................................................................97620.16 Charges in Metals .................................................................................................97820.17 The Definition of Resistance.................................................................................98020.18 Electrons and Holes ..............................................................................................98020.19 Electrostatic Induction and Capacitance ...............................................................98220.20 Insulators (dielectrics)...........................................................................................98620.21 Static Electricity and Lightning ............................................................................98820.22 The Battery Revisited ...........................................................................................99220.23 Electric Field Examples ........................................................................................99320.24 Conductivity and Permittivity of Common Materials...........................................994 References .............................................................................................................995Chapter 21: Magnetic Fields ........................................................................................100321.1 Moving Charges: Source of All Magnetic Fields ...............................................100321.2 Magnetic Dipoles ................................................................................................100521.3 Effects of the Magnetic Field ..............................................................................100821.4 The Vector Magnetic Potential and Potential Momentum ..................................101821.5 Magnetic Materials .............................................................................................101921.6 Magnetism and Quantum Physics.......................................................................1022 References ...........................................................................................................1024Chapter 22: Electromagnetic Transients and EMI .....................................................102722.1 Line Disturbances ...............................................................................................102722.2 Circuit Transients ................................................................................................102822.3 Electromagnetic Interference ..............................................................................1030Chapter 23: Traveling Wave Effects .............................................................................103323.1 Basics ..................................................................................................................103323.2 Transient Effects .................................................................................................103523.3 Mitigating Measures ...........................................................................................1038 w w w.ne w nespress.com
  14. 14. xiv ContentsChapter 24: Transformers ............................................................................................103924.1 Voltage and Turns Ratio ......................................................................................1040Chapter 25: Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) ....................................................104725.1 Introduction .........................................................................................................104725.2 Common Terms...................................................................................................104825.3 The EMC Model .................................................................................................104925.4 EMC Requirements.............................................................................................105225.5 Product design.....................................................................................................105425.6 Device Selection .................................................................................................105625.7 Printed Circuit Boards ........................................................................................105625.8 Interfaces .............................................................................................................105725.9 Power Supplies and Power-Line Filters ..............................................................105825.10 Signal Line Filters ...............................................................................................105925.11 Enclosure Design ................................................................................................106125.12 Interface Cable Connections ...............................................................................106325.13 Golden Rules for Effective Design for EMC ......................................................106525.14 System Design ....................................................................................................106625.15 Buildings .............................................................................................................106925.16 