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management process-planning

management process-planning

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  • 1.
  • 2. Practice Makes Perfect!!!!
    Frederick Taylor
    Henri Fayol
    Max Weber
    Mary Follet
    Elton Mayo/Fritz Roethlisberger
    Peter Drucker
    Herbert Simon
    Henry Mintzberg
    Abraham Maslow
    Ferdinand Herzberg
    Douglas McGregor
    William G. Ouchi
    Kurt Lewin
    B.F. Skinner
    Blake & Mouton
    John Stacey Adams
    Scientific Management
    Systematic Management
    Theory of Social & Economic Mngt.
    Management a Social Process
    Hawthorne Effect
    Management by Objectives
    Management by Decision Making
    Managerial Roles
    Hierarchy of NeedsConscious Competence Theory
    Motivation Hygiene Theory
    Theory X & Y
    Theory Z
    Human Behavior Theory
    Four systems of management
    Operant Theory
    Managerial Grid
    Equity Theory
  • 3. Management process
  • 4. Management
    coordinating and supervising personneland resources
  • 5. As a manager, this is the Car you deserve …
  • 6. A Company car…
  • 7. A good parking space….
  • 8. An office of your taste…
  • 9. A space to rest…
  • 10. A nice meeting room…
  • 11. A place to exchange ideas…
  • 12. Stop dreaming and get back to work!
  • 13. Nursing management functions:
  • 18. PLANNING
    • - forecasting of events
    • 19. - decisions are made
    • 20. - goals are set and prioritized
  • 21. Is a management function, concerned with defining goals for future organizational performance and deciding on the tasks and resources to be used in order to attain those goals.
    Is deciding in advance what to do, how to do a particular task, when to do it, and who is to do it.
    It must be adaptable and flexible to current realities to ensure that the desired result is achieved.
  • 22. Planning
    • Planning involves selecting objectives or goals and the course of actionsto achieve them:
    • 23. Provides the bridge to take us from where we are to where we want to go;
    • 24. Is a rational approach to achieving pre-selected objectives - based on innovation, knowledge and purpose;
    • 25. Decision making in choosing the best from alternative courses of action and is integral to planning;
  • 26. What kind of resources needed?
    What kind of people
    & org. structure
    to have?
    How to lead them
    to reach planned
    How to control in
    case of deviation
    from plan ?
    Plans as foundation of Management
    The primacy of Planning
  • 27. Planning:
    What to do: How to do it: Who is to do it
    • nursing - techniques, - professional,
    activities principles non-professional
    Components of Planning
  • 28. Categories of Plans
    Mission / Purpose
    The basic function or ‘reason for existence’ of an enterprise/ organization
    Objectives/ Goals
    The end towards which activity of an organization is aimed, e.g.
    For a Business enterprise – profit, surplus creation;
    For a Hospital: The number of patient treated
    Determination of the long term objectives and adoption of a course of action
    Gives a frame work for linked action-plans, communicated systematically to guide thinking and actions.
  • 29.
    • MISSION:
    • 30. -describes and reflects an organizations core value.
    • 31. VISION:
    • 32. -provides an image of the desired future.
    • 33. PHILOSOPHY:
    • 34. -is a statement of belief that influences nursing practice
  • Categories of Plans
    “Plans” that are general directional statements (or
    understandings) that guide/help in decision making:
    Issues with “Policy”
    Seldom documented in writing
    Subject to interpretations
    Plans that are chronological sequences of required actions: task-oriented in nature;
    Procedures and policies are inter related:
    e.g. Hepa (+) students
    Policyare not allowed to enroll in nursing
    Specific actions or non-actions allowing no discretion
    Caution: rules (and procedures too) limit initiative!
  • 35. Categories of Plans
    Action plans (mainly non-routine or for changed activities) including, task assignments, steps to be taken, resources to be deployed etc. to achieve a (new/renewed) goal;
    A statement of expected results expressed in “Numerical terms”
    e.g. financial operating budget = “profit plan”;
    Budgets enforce precision in thinking:
    Making a budget is ‘planning’ by itself;
    Encourages innovation – a “different” way to work
    Budgets serve for ‘Control’:
    Enforces discipline in execution of plans;
    Instills cost consciousness;
    Makes people (constantly) plan!
  • 36.
    The Planning Process
    Planning Period:
    Short range plans e.g. material procurement plan in a factory
    Long range plans e.g. product development plan, plant/production facility installation;
    “Urgent” drives out the “Important” – mismatch between short & long term plans!
    Planning horizon must allow for actions to run their course – requiring ‘commitments’:
    Thus “decisions today” are key to good plans;
    Long-term plans reap benefits of good short-term plans.
