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Question/Answers of fundamental

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This Document contains some question answers of Fundamental for S.R.K.G college's students and other fundamental learning students.

This Document contains some question answers of Fundamental for S.R.K.G college's students and other fundamental learning students.

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  • 1. ANSWERS OF FUNDAMENTAL By AMIT RANJAN
  • 2. 2. a) Explain with the help of a block diagram, the basic components of a computer system. (-09) Ans Software Hardware Data User A complete computer system consists of four parts: hardware, software, one or more user, & data. Hardware:The physical devices that make up the computer are called hardware. Hardware is any part of the computer we can touch. Computer hardware consists of interconnected electronic devices that we can use to control the computer’s operation, input, & output. Software:Software is a set of instructions that makes the computer perform tasks. Some programs exist primarily for the computer’s use, helping it perform tasks & manage its own resources. Other types of programs exist for the user, enabling him or her to perform tasks such as creating documents. Users:People are the computer operators also known as users. It can be argued that some computer systems are complete without a person’s involvement; however, no computer is totally autonomous. Even if a computer can do its job without a person sitting in front of it, people still design, build, and program & repair computer system. Data:Data is a raw material which is used for data processing. b) Discuss the different types of memory. (-09,-07)
  • 3. Ans. A memory system can be considered to be consisting of three groups of memories. These are following:1. Internal processor memory 2. Main memory / primary memory 3. External memory / secondary memory 1. Internal processor memory This consist of a small set of high speed registers which are internal to a processor and used as temporary location where actual processing is done. Registers are internal processor memory. 2. Primary memory / Main memory It is a large memory that is fast but not as fast as internal processor memory. These memories are accessed directly by the processor. ROM and RAM are the examples of primary memory. 3. External memory / Secondary memory / Auxiliary memory This is large in size than main memory but slower than main memory. It can be used as an overflow memory or virtual memory. In case of, the capacity of main memory has been acceded than these memories are not acceded directly by a processor. First the information of these memories are transferred to the main memory & then the information can be accessed to main memory. Hard Disk, Optical Storage, Pen Drive and so on are the examples of External or Secondary memory. 3. a) Discuss the characteristics of a monitor. (-09) Ans. Following are the characteristics of a monitor: a) Size: The most important aspect of a monitor is its size. Screen sizes are measured in diagonal inches, the distance from one corner to another opposite corner diagonally.
  • 4. b) Resolution: The resolution of a monitor indicates how density the pixels are packed. Pixel is short short for picture element. A pixel is a single point in a graphic image. Graphic monitors display pictures by dividing the display screen into millions of pixels arranged in rows and columns. On colour monitor each pixel is actually composed of three dots namely a red, a green, and a blue. The quality of a display monitor largely depends on its resolution. c) Band Width: The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time. For digital devices, the band width is usually expressed in bits or bytes per second (bps). For analog devices it is expressed in cycle per second or Hertz (Hz). d) Refresh Rate: Display monitors must be refresh many times per second. The refresh rate determines how many times per seconds the screen is to be red drawn. The refresh rate of a monitor is measured in Hertz. The faster the refresheris, the less the monitor flickers. e) Interlacing: It is a technique in which instead of scanning the image one line at a time, it scans alternately i.e. alternate lines are scanned at each pass. It is used to keep band width down. Since inter leaked displaced have been reported to be more flickery, with better technology available, most monitors are non interlaced now. f) Dot per Inch: It is measured for the actual sharpness of the on screen image. This depends on both the resolution & the size of the image. Practical experience shows that a smaller screen has a sharper image at the same resolution than does a large screen. This is because it will require more dots per inch to display the same number of pixels. g) Dot Pitch:
  • 5. A measurement that indicates the vertical distance between each pixel on a display screen. It is measured in millimeter. The dot pitch is one of the principle characteristics that determine the quality of display monitors. h) Convergence: It refers to how sharply an individual colour pixel on a monitor appears. Each pixel is composed of three dots namely a red, a green and a blue. If the dots are badly mis converged, the pixel will appear blurry. b) Explain MICR, OCR & OMR. (-09) Ans. Magnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR)(-09,-06,-05) It allows the computer to recognize characters printed using magnetic ink. It is a direct entering method used in banks. This technology is used to automatically read numbers on the bottom of the check. A special purpose machine known as a reader reads characters made of ink containing magnetized particles. A related technology is the magnetic strip used on the back of credit cards & bank debit cards that allow readers such as Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) to read account information. Optical Character Recognisation (OCR)(-09,-07,-05) It refers to the branch of computer science that involves reading text from paper and translating the images into a form that a computer can manipulate. All OCR system includes an optical scanner for reading text & sophisticated software for analyzing images. The potential of the OCR system is enormous because they enable users to hardness the power of computer to access printed document. Optical Mark Reader (OMR)(-09,-05) It is also known as sense reader. It is used to read the document or answer sheet by means of light. It can read up to 450 to 650 documents per minute. It is commonly used for aptitude test. 4. a) Discuss what is meant by 4GL & its importance? (-09)
