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Geography

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I am write about Our chananging earth

I am write about Our chananging earth

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  • 1. PRESENTED BY-
  • 2. EARTH MOVEMENTS • THE EARTH MOVEMENTS ARE DIVIDED ON THE BASIS OF FORCES ARE- • ENDOGENIC FORCES- THE FORCES WHICH ACT IN THE INTERIOR OF THE EARTH ARE CALLED AS ENDOGENIC FORCES • EX- EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES ARE ALL ENDOGENIC PROCESS. • EXOGENIC FORCES- THE FORCES THAT WORK ON THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH ARE CALLED EXOGENIC FORCES • EX- WEATHERING EFFECTS AND EROSION EXOGENIC PROCESSES.
  • 3. EVOLUTION OF LAND EARTH MOVEMONETS ENDOGENIC FORCES EXOGENIC FORCES SUDDEN FORCES EARTHQUAKE VOLCANO LANDSLIDES DIASTROPHIC FORCES BUILDING MOUNTAINS EROSIONAL AND DEPOSITIONAL RIVER WIND SEA WAVES GLACIERS
  • 4. VALCANO • VOLCANO MEANS- A VOLCANO IS AN OPENING, OR RUPTURE, IN A PLANET’S SURFACE OR CRUST, WHICH ALLOWS HOT, MOLTEN ROCK ASH AND GASES TO ESCAPE FROM BELOW THE SURFACE • THE WORD VOLCANO IS DERIVED FROM ITALIAN VOLCANO, AFTER VULCAN THE ROMAN GOD OF FIRE.
  • 5. • The formation of volcanoes • Magma rises through cracks or weaknesses in the Earth's crust. • Pressure builds up inside the Earth. • When this pressure is released, eg as a result of plate movement, magma explodes to the surface causing a volcanic eruption. • The lava from the eruption cools to form new crust. • Over time, after several eruptions, the rock builds up and a volcano forms. HOW ARE VOLCANO FORMED
  • 6. SOME PHOTOS OF VOLCANO
  • 7. EARTHQUAKES • WHEN THE LITHOSPHERIC PLATES MOVE, THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH VIBRATES. • THE VIBRATIONS CAN TRAVEL ALL ROUND THE EARTH. THESE VIBRATIONS ARE CALLED EARTHQUAKES. • AN EARTHQUAKE (ALSO KNOWN AS A TREMOR OR TEMBLOR) IS THE RESULT OF A SUDDEN RELEASE OF ENERGY IN THE EARTH’S CRUST THAT CREATS SEISMIC WAVES. EARTHQUAKES ARE RECORDED WITH A SEISMOMETER, ALSO KNOWN AS A SESIMOGRAPH.
  • 8. HOW EARTHQUAKE ARE FORMED • THE PLACE IN THE CRUST WHERE THE MOVEMENTS STARTS IS CALLED THE FOCUS. • THE PLACE ON THE SURFACE ABOVE THE FOCUS IS CALLED THE EPICENTER • VIBRATIONS TRAVEL OUTWARDS FROM THE EPICENTER AS WAVES. • GREATEST DAMAGE IS USUALLY CLOSEST TO THE EPICENTER AWAY FROM THE CENTRE.
  • 9. SOME PHOTOS OF EARTHQUAKES
  • 10. LAND FORMS MAJOR LAND FORMS • THE LANDSCAPE IS BEING FORMED BY TWO PROCESSES: • WEATHERING- WEATHERING IS THE BREAKING UP OF THE ROCKS ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE • EROSION- EROSIN IS THE REMOVAL OF SOILS (SEDIMENT, SOIL, ROACKS AND OTHER PARTICLES) IN THE NATURAL ENVIORNMENT. IT USUALLY OCCURS DUE TO TRANSPORT BY WIND, WATER, OR ICE.
  • 11. SOME PHOTOS OF EROSIN