  • 37. Involves a continuous process of assessment, establishment of goals and objectives, implementation and evaluation of change as new facts become known.
    Good Planning
  • 38. Poor Planning
    Is the FAILURE to set goals, make assessments or provide for implementation or to anticipate any possible change in circumstances.
    Indicators of poor planning
    1. delivery dates are not met
    2. machines are idle.
    3. material is wasted
    4. some nurses are overworked, others are underworked
    5. skilled nurses doing unskilled work.
    6. nurses are fumbling on jobs for which they have not
    been trained.
    7. there is quarreling, bickering, buck-passing and
  • 39. Characteristics of a Plan
    A well-developed plan requires, first and foremost, creative thinking and foresight. It has three characteristics, planning must:
    1. involve the future;
    2. involve action;and
    3. have an organizational identification of the action which will be undertaken either by the planner or someone designated by or for her.
  • 40. Types of Plans
    Strategic Plan
    - is one that asks the vital question: “what are
    the right things to do?”
    - usually around 3-5 years, long-term in nature.
    Operating Plans
    - usually pertain to activities in specific departments of an organization.
    - the plan’s main question is “how does one do things
    - generally shorter in time frame (1 year), and usually
    involve the middle and lower level managers.
    - focuses on timetables, target quantities and specifies
    the persons responsible for the tasks.
  • 41. Continuous or Rolling Plans
    - similar to operating plans, involves mapping out the day-to-day activities.
    - this is the task of the staff nurse who has to devise and implement the NCP for the patients, altering or modifying the plan as necessary depending on the needs and problems of the patients and the unit to where the plan is applicable.
  • 42. Reasons for Planning
    1. It leads to success in the achievement of
    goals and objectives.
    2. It provides for the effective use of
    available personnel and facilities.
    3. It helps nurses cope with crises and
    problems calmly and efficiently.
    4. It reduces the element of change.
    5. It is necessary for effective control.
  • 43. Resistance to Planning
    Despite the many benefits of planning, many
    nurse-managers avoid it because they lack:
    Knowledge of the philosophy, goals and operations of the organization.
    Understanding of the significance of planning, that success or failure of work activities relate directly to the quality of a plan.
    Proper appreciation of use of time for planning; they erroneously perceive that time spent on planning would be better spent on addressing day-to-day concerns.
  • 44. Confidence and fear of failure.
    Openness to change that they believe planning may entail.
    Willingness to engage in new activities that planning produces.
    Insights into the exigencies of the situation, they prefer to act on immediate problems that give them immediate feedback.
  • 45. Forecast or Estimate the Future
    - it is weighing the unknown values in the
    situation and using them as basis for an
    educated guess about the future.
    - in making forecasts, the planner should
    consider 3 things:
    1. the agency
    2. the community affected
    3. the goals of care
    Resistance to planning can be overcome by managers who are willing to be open-minded about planning and change.
  • 46. Set objectives/Goals and Determine Results Desired
    - Goals are defined as broad statements of
    intent derived from the purposes of the
    - Objectives are specific behavior or tasks set
    for the accomplishment of a goal.
    Develop and Schedule Strategies, Programs/Projects/Activities; Set the Time Frame
    - Strategy is the techniques, methods, or
    procedure by which the overall plan of the
    higher management achieve desired
  • 47. - Programs are activities put together to facilitate attainment of some desired goals, such as staff development programs, outreach programs, discharge teaching programs and the like.
  • 48. Time
  • 49. Good time management is founded upon intelligent planning and decision-making, and a thorough assessment of the tasks which need to be done.
    It is about efficiency and the determination of the most effective or at least the best available means of fulfilling a task.
    Management of Time severely compromises an organization’s productivity and results in negative effects across the board, from the manager to the rank-and-file.
    When time is mismanaged, work is rushed and becomes substandard, deadlines are missed, bad choices are made, employees suffer from fatigue, and even the nurses’ personal lives and relationships are adversely affected by the lack of time or energy to devote to them
  • 50. Principles of Time Management
    * planning for contingencies. Think of other
    options to alternatives, if the desired option is
    not possible.
    * listing of tasks. Calendar all activities.
    * inventory. Looking at task done and not done.
    * sequencing. Prioritizing activities
    * setting and keeping deadlines. Do not
    procrastinate or else nothing is done.
    * deciding on how time will be spent. Indicate
    time allotted for each activity, set time targets.
    * delegate. A portion of the task can be given to
    another who can equally accomplish the task
    on time.
  • 52. multitasking does not really make a person more efficient. It just looks that way.