  • 6. Ans. These languages are a class of software designed to simplify the task of developing a new application. These languages are very easy to use. It is designed to concentrate on what task is to be accomplished as compare to 3GL, which focus on how to solve a problem. This is also known as problem oriented languages, designed to solve specific problem. The main purpose of these languages is to make more efficient applications. These are also known as DBMS (Data Base management System). It is used to manage data in a systematic order. E.g. FoxPro. Importance of 4GL:i. It is easy to use. ii. A little or no computer knowledge is required to access the 4GL. iii. It is machine independent. iv. In this language maintenance and modifications of data is very easy. b) What is an Operating System? Explain the multiprogramming operating system. (-09,-07) Ans. The operating system controls computer system resources and coordinates the flow of data to end from the micro processor. At the same time it also controls the flow of data between input and output devices such as keyboard & monitor. Multiprogramming operating system allows more than one program to run concurrently. In a given moment, only one task is actually being executed but within a larger time span of several minutes, the computer is processing several programs by alternating between actual executions. When one job needs to do I/O, another can resume. So two or more independent programs are executed in the same time span by inter leaving their execution. 5. a) Discuss the different types of printers. (-09,-06) Ans. The printer generates a permanent hard copy of our work on paper. Printers are available with the variety of printing mechanism, speed and varying qualities. There are mainly two types of printers: 1. Impact printer
  • 7. It operates like a typewriter, pressing a typewriter press a type phase against a paper on a ink ribbon or carbon ribbon. Impact printers include all printers that work by striking on ink ribbon. Daisy Wheel, Dot Matrix, Drum printer, Line printer, Chain Printers are the impact printers. These type of printers make noise during printing. 2. Non-impact printer This type of printer use thermal, electrostatic, chemical, & inkjet technology. Non impact printers include laser printers, thermal printers, & inkjet printers. This type of printer does not make noise during printing. b) What is a compiler? How does it differ from an interpreter? (-09) Ans. Compiler is a standard program written & supplied by the computer manufacturers for translating the program JAVA written in high level language into the equivalent machine code of the computer. This process of translating is called compilation. The compilation process consists of first loading the computer with the compiler & then inputting the source program. The compiler produces an object program whose extension is .OBJ. Interpreter Compiler It translates the program line by line. It translates the entire program at once. It requires less main memory. It requires more main memory Each time the program is executed, It converts the entire program to every line is checked for syntax or machine code, when all the syntax error and converted to equivalent error are removed and executes the machine code. object code directly. Source program and the interpreter Neither source program nor compiler are required for execution. are required for execution. It is good for fast debugging & It is slow for debugging & testing. testing. 6. b) Explain the following DOS commands:
  • 8. a. CHKDISK This command is used for analyzing, diagnosing & correct common disk errors (hard disk). It produces reports on the status of files on disk. If we invoke this command without any parameter it will analyse the current drive. If we invoke the command with drive name, it will analyse that drive. C :> CHKDISK C :> CHKDISK D b. FORMAT Formats prepare a blank disk for receiving & storing data, or create a new blank disk from a used one. It requires a specific drive letter for the disk to format. If we want to cancel this command use ctrl+c. c. ATTRIB This command is used to display or change the attributes of a file. File can be declared read only, read write, archived, not archived, hidden or not hidden. d. PATH It specifies a list of subdirectories where DOS looks for executable program file. If we invoke this command without parameter it displays the current search path. If we want to change the search path, then invoke this command with a list of the drives & subdirectories where we want DOS to look forv program files. 2. Discuss about the development of computers. Also, mention the various generations and types of computers. (08,-07,-05) Ans. All though the modern electronic computer are only a recent phenomenon, but the ideas & devices leading to the advent of the computer far back in the history. In 450 BC, a machine is developed whose name is ABACUS. It is the first known calculating device. It is invented by the chiness. In 1642, the well known French scientist and mathematician, Blaise Pascal invented the first machine which could add & carry digits automatically. This machine was known as adding machine. In 1692,