Conformity Assessment ......................................................................................107025.17 EMC Testing and Measurements ........................................................................107225.18 Management Plans ..............................................................................................1075 References ...........................................................................................................1076Appendix A: General Reference ...................................................................................1077A.1 Standard Electrical Quantities—Their Symbols and Units ................................1077Appendix B: ...................................................................................................................1081B.1 Differential Equations .........................................................................................1081Index ..............................................................................................................................1091Note from the Publisher: The authors of this book are from around the world and as suchsymbols vary between US and UK styles.ww w. n e w n e s p r e s s .c o m
  15. 15. About the AuthorsAlan Bensky MScEE (Chapter 19) is an electronics engineering consultant with over25 years of experience in analog and digital design, management, and marketing.Specializing in wireless circuits and systems, Bensky has carried out projects forvaried military and consumer applications. He is the author of Short-range WirelessCommunication, Second Edition, published by Elsevier, 2004, and has written severalarticles in international and local publications. He has taught courses and gives lectureson radio engineering topics. Bensky is a senior member of IEEE.John Bird BSc (Hons), CEng, CMath, CSci, FIET, MIEE, FIIE, FIMA, FCollT RoyalNaval School of Marine Engineering, HMS Sultan, Gosport; formerly University ofPortsmouth and Highbury College, Portsmouth, U.K., (Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,Appendix A) is the author of Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology, and over 120textbooks on engineering and mathematical subjects, is the former Head of AppliedElectronics in the Faculty of Technology at Highbury College, Portsmouth, U.K.More recently, he has combined freelance lecturing at the University of Portsmouth,with technical writing and Chief Examiner responsibilities for City and GuildsTelecommunication Principles and Mathematics, and examining for the InternationalBaccalaureate Organisation.John Bird is currently a Senior Training Provider at the Royal Naval School of MarineEngineering in the Defence College of Marine and Air Engineering at H.M.S. Sultan,Gosport, Hampshire, U.K. The school, which serves the Royal Navy, is one of Europe’slargest engineering training establishments.Bill Bolton (Chapter 18, Appendix B.) is the author of Control Systems, and manyengineering textbooks, including the best-selling books Programmable Logic Controllers(Newnes) and Mechatronics (Pearson—Prentice-Hall), and has formerly been a seniorlecturer in a College of Technology, Head of Research, Development and Monitoringat the Business and Technician Education Council, a member of the Nuffield AdvancedPhysics Project, and a consultant on a British Government Technician Education Projectin Brazil and on Unesco projects in Argentina and Thailand. w w w.ne w nespress.com
  16. 16. xvi About the AuthorsIzzat Darwazeh (Chapter 9) is the author of Introduction to Linear Circuit Analysis andModelling. He holds the University of London Chair of Communications Engineeringin the Department of Electronic and Electrical at UCL. He obtained his first degreein Electrical Engineering from the University of Jordan in 1984 and the MSc andPhD degrees, from the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology(UMIST), in 1986 and 1991, respectively. He worked as a research Fellow at theUniversity of Wales-Bangor—U.K. from 1990 till 1993, researching very high speedoptical systems and circuits. He was a Senior Lecturer in Optoelectronic Circuits andSystems in the Department at Electrical Engineering and Electronics at UMIST. Hemoved to UCL in October 2001 where he is currently the Head of Communicationsand Information System (CIS) group and the Director of UCL Telecommunications forIndustry Programme. He is a Fellow of the IET and a Senior Member of the IEEE.His teaching covers aspects of wireless and optical fibre communications,telecommunication networks, electronic circuits and high speed integrated circuitsand MMICs. He lectures widely in the U.K. and overseas. His research interests aremainly in the areas of wireless system design and implementation, high speed opticalcommunication systems and networks, microwave circuits and MMICs for optical fibreapplications and in mobile and wireless communication circuits and systems. He hasauthored/co-authored more than 120 research papers. He has co-authored (with LuisMoura) a book on Linear Circuit Analysis and Modelling (Elsevier 2005) and is theco-editor of the IEE book on Analogue Optical Communications (IEE 1995). Hecollaborates with various telecommunications and electronic industries