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CHN lectue and rationale

CHN lectue and rationale

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  • Hello, Sir Randel! Can you send me a copy of this? I'm currently reviewing for December NLE. Here's my email address: rcdelossantos.1992@ymail.com

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    Chn Ratio Chn Ratio Presentation Transcript

    • Prayer Before Examination
      Dear Jesus,
      Today I will have my examination.
      You know how important this is to me.
      So, I am humbly asking Your gracious help and divine assistance.
       
      I pray to You, my dear Jesus.
      Please never let me panic nor get nervous.
      Just let me be at ease and give my very best.
      Please never let me guess nor rely on pure luck, but enlighten my mind and let me think clearly.
    • Today, O my Jesus,
      I will take my examination.
      Let me, with Your help, give my best effort.
      Let me, because of You, receive the best and
      Fruitful results, Amen.
    • Please never let me resort to chances, nor to dishonesty, but let me work to the best of my ability.
      I pray for Your guidance so that I may be able to answer correctly the questions, and solve the difficult problems.
      I ask, O Lord, Your intercession so that, I may not be careless or overconfident as I write, I may not be more distracted but be more concentrated, I may not be in hurry nor take the exams too lightly.
    • 17.A nurse is assessing a child admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis rheumatic fever. The child is accompanied by the mother. The initial nursing question that the nurse would ask during assessment is which of the following?
      “Has the child had difficulty urinating?”
      “ Has any family member had a sore throat within the past few weeks?”
      “Has any family member had gastrointestinal disorder in the past few weeks?”
      “Has the child been exposed to anyone with chikenpox
    • CHN RATIO
      By: RandelDalauta
    • Public Health Nursing (Winslow)-”science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, promoting health and efficiency through organized community effort for the sanitation of the environment, control of communicable disease, the education of individuals in personal hygiene, the organization of medical and nursing services for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease & the development of social machinery to ensure everyone a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health, so organizing these benefits as toenable every citizen to realize his birthright of health and longevity.”
    • GLOBAL & COUNTRY HEALTH IMPERATIVES
      Changes exerting pressures on the Public Health Systems:
      Shift in demographic & epidemiological trends in disease
      New technologies for health care, communication & information
      Existing & emerging environmental hazards associated with globalization.
      Health Reforms
    • Determinants of Health as listed by WHO:
      1. Gender-men & women suffer diseases
      2. Physical Health Environment-safe water supply & clean air
      3. Personal behavior & coping skills-healthy lifestyle
      4. Income and social status
      5. Employment & working conditions
      6. Culture-customs & traditions
      7. Reduced Health Services-access & use
      8. Inheritance/Genetics
      9. Education-low education are link to poor health
      10. Social support network-greater family support better
    • Determinants of Health as listed by WHO:
      1. Gender-men & women suffer diseases
      2. Physical Health Environment-safe water supply & clean air
      3. Personal behavior & coping skills-healthy lifestyle
      4. Income and social status
      5. Employment & working conditions
      6. Culture-customs & traditions
      7. Reduced Health Services-access & use
      8. Inheritance/Genetics
      9. Education-low education are link to poor health
      10. Social support network-greater family support better
    • WHO
      ”the art of applying science in the context of politics so as to reduce inequalities in health while ensuring the best health for the greatest number.”
    • POLITICAL
      Safety
      Oppression
      People Empowerment
      SOCIO
      ECONOMIC
      Employment
      Education
      Housing
      BEHAVIOR
      Culture
      Mores
      Ethnic Customs
      OLOF
      Individuals
      Family Groups
      Communities
      Populations
      ENVIRONMENT
      Air, Food
      Water Waste
      Urban/Rural
      Noise
      Radiation
      Pollution
      HEREDITY
      Generic Endowment
      - Defects
      -Strengths
      -Risks
      Familial ,Ethnic
      Racial
      HEALTH CARE
      DEL. SYSTEM
      Promotive
      Preventive
      Curative
      Rehabilitative
    • JACOBSON
      learned practice in a wide/huge variety of community services
      supports OLOF
    • RUTH FREEMAN
      Is a service rendered by a professional nurse with the community, groups, families and individuals at home, in health centers, in clinics, in school, in places of work for the promotion of health, prevention of illness, care of the sick at home & rehabilitation
      • comprehensive - no discrimination; free for all
      • general - enhancing people capability
    • Role of a Public Health Nurse
      a. Planner/Programmer
      b. Provider of Nursing Care
      c. Manager/Supervisor
      d. Community Organizer
      e. Coordinator of Services GENERALIST
      f. Trainer/Health Educator
      g. Health Monitor
      h. Role Model
      i. Recorder/Statistician
    • Level of Clientele
      Individual – entry point to the family and care
      - least important
      Family – basic unit of a society
      - basic unit of care
      - main caregiver for primary levels of care
      - may not be bound by marriage, blood or adoption
      - sharing emotional closeness and who identified themselves as family
      *main function:
      a. Reproduction
      b. socialization
    • Level of Clientele
      Community – common geographical boundaries
      values
      interest
      - no 2 are alike
      - one affects the other
      - changes is always frequent
      - most important
      characteristics: ( criteria used in intervening)
      • awareness that they are community
      • conserve natural resources
      • recognition of subgroups
      • participation of subgroups
      • prepared to meet crisis
      • ability to solve problems
      • channels of communication
      • available resources
      • resolve disputes
      • allow citizen to participate in decisions
    • Level of Clientele
      Population Group – common characteristics
      development stage
      health problem
      need or concern