  • 9. Baron G. Wilhelm von Leibniz of Germany improves upon Pascal’s machine & introduces a mechanism to carry out automatic multiplication of numbers. This machine is known as multiplying machine. In 1833, Charles Babbage, an English mathematician, develop a mechanical calculating device, called difference engine. In 1942, a group of scientist devised the Mark 1 which was the first electromecanical calculator in the world. In 1944, scientist of Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, USA, broad out ENIAC. It was the first electronic calculator. In 1947, the scientists of Cambridge University, UK, broad out EDSAC. It was the first electronic computer in the world. In 1951, Sperry Rand Corporation of USA introduced the first commercial computer to the world & named it Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC 1) Following are the various generations of the computer: First Generation (1942-1955) First generation computers use the vacuum tubes technology. It was the only high speed electronic switching device available in those days. Their memory capacity was between 10,000 to 20,000 characters. The instructions written in these computers in machine and assembly languages. Its internal operating speed was in milli seconds (10-3s). Its external speed was thousands of instructions per second. Second Generation (1955-1964) Second generation computers use the transistors in place of vacuum tubes. They used magnetic cores for main memory, and magnetic disk and tape as secondary storage media. They were more powerful, more reliable, less expensive, smaller and cooler to operate than the first generation computers. Its memory capacity was 4000 to 64,000 characters. Its internal operating speed was micro seconds (10 -6s). Its external speed was up to 1 lakh instructions per second. Third Generation (1964-1975) Third generation computers use the integrated circuits. Its memory capacity was 32,000to 4 million characters. Its internal operating speed was nano seconds (10 -9s). Its external speed was up to 10 crores instruction per second. Fourth Generation (1975- 1989)
  • 10. Fourth generation computers are based on large scale integration or very large scale integration circuits. Development of microprocessor also happened in this generation. Its memory capacity is up to 51,200 to 32 million characters. Its internal operating speed is pico seconds (10-12s) and above. Its external speed is up to 100 millions per second. Fifth Generation (1989-present time) Very Large Scale Integration technology became Ultra Large Scale Integration technology in fifth generation resulting in production of microprocessor chips having 10 million electronic components. On the basis of data, computers are basically classified into three types: 1. Digital Computer A digital computer operates directly on decimal digits that represent either discreet data or symbols. It takes input & gives output in the form of numbers, letters & special characters represented by holes in punched card, magnetized area on tapes, printing on paper & so on. It is generally used for business & scientific data processing. 2. Analog computer An analog computer measures continuous electrical or physical magnitude like voltage, pressure, shaft rotation etc. They are process control devices. The output from the system may be in the form of a graph produced by a plotting pen or a trace on a cathode ray tube. Its output signals can be used directly to control the operation of some other machine for process. They can perform very complex arithmetical functions at high speed while the actual process is in operation. These computers have many applications in the scientific and industrial field. 3. Hybrid computer A computer that combines the most desirable features of both digital and analog is known as hybrid computer. They are suited for the situation where digital processing of data is collected in analog form is desirable. Its processing speed is faster than digital computer and accuracy is greater than analog computer.
  • 11. On the basis of capacity, price, performance criteria, computer can be classified into four types: 1. Mainframe computer Mainframe computers are general purpose computers capable of handling all kinds of problems. It can accept & transfer data from I/O devices at the rate of millions of bytes per second. It can support large number of terminals. They have large online secondary storage capacity and can support a number and variety of peripheral devices like magnetic tapes, drivers. They routinely have high speed cache memories which enable them to process applications faster than mini & micro computers. 2. Super computer Super computers are big general purpose computers capable of executing more than ten thousand instructions per second. It has the storage capacity of millions of bytes per chip. The high speed in these computers is due to use of a number of micro processor working in parallel and high storage densities are obtained by using magnetic bubble memories and charged coupled devices, so reducing the cost of storage. 3. Mini computer Mini computers are smaller versions of the mainframe. Generally they offer the same computing power as mainframe. The most important advantage of a mini computer over the main frame is that it is cheaper in cost, smaller in size & very reliable. The main use of these systems is in education, in local government etc. 4. Micro computer The micro computers are built around micro processor chips. It is a silicon wafer about 5mm square & 0.1mm thick with layer of etched & printed circuits. It contains all the elements require to process binary in coded data. It is possible to pack a complete micro computer in a single chip but usually several chips are used. A typical micro computer has a key board for input & uses floppy drives, CDs, or DVDs to inter data and programs to receive outputs.
