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Learning Design for the Brain - Multimedia Principles

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Learning Design for the Brain demonstrates and explains multimedia principles and how to apply in designing information or learning. The intent is boil these principles & theories down to essentials ...

Learning Design for the Brain demonstrates and explains multimedia principles and how to apply in designing information or learning. The intent is boil these principles & theories down to essentials to make them more usable.
NOTE: Slide 57 & 58 (Critique 2) are reversed. The answers come before the critique - tried fixing it many times!!!

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  • Why Learn Multimedia Principles? it will make you a better designer - whether that be graphic, information or instructional design
  • Rani H Gill MA in Instructional Technology from Columbia Univ. Worked in a top-tier educational consulting firm for a number of years And before that, I was a web & information designer
  • So let’s start with an example
  • Text only explanation of a concept
  • Text plus relevant Pictures - makes a concept more memorable The graph makes it easy to understand how quickly we forget new information - the Law of Forgetting - it’s a little hard to see, but most of what we learn we forget not just in the first day, but in the first hour!
  • words + pictures > than words alone.
  • What we’ll be covering in this deck Use this multimedia principles to: 1) understand what does and does not work 2) make better designs 3) explain our design choices
  • Starting with some brain basics….
  • How much information can the brain hold? Imagine you have to go to the store and remember shopping list. >> Research done in 1956 by Miller tells us that we can hold up to 7 separate items in short-term memory at one time. It’s called the rule of 7? -- which you may have heard of -- (phone numbers, web design often keeps this in mind) So what happens when we add an 8th item? >> Too much information at once to remember Something usually drops out, and usually it’s not always the last thing we put in
  • How much information can the brain hold? Imagine you have to go to the store and remember shopping list. >> Research done in 1956 by Miller tells us that we can hold up to 7 separate items in short-term memory at one time. It’s called the rule of 7? -- which you may have heard of -- (phone numbers, web design often keeps this in mind) So what happens when we add an 8th item? >> Too much information at once to remember Something usually drops out, and usually it’s not always the last thing we put in
  • How much information can the brain hold? Imagine you have to go to the store and remember shopping list. >> Research done in 1956 by Miller tells us that we can hold up to 7 separate items in short-term memory at one time. It’s called the rule of 7? -- which you may have heard of -- (phone numbers, web design often keeps this in mind) So what happens when we add an 8th item? >> Too much information at once to remember Something usually drops out, and usually it’s not always the last thing we put in
  • How much information can the brain hold? Imagine you have to go to the store and remember shopping list. >> Research done in 1956 by Miller tells us that we can hold up to 7 separate items in short-term memory at one time. It’s called the rule of 7? -- which you may have heard of -- (phone numbers, web design often keeps this in mind) So what happens when we add an 8th item? >> Too much information at once to remember Something usually drops out, and usually it’s not always the last thing we put in
  • However, more recent research discovered That when we are learning something new >> the brain can only process -- so when combine, contrast, or manipulate >> -- 2-4 elements SO for example -- if we are learning about the types of memory this might be enough information for some of you For others, you may be able to take in more >> And still more >> Ok - now maybe we’re in overload >> This is known as cognitive load theory - 2-4 elements or pieces of info What is “new” information and how much you can handle depends in part on your previous knowledge Some of you may have heard of this, it’s called cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1990’s)
  • However, more recent research discovered That when we are learning something new >> the brain can only process -- so when combine, contrast, or manipulate >> -- 2-4 elements SO for example -- if we are learning about the types of memory this might be enough information for some of you For others, you may be able to take in more >> And still more >> Ok - now maybe we’re in overload >> This is known as cognitive load theory - 2-4 elements or pieces of info What is “new” information and how much you can handle depends in part on your previous knowledge Some of you may have heard of this, it’s called cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1990’s)
