Togo Country Plan
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Original work and design created by 10th grade DSA students as part of the 'Legacy of Imperialism' Project. www.digitalsafari.org

Original work and design created by 10th grade DSA students as part of the 'Legacy of Imperialism' Project. www.digitalsafari.org

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Togo Country Plan Document Transcript

  • 1. TOGO Country Development Plan Presented by: Edward Duenas Chrystal Fumar Karina Espinoza
  • 2. Executive summary Togo it is located on the southern coast of West Africa between Ghana and Benin and it touches the Gulf of Guinea. In the 1840’s Togo was called Togoland because both the French and Germans took over and colonized it. Togo has a mostly wet climate but a small part is desert. It has humid tropical climate but does not receive as much rainfall as other countries along the Gulf of Guinea. The government isn’t paying much attention to the water pollution and the affects on the citizens of Togo. One of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is that they have tried to make women’s right equal to men’s. Over the past 20 years Togo has done a lot to improve that goal. With the MDG’s we need to increase the percentage of people edu- cated. Currently 78% of children are enrolled in school but only 57% of them get through high school. With educated people there will hopefully be a higher percentage of people voting and involved in the government. Even though there is a fair amount of people enrolled in school we can help give them better materials to expand their minds. To help the people in the capital Lome we will build schools. We will teach general education which is Math, English, and Science. In addi- tion to that there will be academies that each student can choose to participate in. They can choose from construction, farming, medical, and culinary. Each academy will teach about the skill needed to per- form that certain job. We will also be providing education for adults so they can finish their education and get a diploma. With this there will be more businesses, safer structures, and more doctors and nurses to treat diseases. With the construction of our school there will be impacts on the society. One major impact is that there will be more jobs opening and hiring to take people out of the streets, but will take time to develop. With building a school we hope to make Lome a better place to live.
  • 3. HISTORY During Imperialism: AD 1884-1914 The first Germans went to Togo in 1847 to work among the largest tribal group in the region, the Ewe.German traders soon fol- low, making a base at Anécho on the coast. When Bismarck decides to put together an at the German empire in Africa, Togo is one of the three places which he selects on the west coast. Gustav Nachigal, arrived in 1884 to make several of the tribal to accept the protection of the German emperor andrepresent them with the German flag waving above their villages. In 1885 Togoland is recognized by the European powers as a German colony. Togo was prized as their most successful comonial and also viewed as a “model colony” by the germans. During the next decade German military win control over the inland. A new town is built at Lomé as capital of the colony, and construction begins on railways to Anécho, Blitta and Palimé. Using African forced labour to work rubber, palm, cotton and cocoa plan- tations, the German administration and private German companies together turn Togoland into an economically efficient though some- what brutal colony. In 1914 German activites come to a sudden end. When World War I started in 1914, both France and Britain were against Germany, the two Geman colonies on the Gulf of Guinea are in the worst position. Both Togoland and Cameroon are sandwiched between British and French colonies. In weeks of the start of the war military fighting begins on the borders. By early 1916 the British and French took control of both German colonies. The French part of Togo, along with other French colonies in west Africa, becomes independent in 1960. After Imperialism Olympio wins the first presidential election after independence, in 1961. Olympio’s rule ends within two years because of a cri- sis caused by the return of Togolese non-commissioned officers, the conference strips Eyadéma of his powers, outlaws his party and elects Kokou Kof- Olympio rejects their demand to be incorporated in the Togolese figoh as prime minister of an interim government. This event introduces a decade of army. It is a stance which costed him his life. By 1967 Eyadéma is chaos in Togo, as Eyadéma and his supporters fight back. Three times during 1991 ready to seize power in a military coup against Grunitzky. He abol- Eyadéma’s troops try to topple Koffigoh and are defeated by pro-democracy forces, but ishes political parties and establishes a dictatorship. He seeks and in August 1992 he wins his way back into the presidential palace. In 1993 and again wins confirmation of his presidency in a plebiscite in 1972. In 1979 in 1998 he is reconfirmed as president, in elections which both local opponents and Eyadéma the new president introduces a new constitution, provid- international observers declare to be fraudulent.Meanwhile the decade has been one of ing for civilian rule - to be provided exclusively by his own party, the riots, political murders and economic stagnation. At the start of Eyadéma’s long period RPT or Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais (Rally of the Togolese as head of state, in 1967, the market was buoyant for phosphates, one of Togo’s main People). exports. A slump in the phosphate price during the 1980s brings difficulties. But in the By 1990 the loud commotion for democracy, felt at this time late 1990s there are at last signs of improvement. throughout Africa, forces Eyadéma’s hand. He gives permission for a national constitutional conference. Meeting in 1991,