  • 12. 3. With the help of a block diagram, explain the organization of a modern device and one output device. Ans. Input Unit Secondary Storage computer. Briefly discuss one input Output Unit Primary Storage Control Unit Arithmetic Logic Unit Indicates flow of instructions and data Indicates the control exercised by the control unit
  • 13. Key board Key board is the main input device for our computer. It is fast accurate device. The multiple character allow us to send data to our computer as a steam of characters in a serial manner. It is efficient for jobs like data entry. A full size key board has the distance between the centre of the key caps is 0.75 inches. The key caps have a top of about 0.5 inches. The key board layout is the array of the keys across the key board. The most popular layout is QWERTY. Q,W,E,R,T,Y are the first six letters of the top row of the alphabets of the QWERTY layout. Monitor Monitors are also known as Visual Display Unit (VDU). A monitor is the television like box connected to our computer. It shows what our computer is thinking. It has a display which is technically defined as the image producing device that is the screen. They have great sharpness and colour purity and operate at higher frequencies. They have been classified on the basis of colour, signals and technology. On the basis of colour monitors are classified into three types:1. Monochrome monitor 2. Gray colour monitor 3. Colour monitor On the basis of signals monitors are classified into two types:1. Digital monitors 2. analog monitors On the basis of technology monitors are classified into two types:1. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors 2. Mimetic technology monitors (LCD monitors) 4. Discuss the significance of operating system. What are the required features of a good operating system? Give some examples of OS. (-08)
  • 14. Ans. The operating system controls computer system resources and coordinates the flow of data to end from the micro processor. At the same time it also controls the flow of data between input and output devices such as keyboard & monitor. Today most of the operating system perform the following function: 1. Processor management 2. Memory management 3. Input Output management 4. File management 5. Operating system is responsible for automatic transition from job to job as directed by special control statement. 6. It is responsible for coordination and assignment of compilers, assembler, utility programs and other software to the various users of the computer system. 7. It provides facility for easy communication between the computer system & the computer operator (user). It also establishes data security & integrity. Following are the name of some operating system:1. DOS 2. windows 3. UNIX 4. LINUX 5. a) Differentiate among assemblers, compilers, and interpreters. (-08) Ans. Compiler is a standard program written & supplied by the computer manufacturers for translating the program JAVA written in high level language into the equivalent machine code of the computer. This process of translating is called compilation. The compilation process consists of first loading the computer with the compiler & then inputting the source program. The compiler produces an object program whose extension is .OBJ. Assembler translates a program written in assembly language into machine language. It deals with a low level language. It translate complete source program into an object program, identifying any error along the way.