  • 12. RIVERS • WATERFALL- A WATERFALL IS A PLACE WHERE FLOWING WATER RAPIDLY DROPS IN ELEVATION AS IT FLOWS OVER A STEEP REGION OR A CLIFF. • MEANDERS- THE RIVER ENTERS THE PLAIN IT TWISTS AND TURNS FORMING LARGE BENDS KNOWN AS MEANDERS. • OX- BOW LAKE- AN OXBOW LAKE IS A U- SHAPPED BODY OF WATER FORMED WHEN A WIDE MEANDER FROM THE MAIN STEM OF A RIVER IS CUT OFF TO CREATE A LAKE • THE LANDFORMS IS CALLED AN OXBOW LAKE FOR THE DISTINCTIVE CURVED SHAPE THAT RESULTS FROM THIS PROCESS.
  • 13. SOME PHOTS OF WATERFALL MEANDERS AND OX- BOW LAKE
  • 14. FLOODPLAIN • WHEN RIVER OVERFLOWS ITS BANKS, IT LEADS TO THE FLOODING OF THE NEIGHBOURING AREAS. • AS IT FLOODS, IT DEPOSITS LAYERS OF FINE SOIL AND OTHER MATERIAL CALLED SEDIMANTS ALONG ITS BANKS. THIS LEAD TO THE FORMATION OF FLOODPLAIN.
  • 15. LEVEES • THE RAISED BANKS ARE CALLED LEVEES. • AS IT RIVER APPROACHES THE SEA, THE SPEED OF THE FLOWING WATER DECREASES AND THE RIVER BEGINS TO BREAK UP INTO A NUMBER OF STREAMS CALLED DISTRIBUTARIES.
  • 16. DELTA • A DELTA IS A LANDFORM THAT IS CRATED AT THE MOUTH OF A RIVER WHERE THAT RIVER FLOWS INTO AN OCEANS, SEA, ESTUARY, LAKE, RESERVOIR, FLAT ARID AREA, OR ANOTHER RIVER. DELTAS ARE FORMED FROM THE DEPOSITION OF THE SEDIMENT CARRIED BY THE RIVER AS THE FLOW LEAVES THE MOUTH OF THE RIVER.
  • 17. SEA WAVES FEATURES MADE BY SEA WAVES • THE FEATURES ARE- • SEA CAVES- A SEA CAVE, ALSO KNOWN AS A LITTORAL CAVE, IS A TYPE OF CAVE FORMED PRIMARILY BY THE WAVE ACTION OF THE SEA. • THE PRIMARY PROCESS INVOLVED IS EROSIN. • SEA ARCHES- WHEN SEA CAVES BECOME BIGGER AND BIGGER ONLY THE ROOF OF THE CAVE REMAIN, THEN FORM SEA ARCHES. • STACK- EROSIN BREAKS THE ROOF AND ONLY WALLS ARE LEFT. THESE WALL LIKE FEATURES ARE CALLED STACKS. • SEA CLIFF- THE STEEP ROCY COAST RISING ALMOST VERTICALLY ABOVE SEA WATER IS CALLED SEA CLIFF. • THE SEA WAVES DEPOSIT SEDIMENTS ALONG THE SHORES FORMING BEACHES.
  • 18. SOME PHOTOS OF SEA CAVES AND SEA ARCHES
  • 19. ICE FEATURES OF ICE • THESE ARE FOLLOWING- • GLACERIES - A GLACIERS IS ALARGE MASS OF ICE MOVING SLOWLY OVER SOME LAND SURFACE OR DOWN A VALLEY, FORMED OVER LONG PERIODS FROM THE ACCUMULATION OF SNOW IN AREAS WHERE THE AMOUNT OF SNOW THAT FALLS EXCEEDS THE AMOUNT THAT MELTS. • GLACIAL MONARIES- THE MATERIAL CARRIED BY THE GLACIER SUCH AS ROCKS BIG AND SMALL, SAND AND SILT GETS DEPOSITED. THESE DEPOSITES FORM GLACIAL MORAINES
  • 20. WIND FEATURES OF WIND • THESE ARE FEATURES- • MUSHROOM ROCKS- AN ACTIVE AGENT OF EROSION AMD DEPOSITION IN THE DESERTS IS WIND • IN SESERTS ROACKS IN THE SHAPE OF A MUSHROOM, COMMONLY CALLED MUSHROOM ROCKS • SAND DUNES- WHEN THE WIND BLOWS, IT LIFTS AND TRANSPORTS FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER.WHEN IT STOPS BLOWING THE SAND FALLS AND GETS DEPOSITED IN LOW HILL-LIKE STRUCTURES CALLED SAND DUNES. • LOESS- WHEN THE GRAINS OF SAND ARE VERY FINE AND LIGHT, THE WIND CAN CARRY IT OVER VERY LONG DISTANCES. WHEN SUCH SAND IS DEPOSITED IN LARGE AREAS, IT IS CALLED LOESS. • LARGE DEPOSITS OF LOESS IS FOUND IN CHINA.