  • However, more recent research discovered That when we are learning something new >> the brain can only process -- so when combine, contrast, or manipulate >> -- 2-4 elements SO for example -- if we are learning about the types of memory this might be enough information for some of you For others, you may be able to take in more >> And still more >> Ok - now maybe we’re in overload >> This is known as cognitive load theory - 2-4 elements or pieces of info What is “new” information and how much you can handle depends in part on your previous knowledge Some of you may have heard of this, it’s called cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1990’s)
  • However, more recent research discovered That when we are learning something new >> the brain can only process -- so when combine, contrast, or manipulate >> -- 2-4 elements SO for example -- if we are learning about the types of memory this might be enough information for some of you For others, you may be able to take in more >> And still more >> Ok - now maybe we’re in overload >> This is known as cognitive load theory - 2-4 elements or pieces of info What is “new” information and how much you can handle depends in part on your previous knowledge Some of you may have heard of this, it’s called cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1990’s)
  • However, more recent research discovered That when we are learning something new >> the brain can only process -- so when combine, contrast, or manipulate >> -- 2-4 elements SO for example -- if we are learning about the types of memory this might be enough information for some of you For others, you may be able to take in more >> And still more >> Ok - now maybe we’re in overload >> This is known as cognitive load theory - 2-4 elements or pieces of info What is “new” information and how much you can handle depends in part on your previous knowledge Some of you may have heard of this, it’s called cognitive load theory (Sweller, 1990’s)
  • next…
  • Look at these two images -- which one is better for learning? Why? The split-attention principle tells us that People learn better when words and pictures are physically integrated THAT MEANS…. the picture on the RIGHT is usually better b/c it integrates the text with image, and does not split your attention THERE IS: - Less movement of the eye back and forth. Less cognitive capacity to integrate text + image SO THIS ALSO DEPENDS on previous knowledge -- if material is familiar (less cognitive load) there may not be much difference IMPLICATIONS: for performance support systems - Placement is important. How useful is it to have a manual and have people follow along with computer support? How useful is the help when it pops up in a different window? Wouldn’t context sensitive be better? SIDE NOTE: Driving implications - texting while driving; talking on cellphone while driving - splits the attention - increases cognitive load - less able to respond to something unusual happening
  • if we have the Image on one page
  • Text on another - it’s separated by time as well as space - splits the attention over time - harder to integrate
  • Split attention principle - is simple - integrate text and images physically and in time
  • One more example of split attention -- worked out example first example - student must mentally integrate the problem statement, initial givens, the formula the solutions steps at various points (p. 139) 2nd example - physical integration - place algebraic variables next to numeric values to reduce the search for referents
  • having text + pictures and integrating them is especially important for novices -- less so for those with more expertise
  • The next 2 slides are examples of the Modality Principle
  • Dr. Penfield's experiments in stimulating the outer layer of the brain (the cortex) and enabled him to develop a complete map of the motor cortex. Most striking is that the areas n our brains assigned to various body parts are proportional not to their size, but rather to the complexity of the movements that they can perform. >> Areas for the hand and face are especially large compared with those for the rest of the body.
  • Dr. Penfield's experiments in stimulating the outer layer of the brain (the cortex) and enabled him to develop a complete map of the motor cortex. Most striking is that the areas n our brains assigned to various body parts are proportional not to their size, but rather to the complexity of the movements that they can perform. >> Areas for the hand and face are especially large compared with those for the rest of the body.