  • 15. The assembler will list or display these errors as well as complete source & object programs. If the program is error free, the job control program will run it immediately or save the object program. So that it may run it later without translating it again. Interpreter is another type of translator use for translating high level languages into machine code. It translates the program line by line. Each time the program is executed; every line is checked for syntax error and converted to equivalent machine code. b) What is a computer virus? Discuss its detection and prevention. Also, give some examples of antivirus soft wares.(-08,-06) Ans. Virus is basically a small program. The difference between virus and any other program is that a virus manipulates and corrupts information of our computer. A computer virus is a software code that replicates itself. It spreads from program to program and disk to disk manipulating and damaging valuable data. The reasons which make it dangerous is its capabilities to make copies of itself that can be spread from one computer to another. Virus can activate on certain date or when we type a particular command or press a particular key. The two main ways of spreading viruses are:1. Optical drives 2. Network In computer field there are five types of viruses found:1. File infector virus 2. Boot sector virus 3. Master boot record viruses 4. Multi partite virus 5. Macro viruses Some popular viruses are given below:1. Scores virus
  • 16. 2. 3. 4. 5. Brain virus Rain Drop virus Jerusalem virus Trojan Horse virus and so on. Virus can be cured with antivirus program. A good antivirus program is one that checks whether the system has been infected or not. These programs stop the viruses from affecting the system. This prevents the virus not to get a foot hold in the system. Some of the antivirus utilities refuse any program to make resident in RAM unless allowed by the user. The detectors warn users about the presence of virus after it has been loaded into the machine or disk. Some of the popular antiviruses are Norton antivirus, avira antivirus, MacAfee etc. 6. Write notes on the following :-(-08) a) DOS commands DOS commands are the set of codes or instruction which guide the operating system to do any work. DOS is a fully command based program. To do any work in DOS we have to type the appropriate command for that work. As for example to see the system time and date we have to first type the time command for time and then date command for date, similarly for making any file we have to type copy con command and then the filename and after typing the data for saving that file we have to press f6 or ctrl+z, like this for every work in DOS there is an appropriate command which is necessary. b) Executable vs. non-executable files in DOS Executable Files Non-Executable Files In DOS executable files are known In DOS non-executable files have as batch files. any extension except .bat. It is collection of commands. It is the collection of text. We can write only one command in We do not write any commands in one line. these files. These files are run by only typing the We cannot run the non-executable
  • 17. file name on the command prompt. files by typing the file name on the command prompt. Executable files are used to perform It is used to store data only. a particular task such as to open MS Paint, Excel and so on. c) Application software Application software is a set of programs designed to solve a specific problem or, do a specific task. Normally to use an application program, we load or install the program into the computers’ memory and then create, edit or update a file for a data base. When we finish the work we need to save it before closing. A number of application programs are available for for different purpose. They are categoriesed into two types:1. Customize application software 2. Standard application software 2. Write short notes on any three of the following: (-07) a) OCR b) Laptop Laptop PCs are portable computers weighting around 2 to 6 kg. they have a key board, flat screen LCD & Pentium or power personal computer processor. They normally run using windows operating system. Laptop comes with 250 to 340 GB HDD, and should run with batteries (LI-ON, NI-OH) and thus designed to conserve energy by using power efficient chips. There is a trend toward providing wireless connectivity to laptops so that they can read file from large stationary computers. c) Spooling It stands for Simultaneous Peripheral Operation Online. It is a technique used for dynamic job processing. It allows input and output operations to occur simultaneously with processing operations. Input data from low speed devices is stored temporally on high speed secondary storage units to form a que which can be quickly accessed by the C.P.U. Output data is also written which can be quickly accessed by the C.P.U. The jobs are transferred to the
  • 18. output devices when the units are available. The operating system supplies a special writing program to control the spooling process. d) MSDOS MSDOS is a fully command based program. To do any work in DOS we have to type the appropriate command for that work. As for example to see the system time and date we have to first type the time command for time and then date command for date, similarly for making any file we have to type copy con command and then the filename and after typing the data for saving that file we have to press f6 or ctrl+z, like this for every work in DOS there is an appropriate command which is necessary. e) Classification of computers. 3. What are the essential components of a digital computer? Discuss the function of each of these components.(-07) Ans. 4. Discuss about the different types of memories used in a modern computer. (-07) 5. a) What is an operating system? (-07) b) What is micro programming? Ans. In the time of manufacturing of computer some important complex program is written by manufacturers’ programmer and saved or stored in ROM. That program is known as micro program and writing this type of program is known as micro programming. c) Define linker, translator, & utility programs. Ans. Linker is a program that is used to properly combine all object program files of a software, and to convert them into the software’s final executable form. Translator is a program that converts the instruction written is source program (instruction written by user) into the object program (instruction understand by system). Utilities are a wide variety of general purpose program that greatly speedup and simplify the uses of a computer. It improves the programming efficiency.