    With technology, things seem faster and so many tasks need to get done all at the same time. People think they are getting so much done at once, but in fact are not
    The net effect of multitasking is that when several tasks are done at once, some or all of them end up being performed in a haphazrd manner. This can have disastrous consequence.
  • 53. Tools in Project Management
    Allows the manager to set the time frame of the project or activity meant to achieve the goals of the organization.
  • 54. Show task and schedule information. The tasks are numbered and listed vertically. A bar shows the starting date and projected completion date of each task. Color or shading is sometimes used to show how much of each task has been completed. It is both a management tool and a communications tool.
  • 55. Can calculate time and cost estimates for each activity. This method is used to create a cost estimate using either “normal” or “crash” operating conditions. Normal operating conditions are those involving the least cost, while crash operating conditions have much less available time than under normal conditions.
    C. Critical Path Method (CPM)
  • 56. CPM is useful where time and cost are significant factors because both can be estimated based on past experience.
    CPM is a tool to analyze a project and determine duration, based on identification of a “critical path” through an activity network. Knowledge of the critical path can permit management of the project to change duration.
  • 57. Is a network system model for planning and control which involves (1) identifying key activities, (2) sequences them in a flow diagram and (3) assigning a specific duration each phase of work.
    B. Performance Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT)
    • -involves examining resources, anticipating costs and predicting gains and shortfalls.
  • 59. Prepare the Budget and Allocation of Resources
    - is defined as a systematic financial translation of a plan, the allocation of scarce resources on the basis of forecasted needs for proposed activities over a specified period of time.
    Nursing Budget
    - allocates resources for nursing programs and activities to deliver patient care during a fiscal year
  • 60. Hospital Budget
    - is designed to meet future service expectations, to provide quality patient care at minimum cost.
    Budget Plan for health care institutions, which is simply a plan for future activities, generally consists of four components:
    Revenue Budget
    - is summarizing the income the management expects to generate during the planning period.
    Expense Budget
    - is describing expected activity in operational financial terms for a given period of time.
  • 61. Capital Budget
    - outlines the programmed acquisitions, disposals and improvements in the institution’s physical capacity.
    Cash Budget
    - consists of money received, cash receipts and disbursement expected during the planning period.
  • 62. Types of Budgeting
    Centralized Budget
    - is developed and imposed by the comptroller, administrator and/or director of nursing with little or no consultation with lower level managers.
    Decentralized Budget
    - the level manager involved in the planning and budgeting process with focus placed on the practitioner level.
  • 63. Components of Total Institutional Budget
    Manpower Budget
    - consists of the wages and salaries of the regular employees and the fees paid to outside registries through which the institution contracts short-term employees.
    Capital Expenditure Budget
    - this involves the large expense of purchasing of lands, buildings, and major equipment meant for long-term use.
    Operating Budget
    - this includes the cost of supplies, minor equipment repair and maintenance as well as other overhead expenses.
  • 64. “Basic” Strategic Planning
    > this model is suited to small organizations with a high volume of work but with limited to no strategic planning.
    > the early operation period of the organization, like the first year, would be a good time to use the model in order to familiarize the organization with the concept and conduct of planning.
  • 65. Issue-Based or Goal- Based Planning Activities:
    a. External/internal assessment to identify
    “SWOT” (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities
    and threats) of the organization.
    b. Strategic analysis to identify and prioritize
    major issues or goals.
    c. Designing major strategies or programs to
    address these issues or goals.
    d. Designing or updating the organization’s
    vision, mission and values.
  • 66. 5. Establishment of action plans based on the organizations objectives, resource needs, roles and responsibilities for implementation.
    6. Documentation of issues, goals, strategies or
    programs, and whenever applicable, an updated
    mission and vision, action plans in a strategic plan
    document, and SWOT.
    Development of the yearly operating plan document
    from one year of the multi-year strategic plan.
    8. Development and implementation of the Budget for year one and allocation of funds needed to fund year two and onward.
    9. The conduct of the organization’s year-one operations.
    10. Monitoring/reviewing/evaluating and update the strategic plan document.
  • 67. Alignment Model
    - is geared towards ensuring that the organization’s resources are aligned with its mission in order to ensure effective operation.
    - it is a useful strategy for organizations that need to fine tune their operating strategies or which may need to rework their current approach.
    - an organization with internal issues may also find benefit in this model.
  • 68. Scenario Planning
    - involves identifying possible scenarios or situations that the organization may face. This model is useful in identifying strategic issues and goals and may be used to ensure truly concrete solutions to problems.
    “Organic” or Self-Organizing Planning
    - organic strategic planning is self-organizing, and naturalistic in orientation, requiring repeated reference to common cultural values within the organization.
  • 69.