  • 4. Togo Timeline 1914 - British, French forces seize Togoland. 1922 - League of Nations issues mandates to Britain to administer the western part and to France to rule the eastern area of Togoland. -Independence- 1956 - British-ruled western territory included into the Gold Coast, later renamed Ghana. 1960 - Independence. 1961 - Sylvanus Olympio elected as first president. 1986 - Eyadema re-elected. 1992 - New constitution approved. 1993 - Eyadema dissolves government, sparking protests and fatal clashes with police. Thousands flee to neighbouring states. 2005 February - President Gnassingbe Eyadema dies, aged 69. The military appoints his son Faure as president in a move condemned as a coup. Under international pressure Faure stands down and agrees 1993 - France, Germany, US suspend aid to press for democratic to hold presidential elections. reforms. 1998 - Eyadema re-elected. 2005 April - Faure Gnassingbe wins presidential elections which the opposition condemns as rigged. The vote is followed by deadly street violence between rival supporters. The UN later estimates that 400- 500 people were killed. 2002 December - Parliament alters the constitution, removing a clause which would have barred President Eyadema from seeking a third term in 2003. 2007 February - Exiled opposition leader Gilchrist Olympio returns home briefly. 2004 November - European Union restores partial diplomatic 2010 March - President Gnassingbe declared winner of presidential elections. The main opposition Union of Forces for Change alleges widespread fraud and refuses to recognise the result. relations. Ties were broken in 1993 over violence and democratic short- comings.
  • 5. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS One of Togo’s Millennium Development Goals is that they want to make women equal in power and want them to have the same rights as men. Over the past 20 years Togo has improved women’s equality in government and in everyday life. Another thing that Togo has on its Millennium Develop- ment is that they are trying to help more kids graduate from the 5th grade. Currently only about 57% of all children make it through the 5th grade. Togo does not have the problem of HIV and AIDS as much other african countries. Over all in the past 20 years Togo has made a little progress to get to where they want to be. In general they are coming along well but still need help to be at the ideal place. Condom use, population ages 15-24 females (13% (2000)) Condom use, population ages 15-24 males (37%(2000)) Achieve universal primary education Incidence of tuberculosis (per 100000 ppl) 429 people primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group) 57% Prevalence of HIV female (ages 15-24) 2.4% Total enrollment, Primary 79% Prevalence of HIV male (ages 15-24) 1% Promote gender equality and Empower woman Prevalence of HIV total (ages 15-49) 3.3% seats help by woman in national parliament 7% Ensure Environmental Sustainability Ratio of females to males primary enrollment 86% Forest area (% of land area) 7% Reduce child mortality Improved sanitation facilities (population with access) 12% Immunization, measles (children 12-23 months) 80% Improve water source (population with access) 59% Mortality rate infant (per 1000 lives birth) 65 Develop a Global partnership for development mortality rate under-5 (per 1000) 100 Internet users (per 100 ppl) 5.4ppl Improve maternal health mobile cellular subscription (per 100 ppl) 19ppl Birth attended by skilled health staff 62% Other Pregnant woman receiving prenatal care 84% Population total (millions) 6.3 Maternal mortality ratio (estimate, per 100000 live births) Trade (GDP) 104.4 510 births Life expectancy at birth (Years) 62 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, other diseases
  • 6. history TOGO Human Rights Women Prostitution is illegal including operating a brothel. However, prostitution is widespread due to the economic opportunities for women, because they are highly discriminated against. One of the many problems that happens with prostitutes involves police misconduct as police require sex in exchange for drop- ping charges. Female Genital Mutilation is still continued till this day. About six percent of girls still get perpetrated. The process begins after a few months after birth. Most girls do not know that they do not have to get this done, they just think they do because they are not aware of their rights Practitioners who got caught doing this get penalized for up to two to five years in prison and substantial fines. The law does not specifically prohibit domestic violence, and domestic violence against women is a widespread problem. The law criminalizes rape and provides for prison terms of five to 10 years for anyone found guilty of the crime. Child Labor Child abuse was a widespread problem. Although the law ex- plicitly prohibits sexual exploitation of children and child pros- titution, the government did not effectively enforce the prohi- bitions. The labor code prohibits the employment of children under the age of 15 in any enterprise. Some children worked in family based farming and small scale trading. Children also worked in factories. Children were trafficked into indentured and exploitative ser- vitude, which amounted at times to slavery. Most trafficking occurred internally, with children trafficked from rural areas to cities, primarily Lome, to work as domestics, produce porters, or roadside sellers. Civil Liberties There was freedom of speech and press, although the government continued to restrict these rights. There was freedom of assembly, and the constitution and law provides for them, however the government generally restricted this right. Freedom of religion was a generally respected bu the government. There was three main faiths tat was recognized by the government and it was, roman catholicism, protestant- ism, and islam. Other religions such as animist, mormons, and Jehovah’s witnesses were required to register as associations.