in the U.K. andoverseas and has acted as a consultant to various academic, industrial, financial andgovernment organisations.Walt Kester (Chapters 16, 17) is the author of Mixed-Signal and DSP Design Techniques.He is a corporate staff applications engineer at Analog Devices. For over 35 years atAnalog Devices, he has designed, developed, and given applications support for high-speed ADCs, DACs, SHAs, op amps, and analog multiplexers. Besides writing manypapers and articles, he prepared and edited eleven major applications books which form thebasis for the Analog Devices world-wide technical seminar series including the topics ofop amps, data conversion, power management, sensor signal conditioning, mixed-signal,and practical analog design techniques. He also is the editor of The Data ConversionHandbook, a 900ϩ page comprehensive book on data conversion published in 2005 byElsevier. Walt has a BSEE from NC State University and MSEE from Duke University.w ww. n e w n e s p r e s s .c o m
  17. 17. About the Authors xviiMichael Laughton BASc, (Toronto), PhD (London), DSc (Eng.) (London), FREng,FIEE, CEng (Chapters 25) is the editor of Electrical Engineer’s Reference Book, 16thEdition. He is the Emeritus Professor of Electrical Engineering of the University ofLondon and former Dean of Engineering of the University and Pro-Principal of QueenMary and Westfield College, and is currently the U.K. representative on the EnergyCommittee of the European National Academies of Engineering, a member of energy andenvironment policy advisory groups of the Royal Academy of Engineering, the RoyalSociety and the Institution of Electrical Engineers as well as the Power Industry DivisionBoard of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. He has acted as Specialist Adviserto U.K. Parliamentary Committees in both upper and lower Houses on alternative andrenewable energy technologies and on energy efficiency. He was awarded The Institutionof Electrical Engineers Achievement Medal in 2002 for sustained contributions toelectrical power engineering.Andrew Leven (Chapter 17, 19) is the author of Telecommunications Circuits andTechnology. He holds a diploma in Radio Technology, HNC, BSc (Hons) Electronics,MSc Astronomy, C. Eng M.I.E.E, Teaching Diploma, M.I.P., International Education andTraining Consultant (Formerly Senior Lecturer in Telecommunications, Electronics andFibre Optics at James Watt College of Higher Education, U.K.)A. Maddocks (Chapter 25) was a contributor to Electrical Engineer’s Reference Book,16th Edition.Clive “Max” Maxfield (Chapter 10) is the author of Bebop to the Boolean Boogie. Heis six feet tall, outrageously handsome, English and proud of it. In addition to being ahero, trendsetter, and leader of fashion, he is widely regarded as an expert in all aspects ofelectronics and computing (at least by his mother).After receiving his B.Sc. in Control Engineering in 1980 from Sheffield Polytechnic (nowSheffield Hallam University), England, Max began his career as a designer of centralprocessing units for mainframe computers. During his career, he has designed everythingfrom ASICs to PCBs and has meandered his way through most aspects of ElectronicsDesign Automation (EDA). To cut a long story short, Max now finds himself Presidentof TechBites Interactive (www.techbites.com). A marketing consultancy, TechBitesspecializes in communicating the value of its clients’ technical products and servicesto non-technical audiences through a variety of media, including websites, advertising,technical documents, brochures, collaterals, books, and multimedia. w w w.ne w nespress.com
  18. 18. xviii About the AuthorsIn addition to numerous technical articles and papers appearing in magazines andat conferences around the world, Max is also the author and co-author of a numberof books, including Bebop to the Boolean Boogie (An Unconventional Guide toElectronics), Designus Maximus Unleashed (Banned in Alabama), Bebop BYTES Back(An Unconventional Guide to Computers), EDA: Where Electronics Begins, The DesignWarrior’s Guide to FPGAs, and How Computers Do Math (www.diycalculator.com).In his spare time (Ha!), Max is co-editor and co-publisher of the web-deliveredelectronics and computing hobbyist magazine EPE Online (www.epemag.com). Maxalso acts as editor for the Programmable Logic DesignLine website (www.pldesignline.com) and for the iDESIGN section of the Chip Design Magazine website (www.chipdesignmag.com).On the off-chance that you’re still not impressed, Max was once referred to as an“industry notable” and a “semiconductor design expert” by someone famous who wasn’tprompted, coerced, or remunerated in any way!Luis Moura (Chapter 9) is the author of Introduction to Linear Circuit Analysis andModelling. He received the diploma degree in electronics and telecommunications fromthe University of Aveiro, Portugal, in 1991, and the PhD degree in electronic engineeringfrom the University of North Wales, Bangor, U.K. in 1995. From 1995 to 1997 he workedas a research Fellow in the Telecommunications Research Group at University CollegeLondon, U.K. He is currently a Lecturer in Electronics at the University of Algarve,Portugal. In 2007 he took one year leave of absence to work in the company LimeMicrosystems U.K. as Senior Design Engineer. He