  • 19. 6. a) What are the difference between system software & application software.(-07) Ans. System software Application software It is the combination of both program that control and It is complete suite of an application program. support the computer system and its data processing activities. Assemblers and compilers are used for translating the Assemblers and compilers are not used. program from source code to the object code. It provides diagnostic routines for assisting in program It does not provide diagnostic routines for assisting in debugging. program debugging. It provides the utility program which perform such It do not provides the utility program. activities as sorting, editing and dumping of data. It minimize the human intervention for managing the It maximize the human intervention for managing the system. The programs are supervised by a program system. which is known as the supervisory program. b) Discuss the file & directory structure of DOS.(-09,-07) Ans. In computer terminology, a file is a collection of text or data stored on a storage device, such as hard disk and so on. Usually, one computer file stores only one kind of information. Therefore, different types of files are used in a computer. The file that stores letters, memos, documents etc. is called a document or text file. Similarly, a file that contains instructions written in programming language is called a program file. In DOS any file that we create or copy to drive C is added to this root directory. DOS always create a root directory in each storage device. We can create new directories in the root directory of the hard disk or floppy disk. We can store files in these directories. Moreover, besides files, each directory can also have directories that called sub-directories. Thus, the file and directory organization in DOS looks like the root of a tree.
  • 20. 2. Write short notes on any four of the following:- (-06) 1. Spooling Spooling stands for Simultaneous Peripheral Operations Online. It is a technique used for dynamic job processing. It allows input or output operations simultaneously with processing operations. Input data from low speed devices is stored temporarily on high speed secondary storage units to form a que which can be quickly accessed by the 2. Optical disk It is made of plastic material such as epoxy glass. It is coated with silver wafer or silicon wafer. Wafer is divided into spiral tracks. The most popular alternatives to magnetic storage system are optical storage system. There are several types of optical storage medium such as CD ROM, DVD ROM, CDR, CDRW and so on. 3. Multitasking Technically, multitasking is same as multiprogramming. Many authors do not distinguish between these because both refer to the same concept. However some authors prefer to use the term multiprogramming for multi-user system and multitasking for single user system. In other words, Multitasking is interleaved execution of multiple jobs in a single user system. 4. MICR 5. Batch processing It is defined as the periodic processing of batches of accumulated information. This technique is widely applied for business applications which have high volume of data. Batched informations are usually accessed sequentially. It reduces the ideal time of computer system because transition from one job to another job does not require operator intervention. 3.a) what do you mean by Multiprogramming Operating System? Explain the implementation of Multi-user and Time-sharing system in the Multiprogramming Operating System.(-06) Ans. Multiprogramming operating system allows more than one program to run concurrently. In a given moment, only one task is actually being executed but within a larger time span of several minutes, the computer is
  • 21. processing several programs by alternating between actual executions. When one job needs to do I/O, another can resume. So two or more independent programs are executed in the same time span by inter leaving their execution. b) Give an account of the different types of output devices. Following are the different types of operating systems: Monitors Monitors are also known as Visual Display Unit (VDU). A monitor is the television like box connected to our computer. It shows what our computer is thinking. It has a display which is technically defined as the image producing device that is the screen. They have great sharpness and colour purity and operate at higher frequencies. They have been classified on the basis of colour, signals and technology. On the basis of colour monitors are classified into three types:1. Monochrome monitor 2. Gray colour monitor 3. Colour monitor On the basis of signals monitors are classified into two types:1. Digital monitors 2. analog monitors On the basis of technology monitors are classified into two types:1. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors 2. Mimetic technology monitors (LCD monitors) Printers The printer generates a permanent hard copy of our work on paper. Printers are available with the variety of printing mechanism, speed and varying qualities. There are mainly two types of printers: 1. Impact printer It operates like a typewriter, pressing a typewriter press a type phase against a paper on a ink ribbon or carbon ribbon. Impact printers include all printers that work by striking on ink ribbon. Daisy Wheel, Dot