  • 7. “Only 85% of urban dwellers Environmental St tus a and 38% of the people living in rural areas have pure drinking water.” Togo has a very different environment than here in the U.S because its mostly tropical. Most of Togo’s land is moist, but there is a small part that is desert. Togo has some problems with the environment such as deforestation and water pol- lution. The government isn’t paying much attention to the environment and the terrible diseases that it may bring to the citizens of Togo. Togo has a humid tropical climate, but receives less rainfall than most of the other countries along the Gulf of Guinea. In the south there are two rainy seasons, from March to early July and from September to October. The heaviest rainfall occurs in the hills of the west, southwest, and center, where rainfall averages about 60 inches a year. North of the Togo Mountains there is one rainy season, lasting from April to August. Rainfall in this region averages 40 inches a year. The coast gets the least rainfall, about 31 inches annually. The country’s length also allows it to stretch through six differ- ent geographic regions so the climate varies from tropical to savanna. Togo is being affected by deforestation or the process of Water pollution is a significant problem in species and one bird species are listed as clearing forests. Rates of deforestation are particularly high Togo, where only 85% of urban dwellers threatened. Threatened species include the in the tropics, where the poor quality of the soil has led to and 38% of the people living in rural areas African elephant, Diana monkey, and West the practice of routine clear-cutting to make new soil avail- have pure drinking water. Contamination of African manatee. able for agricultural use. Deforestation can lead to erosion, the water supply contributes to the spread drought, loss of biodiversity through extinction of plant and of many diseases. This is a very important In conclusion, the environment of Togo is animal species, and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. issue because the number of deaths will mostly bad, due to deforestation, rapid cli- Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees or derived increase and the population will decrease. mate changes, desertification, and the most charcoal are used as, or sold, for fuel or as a commodity, while The government of Togo has tried to pro- affecting one, water pollution. These things cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of tect the nation’s environment through a can change though, by the government commodities, and settlements. Between 1990 and 1995, Togo comprehensive legislative package, the and by the people that live there. If they are lost an average of 1.44% of its forest and woodland each year. Environmental Code of 1988. The nation’s informed about all the bad things that this is The nation’s land is also affected by desertification, the trans- wildlife population is at risk due to poach- causing for them. Overall I think the environ- formation of habitable land to desert, by a change in climate ing and the clearing of land for agricultural ment needs improvement and it can be im- or destructive land use. purposes. As of 2001, 7.6% of Togo’s total proved if people are willing to make a change land area was protected. Eight mammal in themselves and the things around them.
  • 8. RESOURCE MAP The thick tropical rain forests that once covered much of the country are now found only along the river valleys and in iso- lated pockets of the Atakora Mountains. Slash-and-burn agri- culture and the cutting of wood for fuel are the major causes of forest depletion. Between 1990 and 1995, Togo lost an average of 1.44% of its forest and woodland each year. Soils are gener- ally of poor quality, requiring intensive fertilization and cultiva- tion to be productive. The soil and water supply are threatened by pesticides and fertilizers. The nation’s land is also at risk of desertification. Water pollution is a significant problem in Togo, where only 85% of urban dwellers and 38% of the people living in rural areas have pure drinking water. Contamination of the water supply contributes to the spread of disease. The govern- ment of Togo has tried to protect the nation’s environment through a complete legislative package. The nation’s wildlife population is at risk due to hunting and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes.