was designing frequency synthesisersfor multi-mode/multi-standard wireless transceivers.Ron Schmitt (Chapters 20, 21) is the author of Electromagnetics Explained. He is theformer Director of Electrical Engineering, Sensor Research and Development Corp.Orono, Maine.Keith H. Sueker (Chapters 15, 22, 23) is the author of Power Electronics Design. Suekerreceived his BEE with High Distinction from the University of Minnesota, he continuedhis education at Illinois Institute of Technology where he received his MSEE, he alsocompleted his course work for his PhD. He spent many years working for WestinghouseElectric Corporation in various positions. He then moved on to Robicon Corporationas a consulting engineer, he retired in 1993. His responsibilities included analyticalw ww. n e w n e s p r e s s .c o m
  19. 19. About the Authors xixtechniques and equipment design for power factor correction and harmonic mitigation.Sueker has written a number of IEEE papers and several articles for trade publications.Also, he has prepared a monograph and 90 minute video tape on these subjects. He andMr. R. P. Stratford have presented tutorial sessions on power factor and harmonics atIEEE-IAS annual meetings, and he has presented additional tutorials in other cities. Healso presented a tutorial on transformers for the local IEEE-IAS in the spring of 1999and repeated it in the fall of 2003. Sueker delivered a tutorial on power electronics forthe local IEEE-IAS/PES in the spring of 2005. He was also pleased to serve on the IEEEcommittee for awarding the “IEEE Medal for Engineering Excellence” for four years.He is currently a Life Senior Member of the IEEE and also a registered ProfessionalEngineer in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.Mike Tooley (Chapters 11, 12, 14, 24) is the author of Electronics Circuits. He is theformer Director of Learning Technology at Brooklands College, Surrey, U.K.Douglas Warne (Chapters 25) is the editor of Electrical Engineers Reference book,16th Edition. Warne graduated from Imperial College London in 1967 with a 1st classhonours degree in electrical engineering, during this time he had a student apprenticeshipwith AEI Heavy Plant Division, Rugby, 1963–1968. He is currently self-employed,and has taken on such projects as Co-ordinated LINK PEDDS programme for DTI,and the electrical engineering, electrical machines and drives and ERCOS programmesfor EPSRC. Initiated and manage the NETCORDE university-industry network foridentifying and launching new R&D projects. He has acted as co-ordinator for theindustry-academic funded ESR Network, held the part-time position of Research ContractCo-ordinator for the High Voltage and Energy Systems group at University of Cardiff andmonitored several projects funded through the DTI Technology Programme.Tim Williams (Chapters 11, 13, 15) is the author of The Circuit Designer’s Companion.He is employed with Elmac Services, Chichester, U.K. w w w.ne w nespress.com
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  21. 21. CHAPTE R 1 An Introduction to Electric Circuits John Bird1.1 SI UnitsThe system of units used in engineering and science is the Système International d’Unités(International system of units), usually abbreviated to SI units, and is based on the metricsystem. This was introduced in 1960 and is now adopted by the majority of countries asthe official system of measurement.The basic units in the SI system are listed with their symbols, in Table 1.1.Derived SI units use combinations of basic units and there are many of them. Twoexamples are: ● Velocity—meters per second (m/s) ● Acceleration—meters per second squared (m/s2) Table 1.1: Basic SI units Quantity Unit length meter, m mass kilogram, kg time second, s electric current ampere, A thermodynamic temperature kelvin, K luminous intensity candela, cd amount of substance mole, mol w w w.ne w nespress.com
  22. 22. 2 Chapter 1 Table 1.2: Six most common multiples Prefix Name Meaning M mega multiply by 1,000,000 (i.e., ϫ106) k kilo multiply by 1,000 (i.e., ϫ103) m milli divide by 1,000 (i.e., ϫ10Ϫ3) μ micro divide by 1,000,000 (i.e., ϫ10Ϫ6) n nano divide by 1,000,000,000 (i.e., ϫ10Ϫ9) p pico divide by 1,000,000,000,000 (i.e., ϫ10Ϫ12)SI units may be made larger or smaller by using prefixes that denote multiplication ordivision by a particular amount. The six most common multiples, with their meaning, arelisted in Table 1.2.1.2 ChargeThe unit of charge is the coulomb (C) where one coulomb is one ampere second.(1 coulomb ϭ 6.24 ϫ 1018 electrons). The coulomb is defined as the quantity ofelectricity that flows past a given point in an electric circuit when a current of one ampereis maintained for one second. Thus,charge, in coulombs Q ϭ Itwhere I is the current in amperes and t is the time in seconds.Example 1.1If a current of 5 A flows for 2 minutes, find the quantity of electricity transferred.SolutionQuantity of electricity Q ϭ It coulombsI ϭ 5 A, t ϭ 2 ϫ 60 ϭ 120 sHence, Q ϭ 5 ϫ 120 ϭ 600 C1.3 ForceThe unit of force is the newton (N) where one newton is one kilogram meter persecond squared. The newton is defined as the force which, when applied tow ww. n e w n e s p r e s s .c o m