  • Modality Principle - example - part 2
  • MODALITY PRINCIPLE When some information is presented in visually and other information presented via spoken words - it effectively expands working memory - b/c you are using 2 different input channels into the brain
  • the idea of 2 different input channels leads us to the other theory behind the multimedia principles
  • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning >> When you do a MULTIMEDIA presentation >> the information enters through the EYES and EARS >> some information is selected then organized in WORKING memory >> and linked into LONG TERM MEMORY by associating it with PRIOR KNOWLEDGE or related concepts if available
  • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning >> When you do a MULTIMEDIA presentation >> the information enters through the EYES and EARS >> some information is selected then organized in WORKING memory >> and linked into LONG TERM MEMORY by associating it with PRIOR KNOWLEDGE or related concepts if available
  • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
  • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
  • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
  • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning This theory – basically says we have 2 channels by which we can receive and understand information. Each of these channels, has limited capacity So when a presentation has SPOKEN WORDS + PICTURES - this is how it is thought to be processed: >> - the MM narration - with narration >> - and pictures >> - spoken words through the auditory channel >> - pictures through the visual channel >> - spoken words are selected and organized >> - as are images >> finally the new information is integrated with prior knowledge
  • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning This theory – basically says we have 2 channels by which we can receive and understand information. Each of these channels, has limited capacity So when a presentation has SPOKEN WORDS + PICTURES - this is how it is thought to be processed: >> - the MM narration - with narration >> - and pictures >> - spoken words through the auditory channel >> - pictures through the visual channel >> - spoken words are selected and organized >> - as are images >> finally the new information is integrated with prior knowledge
  • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning WRITTEN WORDS + PICTURES - are processed differently: >> PICTURES are processed through the visual channels as you would expect >> WRITTEN TEXT is also processed through visual channel initially THEN in working memory must be RE-ORGANIZED to the AUDITORY channel (we verbalize when we read!) >> then finally integrate into prior knowledge/LTM … >> Having text and pictures on the screen can result in OVERLOAD of the visual channel - too much information to select at once and extra cognitive load in working memory as the text is translated to the auditory channel … How much information results in cognitive overload depends on - the learner, how familiar they are with the information, and the complexity of the information
  • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning WRITTEN WORDS + PICTURES - are processed differently: >> PICTURES are processed through the visual channels as you would expect >> WRITTEN TEXT is also processed through visual channel initially THEN in working memory must be RE-ORGANIZED to the AUDITORY channel (we verbalize when we read!) >> then finally integrate into prior knowledge/LTM … >> Having text and pictures on the screen can result in OVERLOAD of the visual channel - too much information to select at once and extra cognitive load in working memory as the text is translated to the auditory channel … How much information results in cognitive overload depends on - the learner, how familiar they are with the information, and the complexity of the information
  • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning WRITTEN WORDS + PICTURES - are processed differently: >> PICTURES are processed through the visual channels as you would expect >> WRITTEN TEXT is also processed through visual channel initially THEN in working memory must be RE-ORGANIZED to the AUDITORY channel (we verbalize when we read!) >> then finally integrate into prior knowledge/LTM … >> Having text and pictures on the screen can result in OVERLOAD of the visual channel - too much information to select at once and extra cognitive load in working memory as the text is translated to the auditory channel … How much information results in cognitive overload depends on - the learner, how familiar they are with the information, and the complexity of the information
  • Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning WRITTEN WORDS + PICTURES - are processed differently: >> PICTURES are processed through the visual channels as you would expect >> WRITTEN TEXT is also processed through visual channel initially THEN in working memory must be RE-ORGANIZED to the AUDITORY channel (we verbalize when we read!) >> then finally integrate into prior knowledge/LTM … >> Having text and pictures on the screen can result in OVERLOAD of the visual channel - too much information to select at once and extra cognitive load in working memory as the text is translated to the auditory channel … How much information results in cognitive overload depends on - the learner, how familiar they are with the information, and the complexity of the information
  • Redundancy Principle One of the mistakes people make is thinking – more is better -- why not just include text, pictures AND narration >>NOT A GOOD IDEA. WHY? in this example: Text + Narration of same text still overloads visual channel learns must reconcile the text with the spoken words - repeating the same information on a screen in different formats is not helpful - what is redundant depends on what is being taught and WHO is being taught (are your learners experts or novices?) (p. 163) NOVICES - when learning to read a new language– use sounds/ word text only – pictures interfere with reading of word
  • Remember - in general - LESS is MORE