      a. infants & young children
      b. school age
      c. adolescents vulnerable group
      d. mothers
      e. males
      f. old people
    • HANLON
      Dedicated to the highest level of physical, mental, social well being
      3 A’s - Accessible DEVELOPMENT OF HEALTH IN ALL ASPECT
      - Acceptable holistic
      - Affordable
    • United Nations General Assemblyadopted a common vision of poverty reduction and sustainable development in September 2000 exemplified by the
      Millennium Development Goals(MDG) based on:freedom,equality,solidarity,tolerance,health respect for nature and shared responsibility
      8Millennium Development Goals are as follows:
      Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger
      Achieve universal primary education
      Promote gender equality& empower women
      Reduce child mortality
      Improve maternal health
      Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria & other diseases
      Ensure environmental sustainability
      Develop a global partnership for development
    • Primary Health Care(Alma Ata, USSR Sept. 1978)
      Main concepts:
      • essential health care based on practical, scientifically
      sound and socially acceptable methods and appropriate technology made universally accessible through the community’s full participation and at cost that is affordable in the spirit of self reliance and self determination.
      4 cornerstones/pillars in PHC
      Intra and inter- sectoral linkages
      Support Mechanism Available
      Active Community Participation
      Appropriate technology use
    • Primary Health Care(Alma Ata, USSR Sept. 1978)
      “health for all by year 2000,
      health in the hands of the people by 2020”
    • 8 Millennium Development Goals are as follows:
      Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger
      Achieve universal primary education
      Promote gender equality& empower women
      Reduce child mortality
      Improve maternal health
      Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria & other diseases
      Ensure environmental sustainability
      Develop a global partnership for development
    • 8 Millennium Development Goals are as follows:
      Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger
      Achieve universal primary education
      Promote gender equality& empower women
      Reduce child mortality
      Improve maternal health
      Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria & other diseases
      Ensure environmental sustainability
      Develop a global partnership for development
    • Core Business of Public Health
      Disease Control
      Health Protection
      Healthy Public Policy – Environment
      Injury Prevention
      Equitable Health Gain - promotion
    • Participationof all members in the society both
      developing and developed countries is required
    • The Health Sector Reform Agenda (HSRA) implemented through FOURmula ONE
    • DOH
      Vision - Leader
      - staunch advocate
      - model in promoting health for all
      Mission - guarantee equitable
      sustainable HEALTH FOR ALL
      quality
      Overriding goal of the DOH
      Health Sector Reform Agenda (HSRA)
    • Health Sector Reform Agenda (HSRA)
      RATIONALE :
      1. Heavy burden on the poor in maintaining health
      2. Sudden rise in diseases
      3. Rise in IMR and MMR
      4. Abrupt increase in chronic and degenerative disease
      REASON: 3 I’s
      Inappropriate health delivery system
      Inadequate regulatory mechanism (poor health quality)
      Insufficient financing
    • FOURmulaOne
      1. Health financing
      2. Health regulation - quality & affordability
      3. Health service delivery - accessibility
      - availability
      4. Health good governance
    • Health promotion (1980’s)
      • process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, so ultimately to improve their health
      • an approach to fulfill alma ata goals which is health for all in 2000
      • Focuses on determinants of health and not the manifestations of illness
      • recognizes that people’s health is affected by a broad range of factors (determinants) beyond their individual genetic makeup
      • helping poor people protect their health and prevent illness
      • Goal: increase wellness level in which enhance health full potential
    • GAYLORD
      Organized community program designed to PROLONGED LIFE by preventing unnecessary illness
    • COPAR
      (Community Organizing Participatory Action Research)
      • is a social development approach that aims to transform the apathetic, individualistic and voiceless poor into dynamic, participatory and politically responsive community.
    • Emphasis of COPAR
      Community working to solve its own problem
      Direction is established internally and externally
      Development and implementation of a specific project less important than the development of the capacity of the community to establish the project
      GOAL: - SELF-RELIANTE COMMUNITY
      - DEVELOP COMMUNITY
    • Importance of COPAR
      COPAR maximizes community participation and involvement
      COPAR could be an alternative in situations wherein health interventions in Public Health Care do not require direct involvement of modern medical practitioners
      COPAR gets people actively involved in selection and support of community health workers
      Through COPAR, community resources are mobilized for selected health services
      COPAR improves both projects effectiveness during implementation
    • PURDOM
      Public health pertains to all phases of human development
    • MAGLAYA
      utilization of nursing process
      APIE, FNCP
    • Community Health Nursing Process
      - Systemic
      - Scientific nurses and client as a system affecting each other
      Clientele which will be the GOAL OF CARE
      Individual
      Family
      Community
      Population group
      - Dynamic
      - Ongoing interpersonal process
    • ASSESSMENT:
      The first major phase of nursing process
      Measure status of the client
      STEPS:
      Initiate contact, show caring behavior, establish trust
      Collection of data
      Identify and categorizes health problems
      -base on typology
      - categorize as:
      a. Health deficit
      b. Health Threat
      c. Foreseeable crisis
    • Foreseeable crisis
      1. Marriage
      2. Pregnancy
      3. Parenthood
      4. Additional family
      5. Entrance at school
      6. Adolescence
      7. Divorce or separation
      8. Loss of job
      9. Death of a member
      10. Resettlement in a new community
    • PLANNING NURSING ACTION
      Blueprint of the care
      Based on actual problems
      potential problems
        