  23. 23. An Introduction to Electric Circuits 3a mass of one kilogram, gives it an acceleration of one meter per second squared.Thus,force, in newtons F ϭ mawhere m is the mass in kilograms and a is the acceleration in meters per second squared.Gravitational force, or weight, is mg, where g ϭ 9.81 m/s2.Example 1.2A mass of 5000 g is accelerated at 2 m/s2 by a force. Determine the force needed.SolutionForce ϭ mass ϫ acceleration kg m ϭ 5 kg ϫ 2 m/s2 ϭ 10 ϭ 10 N s2Example 1.3Find the force acting vertically downwards on a mass of 200 g attached to a wire.SolutionMass ϭ 200 g ϭ 0.2 kg and acceleration due to gravity, g ϭ 9.81 m/s2Force acting downwards ϭ weight ϭ mass ϫ acceleration ϭ 0.2 kg ϫ 9.81 m/s2 ϭ 1.962 N1.4 WorkThe unit of work or energy is the joule (J) where one joule is one Newton meter.The joule is defined as the work done or energy transferred when a force ofone newton is exerted through a distance of one meter in the direction of the force.Thus,work done on a body, in joules W ϭ Fswhere F is the force in Newtons and s is the distance in meters moved by the body in thedirection of the force. Energy is the capacity for doing work. w w w.ne w nespress.com
  24. 24. 4 Chapter 11.5 PowerThe unit of power is the watt (W) where one watt is one joule per second. Power isdefined as the rate of doing work or transferring energy. Thus, Wpower in watts, P ϭ twhere W is the work done or energy transferred in joules and t is the time in seconds. Thus,energy, in joules, W ϭ PtExample 1.4A portable machine requires a force of 200 N to move it. How much work is done if themachine is moved 20 m and what average power is utilized if the movement takes 25 s?SolutionWork done ϭ force ϫ distance ϭ 200 N ϫ 20 m ϭ 4000 Nm or 4 kJ work donePower ϭ time taken 4000 J ϭ ϭ 160 J/s ϭ 160 W 25 sExample 1.5A mass of 1000 kg is raised through a height of 10 m in 20 s. What is (a) the work doneand (b) the power developed?Solution(a) Work done ϭ force ϫ distance and force ϭ mass ϫ acceleration Hence, work done ϭ (1000 kg ϫ 9.81 m/s2 ) ϫ (10 m ) ϭ 98100 Nm ϭ 98.1 kNm or 98.1 kJ 8 work done 98100 J(b) Power ϭ ϭ ϭ 4905 J/s time taken 20 s ϭ 4905 W or 4.905 kWw ww. n e w n e s p r e s s .c o m
  25. 25. An Introduction to Electric Circuits 51.6 Electrical Potential and e.m.f.The unit of electric potential is the volt (V) where one volt is one joule per coulomb. Onevolt is defined as the difference in potential between two points in a conductor which,when carrying a current of one ampere, dissipates a power of one watt, i.e., watts joules/secondvolts ϭ ϭ amperes amperes joules joules ϭ ϭ ampere seconds coulombsA change in electric potential between two points in an electric circuit is called apotential difference. The electromotive force (e.m.f.) provided by a source of energy suchas a battery or a generator is measured in volts.1.7 Resistance and ConductanceThe unit of electric resistance is the ohm (Ω) where one ohm is one volt per ampere. Itis defined as the resistance between two points in a conductor when a constant electricpotential of one volt applied at the two points produces a current flow of one ampere inthe conductor. Thus, Vresistance, in ohms R ϭ Iwhere V is the potential difference across the two points in volts and I is the currentflowing between the two points in amperes.The reciprocal of resistance is called conductance and is measured in siemens (S). Thus, 1conductance, in siemens G ϭ Rwhere R is the resistance in ohms.Example 1.6Find the conductance of a conductor of resistance (a) 10 Ω, (b) 5 kΩ and (c) 100 mΩ.Solution 1 1(a) Conductance G ϭ ϭ siemen ϭ 0.1 S R 10 w w w.ne w nespress.com
  26. 26. 6 Chapter 1 1 1(b) G ϭ ϭ S ϭ 0.2 ϫ 10Ϫ3 S ϭ 0.2 mS R 5 ϫ 103 1 1 103(c) G ϭ ϭ Sϭ S ϭ 10 S R 100 ϫ 10Ϫ3 1001.8 Electrical Power and EnergyWhen a direct current of I amperes is flowing in an electric circuit and the voltage acrossthe circuit is V volts, then,power, in watts P ϭ VIElectrical energy ϭ Power ϫ time ϭ VIt joulesAlthough the unit of energy is the joule, when dealing with large amounts of energy, theunit used is the kilowatt hour (kWh) where1 kWh ϭ 1000 watt hour ϭ 1000 ϫ 3600 watt seconds or joules ϭ 3,600,000 JExample 1.7A source e.m.f. of 5 V supplies a current of 3 A for 10 minutes. How much energy isprovided in this time?SolutionEnergy ϭ power ϫ time and power ϭ voltage ϫ current.Hence,Energy ϭ VIt ϭ 5 ϫ 3ϫ(10 ϫ 60) ϭ 9000 Ws or J ϭ 9 kJExample 1.8An electric heater consumes 1.8 MJ when connected to a 250 V supply for 30 minutes.Find the power rating of the heater and the current taken from the supply.w ww. n e w n e s p r e s s .c o m
  27. 27. An Introduction to Electric Circuits 7SolutionEnergy ϭ power ϫ time, energypower ϭ time 1.8 ϫ 106 J ϭ ϭ 1000 J/s ϭ 1000 W 30 ϫ 60 si.e., Power rating of heater ϭ 1 kW P 1000Power P ϭ VI , thus, I ϭ ϭ ϭ 4A V 250Hence, the current taken from the supply is 4 A.1.9 Summary of Terms, Units and Their Symbols Table 1.3: Electrical terms, units, and symbolsQuantity Quantity Symbol Unit Unit symbolLength l meter mMass m kilogram kgTime t second sVelocity v meters per second m/s or m sϪ1Acceleration a meters per second squared m/s2 or m sϪ2Force F newton NElectrical charge or quantity Q coulomb CElectric current I ampere AResistance R ohm ΩConductance G siemen SElectromotive force E volt VPotential difference V volt VWork W joule JEnergy E (or W) joule JPower P watt W w w w.ne w nespress.com