  • 22. Matrix, Drum printer, Line printer, Chain Printers are the impact printers. These type of printers make noise during printing. 2. Non-impact printer This type of printer use thermal, electrostatic, chemical, & inkjet technology. Non impact printers include laser printers, thermal printers, & inkjet printers. This type of printer does not make noise during printing. Plotter It like a special type of device. It is like a printer but it produces images on paper. It is typically used to print large format images such as engineering drawing created by CAD software. Earlier plotters are bulky, mechanical devices that use robotic arms which draw the images on the paper. Table plotter or flat bed plotter uses two robotic arms where as ruler plotter or drum plotter uses only one drawing arm. Sound cards and speakers The speaker connected to the C.P.U. is similar to that connected a stereo system or a tape recorder. The only difference is that they are usually smaller. They do same thing as any speaker does. They take analog signal to produce sound. The sound cards translate digital sound into electric current and then it is send to the speaker. 4.a) What is a VIRUS? Explain its working principle.(-06) b) Name any six types of Viruses and how they are harmful. In computer field there are five types of viruses found:1. File infector virus These viruses infect program files. These viruses normally infect executable code such as .COM and .EXE. they can infect other files, when the infected program is run from optical disks drives, hard disk drives or network. Many of these viruses are memory resident. After memory becomes, any non infected executable program that runs become infected. E.g. Jerusalem etc. 2. Boot sector virus
  • 23. These viruses infect the system area of a disk i.e. boot record on hard disk. All dicks contain a program in the boot record that is run when the computer start up. These viruses attach them selves to disk part of the disk and activate when the user attempts boot start from the infected disks. These viruses are always memory resident in nature. E.g. Form, Stoned, Michelangelo etc 3. Master boot record viruses These are also memory resident viruses. It infects the disks in the same manner as the boot sector viruses. Master boot record viruses normally save a copy of master boot record in different location. E.g. NYB(New York Bomb), Anti EXE, Unashamed. 4. Multi partite virus These viruses infect both master records and program files. They are difficult to repair. If the boot area is cleaned then it will be re infected because viruses are available in the file area. E.g. one-half, Emperor etc. 5. Macro viruses These macro viruses infect data files. They can be written to infects data files as well as other files also it can defects MS WORD, MS EXCELL, MS POWERPOINT etc. these viruses are created by using Visual Basic, MS OFFICE etc. E.g. W97M.Me, WM.Nice Day etc. 6. Worm Worm is a program that replicates themselves from system to system without the use of host file where as other viruses require an infected host files. An infective worm will fill entire disk with copies of itself. 5.a) Explain the different types of printers and suggest suitable applications.(-06) b) What are registers? Name some of the commonly used registers, and briefly describe the function of each. Ans. Registers are special storage area in the C.P.U. The data is temporarily held during the completion of these operations. The size of register is a very important consideration in determining the speed of processing. The registers used by the A.L.U. are following:1. Accumulator
  • 24. It holds the results of a calculation until needed latter on. A further calculation is required on the results, the data first travel to the working storage area of the primary storage unit and from there to the storage register. 2. Storage register It temporarily hold data, from or being sent to, the primary storage section. 3. Adder It receives data from two or more source and performs the arithmetic as well as logic functions and transfer the results to the accumulator. 6.a) What is booting process? Write down the steps of booting process using flow charts.(-09,-06,-05) Ans. The master boot record is a program that runs when we first start the computer. This program determines whether the disk has the basic components that are necessary to run the operating system successfully. If the program determines that the required files are present & the disk has a valid format, it transfers control to one of the operating system programs that continues the process of starting up. This process is called booting process. Following are the booting process of a computer system:1. The post routine perform a reliability test on the ROM program to find they are in order or not. 2. The ROM start up routine setup address of ROM BIOS routine & interrupt vector table at low end of memory. 3. the ROM start up routines check and initialize the standard equipments or peripherals and stores a list of these peripheral at a fix location in the memory. 4. the ROM start up routines perform a memory check and stores the memory size value at a fix memory location. 5. the ROM start up routines check for non standard equipment attach to the computer. 6. The boot strap loading program loads the disk boot strap program from the boot sector of the disk into memory. 7. The disk boot strap program also load the I/O system file which contains two parts namely disk BIOS & system initialization (sysinit).