  • Coherence Principle >> STATES people learn better when extra stuff is not included. >> extras stuff such as - verbose language, nonsensical pictures WHY? – including extras may cause cognitive overload – engaged in processing, EXTRA stuff -- YOU may not be able to process ESSENTIAL stuff SO eliminate those things not essential to the instructional goal
  • Coherence Principle >>> part of the cognitive load is processing the information into prior knowledge or existing mental models in Long Term Memory >> Remember, LESS is MORE
  • Signaling Principle Signaling directs the learners attention - by helping them understand what to pay attention to >> for example
  • Signaling Principle In this example of Cuing -., the learners attention is directed to the visual channel
  • Segmenting Principle another no-brainer chunk the content into bite-sized morsels according to your learner’s needs >> and preferably let them control it Chunking content can be presenting parts of a model piece by piece as in the example above or simply allowing for pauses between “units”
  • Pre-training principle Knowing the name of a model or characteristics of a model helps create a schema, or prior knowledge, that the learner can use to integrate new knowledge. It reduces Cognitive Load, especially for novice learners >> cognitive load being a concept you learned about in the beginning
  • A quick summary and review of what helps >> >> >> >> >>
  • And things to watch out for >> >> >>
  • First a check-list before we move on. In White is the basic Cognitive Load theory Principles listed in ORANGE - are things to watch out for Principles listed in GREEN - are helpful strategies Write this slide down or print it out to use in the critiques (handout in classroom environment)
  • STOP for a minute what does not work on this slide and how you would make it better. using the MM design principles Write it down. When you’re ready, click next. Callouts (5) >> >> >> >> >>
  • STOP for a minute what does not work on this slide and how you would make it better. using the MM design principles Write it down. When you’re ready, click next. Callouts (5) >> >> >> >> >>
  • What works and what doesn’t Use the MM design principles (3 callouts) >> >> >>
  • What works and what doesn’t Use the MM design principles (3 callouts) >> >> >>
  • A more challenging design - this one is more subjective. Write down some quick thoughts. >> >> >> >>
  • A more challenging design - this one is more subjective. Write down some quick thoughts. >> >> >> >>
  • Personalization a more casual conversational style works better, at least for North American audiences. - personal style is better (using I/you & conversational style, making comments directly to the learner) - human voice with local accent better than machine voice or accented voice - talking head image – slightly better performance – negligible effects
  • Creating an example where you work through the solution to a problem is better.
  • Having the learner generate explanations during the learning is preferable
  • Another obvious principle - clear navigation and site maps are helpful
  • Animation and interactivity Animations help when the learner cannot visualize or create a mental model easily from the explanation. However, it can get in the way if the learner is more experienced.
  • A quick review of the check list
  • Checklist of additional 5 principles There are many more principles derived from Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning - most of these are listed in the Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning by Richard Mayer
  • Final challenge - create a new design using the principles

Learning Design for the Brain - Multimedia Principles Learning Design for the Brain - Multimedia Principles Presentation Transcript

  • learning design for the brain using multimedia principles
  • [email_address] wanderatwill.com Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0
  • the multimedia principle …in action!
  • Law of Forgetting
    • Memory recall deteriorates with time
    • Very quickly at first
    • Then less so as the time increases
    • Most forgetting happens < 1 day
    words only
  • Law of Forgetting
    • Memory recall deteriorates with time
    • Very quickly at first
    • Then less so as the time increases
    • Most forgetting happens < 1 day
    words + pictures 5 10 15 1.0 2.0 Delay in days Measure of retention
  • Multimedia principle
    • People can learn more deeply from words and pictures than from words alone.
    dog cat
  • So let’s figure out…
    • What helps us learn better
    • What gets in the way
        • Explore key Multimedia Principles & Brain Theory
    • Fix designs that don’t work
    • Create new designs that do
        • Use a checklist tool
    • Explain your design choices
        • BONUS!!! use the language of the principles to explain why you made the choices you did
  • how much can the brain handle? Cognitive Load Theory
  •  
  •  
  • BRAIN OVERLOAD! > 7 items
  • BRAIN OVERLOAD! > 7 items
  • MEMORY
  • MEMORY Declarative (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit)
  • MEMORY Declarative (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit) Semantic (facts) Episodic (events)
  • MEMORY Declarative (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit) Semantic (facts) Episodic (events) Procedural Skills Priming Conditioning Non-associative BRAIN OVERLOAD!
  • MEMORY Declarative (explicit) Non-declarative (implicit) cognitive load theory 2-4 elements when there is a relationship between the elements
  • split-attention principle
  • Split-attention principle - physical
    • Which one is better? Why? What’s the difference?
    Law of Forgetting Time > Memory > Memory recall deteriorates rapidly at first, then less so over time. Memory > Time >
    • Law of Forgetting
    • Memory recall deteriorates with time
    • Very quickly at first
    • Then less so over time
    • Most forgetting happens < 1 day
    Most forgetting happens < 1 day 14 days
  • Split-attention principle - temporal Memory > Time >
  • Split-attention principle - temporal
    • Law of Forgetting
    • Memory recall deteriorates with time
    • Very quickly at first
    • Then less so as the time increases
    • Most forgetting happens < 1 day
  • Split-attention principle
    • People learn better when words and pictures are physically and temporally integrated.
