"Boolean" searching (named after George Boole, the 19th-century mathematician who founded the field of symbolic logic) is a powerful technique that can narrow your search to a reasonable number of results, and increase the chance of those results being useful. Boolean searches are simple to learn and tremendously effective.
Boolean Basics AND OR AND NOT "London" AND "Big Ben" AND "Buckingham Palace" AND "Trafalgar Square" would return only documents that contained all four keywords or phrases. AND is the most frequently used Boolean command. The query "London" OR "Big Ben" OR "Buckingham Palace" OR "Trafalgar Square" would return all documents that contained even one of these four keywords or phrases. Use OR to string together synonyms; be careful about mixing it with AND The query "London" AND "Big Ben" AND NOT "Buckingham Palace" would return documents that include London and Big Ben, but not those that also include Buckingham Palace.
use quotation marks
Nobel price winners 1987
You will get
what is the Nobel Prize
Winners of prices
price winners in 1987
1,987 price winners….
and the list goes on
“ Nobel price winners 1987”
only pages that include these search terms exactly how you typed them in-order.
If you type You will get If you type
Punctuation and Capitalization
Most search engines are insensitive to case: you can type your queries in uppercase, lowercase, or a mix of cases. If you use lowercase, most engines will match on both upper and lower case; so for general searches, lowercase is the safest form to use.
USE WEB PORTALS
Web Portals are:
Large multi-service web sites.
Designed to be comprehensive one-stop destination.
Like a tiny Internet in itself.
Staffed by full-time employees.
Portals feature: search catalogs and engines, news, weather, shopping, online communities web email.
Most Popular Portals On The Web
Databases that contain millions and millions of pages.
Automated software ("robots" or "spiders") scan the Internet and collect information.
The search engine interface allows you to search for certain words or phrases found on Web pages.
In a search engine, you are searching for information within that search engine only, not the entire WWW.
Alta Vista.com Excite.com Infoseek.com
Google Lycos.com Hotbot.com
Search engines contain millions of web pages.
You retrieve results that match the word(s) that you are looking for.
Can be useful for searching for unique or specific topics.
Advance Search operation.
Web Subject Directories
A collection of web sites gathered by the creators of the directory or submitted by publishers of web sites.
People evaluate and classify the web sites that are placed in the directory.
There may be short summaries that describe the web sites in the directory.
There may be a higher degree of accuracy using web directories for researching broad subjects or topics.
Similar to search engines but are used to search more than one search engine at a time.
Some Metasearch engines will also show you a small number of the "best" web sites from each search engine based on criteria established by the metasearch engine.
Web sites that are hidden from use by the general public. Also known as the Deep Web.
Includes specialized databases and directories.
Can be useful for specific topics or unique terms.