  • 25. 8. the sysinit part loads the file MSDOS.sys from disk to memory. It also loads the command.com into memory. The command.com contains two part namely resident & transient modules. The transient portion of the command.com executes the file autoexec.bat. if it is present on the disk then the transient portion display the DOS prompt. b) Explain the following with suitable examples: i) SORT It is used to sort data in character based files or sorts the output of DOS commands. It will produce character based outputs in numeric or alphabetic order. Syntax- sort < complete path of the file ii) EDIT This command is used to change or modify any file in DOS shell. Syntax- edit <file name> iii) SYS This command is used to copies DOS system files to a new disk. SYS transfer s the DOS system files , plus the COMMAND.COM file, to a formatted disk without requiring reformatting. Syntax- sys source:path target: C:> sys c: a: iv) DELTREE This command is used to remove or delete a complete directory, including all its files and subdirectories. Syntax- deltree drive:path C:> deltree c:collage v) COPY This command is used to copy the contents of one file to another file contains any data this will overwrite it. Syntax- copy drive: source path drive:target path vi) ATTRIB
  • 26. This command is used to display or change the attributes of a file. File can be declared read only, read write, archived, not archived, hidden or not hidden. We can not use more than one mode option at a time. Following are some of the mode options used by ATTRIB: +R changes specified file(s) to read only. -R changes specified file(s) to read write. +H changes specified file(s) to hidden. -H changes specified file(s) to visible again. Syntax- attrib modes target drive:pathfile(s) C:> attrib +r collage 2.a) What are the different generations of the computers? Explain briefly.(-05) b) Differentiate between a Compiler & an Interpreter. 3.a) What is an operating system? Explain the functions of the operating system.(-05) Ans. The operating system controls computer system resources and coordinates the flow of data to end from the micro processor. At the same time it also controls the flow of data between input and output devices such as keyboard & monitor. Today most of the operating system perform the following function: 1. Processor management 2. Memory management 3. Input Output management 4. File management 5. Operating system is responsible for automatic transition from job to job as directed by special control statement. 6. It is responsible for coordination and assignment of compilers, assembler, utility programs and other software to the various users of the computer system.
  • 27. 7. It provides facility for easy communication between the computer system & the computer operator (user). It also establishes data security & integrity. b) Explain the following: i. Multiprogramming Multiprogramming is interleaved execution of two or more different and independent programs by same computer. Multiprogramming does not mean execution of instructions from several programs simultaneously. Rather, it means that multiple programs are available to C.P.U. and a portion of one is executed, then a portion of another, and so on. ii. Batch OS It is defined as the periodic processing of batches of accumulated information. This technique is widely applied for business applications which have high volume of data. Batched information’s are usually accessed sequentially. It reduces the ideal time of computer system because transition from one job to another job does not require operator intervention. 4.a) Explain the principle of operation of a laser printer.(-05) Ans. LASER means Light Amplification of Stimulated Emission of Radiation. These printers print an image of whole page at a time. The image may be character, diagram, picture or a combination of these. The basic approach is to first form an image of the page and then it is to be printed on a photo sensitive drum in the machine. A powered ink or tonar is then applied to the image on the drum. The image is electro statically transferred from the drum to a sheet of paper. Finally the inked image on the paper is fused with heat. b) Write the application area of the following: a. Digitizing tablet This is an input device that enables us to enter drawing and sketches into the computer. It is digitizing tablet consist of an electronic tablet and a cursor and a pen. A cursor is similar to the mouse except that it has a window with cross pairs for pinpoint placement and it can have as many as 16 buttons. It is also known as puck. A pen or styler is a simple ball pen but uses a electronic head instead of ink. b. MICR
  • 28. c. OCR d. OMR 5.a) Explain the principle of operation of magnetic disks.(-05) Magnetic disk is a type of device known as random access device. It permits direct addressing of the data location. An individual disk is a thin circular metal plate similar in appearance to a long plain recorder coated on both side with ferrous oxide material. Data is recorded in the form of magnetized spots on the track. A spot representing the presence of data by 1 and its absence by 0. A surface of a magnetic disk is divided into numbers of invisible circles called tracks. The circles are ranging from 200 to 1500. The tracks are further divided into sectors and blocks. b) Differentiate between random access drive and sequential access drive. Random access drives are those drives in which data can be addressed directly by the user like magnetic disks, and optical drives. Sequential access drives are those drives in which data can not be addressed directly, it can be handled only in a serial sequential fashion or technique by user such as magnetic tapes. 6.a) Explain the booting process in DOS.(-05) b) Explain the following with suitable examples: i. XCOPY This command is used to copy selected file. It require source filename & target filename. If we donot include a target file then it will copy on to currently logged drives and subdirectory. This command will not copy a file on to itself. Syntax- xcopy sourcefile targetfile ii. BACKUP This command is useful to take an image or copy of a particular file or files which are critical. We can take this back up on any optical disk or hard disk drive. iii. DOSKEY
  • 29. iv. EDIT To see the full questions of fundamental from 2005 to 2009 click here Fundamental and package.doc