  • A car moves from rest to speed of 40 m/s in 20 seconds. What is the acceleration of the car? u = 0 m/s, v = 40 m/s, t = 20 s v = u + at v-u = at a = (v-u)/t a = (40-0)/20 a = 2 m/s 2 A car moves from rest (u = 0) to a speed (v = 40m/s) in 20 seconds (t = 20): v = u + at, v - u = at, a = (v-u)/t, a = (40-0)/20, a = 2 m/s 2 . What is the acceleration of the car? split-attention physical integration Example from Mayer (2005) Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, p 139
  • Review: what is (less) helpful?
    • HELPFUL:
    • text + pictures
    • integrating text + pictures physically & temporally
    • LESS HELPFUL:
    • text only
    • splitting learner’s attention - making them do the work of integration
  • modality principle
  • Modality principle: narrated example Courtesy of McGill University - http://thebrain.mcgill.ca
  • Modality principle: narrated example Courtesy of McGill University - http://thebrain.mcgill.ca Blakeslee & Blakeslee (2007) The Body Has a Mind of Its Own
  • Modality principle: text example
    • Dr. Penfield's experiments in the 1940’s of stimulating the outer layer of the brain enabled him to develop a map of the areas of the brain devoted to particular body parts.
    • Most striking is that the areas in our brains assigned to various body parts are proportional not to their actual size, but rather to the complexity of the movements that they can perform.
    • Areas for the hand and face are especially large when compared to those for the rest of the body.
    Courtesy of McGill University - http://thebrain.mcgill.ca
  • Modality principle
    • People learn better from graphics & narration
    • than graphics & printed text.
    • BUT WHY?
  • cognitive theory of multimedia learning
  • Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory Selecting Organizing Integrating
  • Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory Selecting Organizing Integrating Words Pictures Multimedia Presentation
  • Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory Selecting Organizing Integrating Sensory Memory
  • Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory Selecting Organizing Integrating Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory
  • Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Prior Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory Selecting Organizing Integrating Long Term Memory Prior Knowledge
  • Narration Pictures Multimedia Presentation Sensory Memory Prior Knowledge Long-Term Memory Sounds Images Verbal Model Pictorial Model Working Memory Selecting Organizing Integrating
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Next 5 Principles
  • Redundancy principle
    • Redundancy happens when
      • you present the same information in different forms
      • the information is unnecessarily elaborated
      • or if the learner doesn’t need the additional information in order to understand the instruction
    + narration x
  • Redundancy principle
    • LESS is more
      • What is redundant will depend on your learners
        • what is helpful to novices may hinder people with more expertise
    • NOT Helpful
      • Adding the text of a narration on-screen
  • Coherence principle
    • Extra stuff not linked to the instruction usually gets in the way of learning
        • For example, these images are extraneous
        • Learners spend time trying to make sense of them
  • Coherence principle
    • As learners try integrate extra material into their mental model
    • It increases cognitive load
    • They may not get to the necessary learning
  • Signaling principle
    • People learn better when…
    • you add cues that highlight the organization of essential material
      • headers
      • arrows
      • highlights or pull-outs
      • frameworks
  • Signaling principle
    • Cues direct the learners attention
    EXAMPLE from Multimedia Theory
  • Segmenting principle
    • People learn better when…
    • Learning is chunked into segments
    • And pacing is under the learner’s control
    EXAMPLE from Multimedia Theory
  • Pre-training principle
    • People learn better when…
    • they know the name and characteristics of main concepts
        • EXAMPLE - learning about Cognitive Load Theory & Multimedia Theory before getting too deeply into principles
  • Review - helpful strategies
    • Text + Pictures = Good
    • Narration + Pictures = Better
    • Keep things together in space & time
    • Cue your learners
    • Create learner-paced segments
    • Give your learners essential prior knowledge or mental models
  • Review - things to watch out for
    • Less is More
      • reduce redundant material
      • eliminate elements not essential to the learning
    • Don’t split your learner’s attention
      • keep things together in space and time
    • Reduce Cognitive Load
      • this will depend on your learner’s prior knowledge
  • Put the principles to work! critiquing instructional designs
  • Check List - key principles max. 2-4 elements of new information Cognitive Load don’t split elements in space or time Split-attention no repeats! if it’s apparent or already explained Redundancy no extras! does to add to instructional goal? Coherence narration + pictures >> text + pictures >> text Modality / MM give learners basic or main concepts first - essential prior knowledge helps create mental models for new material Pre-training chunk into learner-paced segments Segmenting cues direct the learner’s attention Signaling
  • Critique 1 - using principles, how would you make this better?