      STEPS:
      Prioritize needs
      Goal Setting based on needs and capabilities – intent that gives direction to action (SMART)
      Constructing a Plan of Action – selecting appropriate and available resources for care
      Developing operational plan -
      Develop evaluation parameters
    • Formula: (Score/Highest Score) x weight
    • IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANNED CARE
      • Interventions
      • Involve the patient and his family
      Activities:
      Put nursing plan to action
      Coordinate care/services
      Utilize community resources
      Delegate
      Monitor health services provided
      Provide health education and training
      Document responses to nursing action
    • EVALUATION OF CARE & SERVICES PROVIDED
       
      Framework:
      S-tructural elements- physical setting, instruments, condition, financial resources/budget, org structure, objectives
      P-rocess elements- steps of nursing process ( involves nursing process APIE)
      O-utcome elements- changes in clients health status resulted from nursing intervention
       
      Activities
      Nursing audit
      Outcome of care
      Assessment of problems
      Identify needed alterations
      Revise plans
    • National Health Situation
      MMR - a major indicator of health status of women
      - death of women while pregnant or with in 42 days of pregnancy termination.
      IMR – one of the most sensitive indicator of health status of a country or community
      TB – poverty index
      SwaroopIndex – another sensitive indicator Health
      - measure death above 50 y.o.
      • new trend from Infectious diseases now are the lifestyle diseases.
    • SANTA LUBBY
      SAMBONG
      (BluMeaBalsaMifera)
      ACAPULKO
      (CAsiaAlata)
      NIYOG-NIYOGAN
      (QuasQualisIndica)
      TSAANG GUBAT
      (cArmonAretusA)
      AMPALAYA
      (mamordicacharantia)
    • LAGUNDI
      (VitexneGUNDO)
      ULASIMANG BATO
      (PeperoniaPellucida)
      BAYABAS
      (PsidiumGUAJAVA)
      BAWANG
      (alliuMsativuM)
      YERBA BUENA
      (MenthaCordifeliA)
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      study of the occurrence and spread/distribution of the disease in the community
      Pattern of Disease Occurrence
      Sporadic
      Intermittent occurrence or on-and-off presence of a disease
      Endemic
      Continuous or constant occurrence of a disease in a certain area
      Epidemic
      Sudden increase in the number of cases in a short period of time in a certain area
      outbreak
      Pandemic
      Worldwide epidemic or global outbreak
    • Summary
      • Health Promotion- primary focus of PHN
      • Health teachings- primary responsibility
      • Generalist – in terms of PHN practice
      • referral system – longer period of time contact with the client
      • CHN is population based
      • Mass approach – community focused not individual
      • Health promotion & Health education – goal of CHN/PHN
      • FNCP – focused on Family problems
      • NHCP – entire Country
      • Level of clientele- individual – least important,; entry point of care
      family – basic unit of care
      community – most important
      population group – vulnerable group
      • Comprehensive – available to all regardless of race, color, creed or socio economic
      • Health education/Counseling – integral part of CHN
      • CHN philosophy – upholding the worth & dignity of man
    • * Generalist – function of chn in terms of practice
      * Goal of phn – raise level of health of the citizenry
      * FNCP – blue print in defining family health care
      * NHCP – blue print in defining country’s health care
    • * STI’s 4 C’s
      Counseling Contact tracing
      Compliance Condom
    • * ABC of AIDS
      Abstinence
      Be Faithful
      Condom
      Don’t use drugs
      Education
    • * 3 C’s of DOH clean and safe delivery
      a. clean cord
      b. clean hands
      c. clean surface.
    • *5 Too’s of Pregnancy
      1. too young – 18 y.o
      2. too old – 35 to 65 y.o.
      3. too close – 2 years ( ideal 3 yrs.)
      4. too many – 4 pregnancies ( ideal 3 pregnancies)
      5. too sickly – Hpn, anemia, toxemia
    • Best for baby
      Reduced Allergens
      Easily established
      Always available
      Safe
      Temperature is always right
      Fresh
      Emotional bonding
      Economical
      Digestible
      Immunity
      Nutritious
      GIT d/o decreases
    • Host (man)
      1.change peoples behavior
      (food safety practices)
      3. increase man’s immunity (EPI)
      Agent
      Environment
      2. prevent production of disease agents
      (treatment of waste water)