  • Critique 1 - using principles, how would you make this better? Cognitive Overload - pull out 2-4 key points Irrelevant picture - coherence principle Segmenting principle - chunk into segments such as “What works” & “What doesn’t” Multimedia principle - show relevant pictures such as pings & trackbacks if possible Modality principle - narrate as much as possible
  • Critique 2 slide 1 slide 2
    • Split-attention principle:
    • Temporal split - put it all on one screen.
    • Physical split - relate the words to the image
    Redundancy Principle - remove most of text - essentially repeats what’s on the picture. Keep what’s underlined. Multimedia/Modality Principle - could possibly add arrows to indicate direction one moves through steps - and better explanatory text via narration.
  • Critique 2 slide 1 slide 2
  • Critique 3 - what is the instructional goal? does it work?
  • Critique 3 - what is the instructional goal? does it work? Much more subjective - other thoughts? Cognitive overload if you view as text - but if you think of this as a picture or snapshot - does it work? Modality - narrator could point out key words in snapshot - direct the learner’s attention Signaling - what if they header were changed to “current resume by word count” - would that clarify instructional goal?
  • 5 more principles if you are at risk of frying your brain feel free to jump ahead 5 slides
  • Personalization principle
    • Using a conversational style is better than more formal style
        • use I/you
        • make comments directly to you, the learner
    • Human voice with local accent is better than machine voice
  • Worked-out example principle
    • People learn better when they receive worked-out examples in initial skill building
    A car moves from rest (u = 0) to a speed (v = 40m/s) in 20 seconds (t = 20): v = u + at, v - u = at, a = (v-u)/t, a = (40-0)/20, a = 2 m/s 2 . What is the acceleration of the car? Example from Mayer (2005) Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, p 139 MATH PROBLEM - WORKED-OUT EXAMPLE:
  • Self-explanation principle
    • People learn better when they are encouraged to generate self-explanations while learning
        • by verbalizing what they are learning
        • or by drawing diagrams
        • generally by making sense of the materials
  • Navigation & site map principles
    • In online environments:
    • people learn better when they have appropriate navigation aids
    • people can learn better when the interface includes a map showing where the learner is in the lesson
  • Animation principle
    • People learn better from animations when:
      • when the concept involves changes over time that are difficult to understand from static images alone
      • or when learners are novices and cannot form a mental model or simulate the activity with a reasonable amount of effort
  • Check Lists review of key principles additional principles
  • Check List - key principles max. 2-4 elements of new information Cognitive Load don’t split elements in space or time Split-attention no repeats! if it’s apparent or already explained Redundancy no extras! does to add to instructional goal? Coherence narration + pictures >> text + pictures >> text Modality / MM give learners basic or main concepts first - essential prior knowledge helps create mental models for new material Pre-training chunk into learner-paced segments Segmenting cues direct the learner’s attention Signaling
  • Check List - additional principles use a conversational style Personalization for initial learning - go through problem solution, step-by-step Worked-out example encourage people to verbalize or draw diagrams while learning Self-explanation works best for complex concepts that are time-dependent or difficult to imagine Animation - easy, consistent navigation - & show where they are in the lesson Navigation Site Map
  • Design Challenge
    • Don’t stop here!
    • Create your own lesson or even just 2-3 slides using the checklists
    • Right here, right now!
    • You have less than 1 hr
    Memory > Time >
  • LICENSING INFORMATION You are welcome to USE and SHARE this work if you ATTRIBUTE the work to the author. You may not ALTER or TRANSFORM this work. Learning Design for the Brain: Using Multimedia Principles by Rani H. Gill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available by sending an email to ranihgill@gmail.com. Reference Text: Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning by Richard Mayer