  • 9. hreh description of need In Togo, very few people have acess to education. Children do not have the oppurtunity to go to school. There are no text books, and few qualitated teachers to guide them through the basics in life. The effects of not having education leads people to nothing. People won’t improve their life with out education. People will not learn the basic rights because they don’t know it. The goverment will then take over them be- cause they won’t know what to do and how to fight for their rights. Children will have no future without education. No- body will want them because they don’t know anything. The effects of this is, they will not have a good job and they won’t be able to support their own family. What Togo needs is education. So our team plan is to build schools starting in Lome and from there on we will try to start expanding education all over Togo little by little. Togo needs children that know how to read, write, and speak and be able to solve a simple math problem. They need to learn the basic general education at least for them to make it somewhere. Togo needs adults who are willing to teach these kids and step it up for them to achieve. If they don’t help now, the chil- dren of Togo will get no where. If Togo has education they will have a voice and understand the goverment. Just like in the United States people are ranked by their education and they keep coming up from there. Without education you won’t be able to go far, and you also will not know what is going on. Togo also has a problem with poverty. The country of only makes $1.25 a day. In amer- ica, nobody can survive off of $1.25 here, and to survive off of that in Togo is so sad. Togo needs educated people, to go out and make money for themselves. Without education people will not find a good paying job that can provide for people familys & themselves.
  • 10. Project Proposal Farming Skills learned: -Plant -Maintain -Harvest -agricultreral science With farming there can be more plants ev- Our project proposal is about education. We are planning to erywhere to beautify the country and grow build schools in the capital Lome. We are going to start off with better crops three schools starting from kindergarten through 12th grade in addition there will also be an adult school. If a person want- Construction Skills learned: ed to be a teacher he/she will have to stay in school for another -Build houses and roads two to three years. We are planning to teach general education, -Fix buildng which is Math, English, and Science. By the 7th grade we will be - Create new structures teaching them life skills such as Construction, Farming, Medi- -better transpotation cal, and Culinary. Thwy can help build communities build We will be letting them choose which academy they would like roads and make faster transpotaion to be in. Most of those skills will be used not just for that cer- Culinary Skills learned: tain academy but helps them in everyday life. In construction -Mix foods we plan to teach them how to build houses and how to use - Serve people tools and equipment. How to use the resources around them -Prepare dishes and make them as safe as possible. In Farming we will show them how to farm the right way and show them new There could be more opportunities Techniques. Where and when is the right time to plant certain to find jobs and make their own plants. While in medical we will teach them how to treat com- mon colds, and surgical techniques. Lastly we will be teaching them how to mix foods together, spices, and herbs. Medical Skills learned: -Treat illnessses When they try to apply for teaching we will teach them the -knowlage of medicine deeper inside of general education. Get into each subject more -What the human body needs to survive thoroughly and help him or her understand it better. Over the 2 to 3 years they will become more independent and continue With these set of skills they can help stop the teaching cycle. They can help both people in school and the common cold and maintain good health out of school to help educate some of the population. Over all if our plan goes the way that we want it to go we will have about double the percentage of people educated. With that there will be a decrease of poverty and crime in Lome. With more educated people there will more businesses and more opportunities for different jobs. They can use their trans- ferable skills and take them to different places. With that they can have a deeper impact on government and vote plus make it a smarter society.
  • 11. IMPACT ANALYSIS Positive Impacts Negative Impacts -Increase litereacy -some families income is going to decrease. -more jobs -no more family care -increase in population of Lome -frustration -more people voting -may not be able to provide education to people -tourism who want it. -industrialization -increase access to health care services As we proceed with our plan to build schools in Lome, there will be major impacts. Both positive and negative. There are some long term impacts like industrialization, literaracy z rate among the citizens and there are some impacts that really won’t change much of the city’s profile. We’re aware that there is going to be negative things about our project, like no more child care due to kids leaving their home to attend school. So the younger kids will be left unsupervised or they can become an obstacle for the other kids wanting to learn . Another thing is that we can be that we might not be able to provide education services to all the people who want it, either because they won’t be able to transport themselves to our facility or because of old age. Even though there are a lot of negative aspects we’ll try our best to make it a great experience for everyone that will be working with us. On the other hand the things that are going to benefit Lome are the literacy rate, this is helpful because since Lome is one of the major cities in Togo. The citizens will now be able to comprehend their government and laws more clearly and if they think something is wrong they will stand up for themselves, in the long run this will have a huge impact on Togo’s gov- ernment. Other things that will change are industrialization and tourism. The change in their economy will increase the building of factories and big companies, increasing jobs, this is also going to attract tourist because of the changing economy and the renovation of the the city. Health care is another positive impact, because there will be educated people in health services, and they can help out the citizens to become more sanitary.
  • 12. Project Implement tion a Our schedule for building our schools in Togo will not be easy. It will take a couple of years for us to get everything settled. Year 1 and 2 – Construction and planning Our first priority is to locate a vacant building in the neighbor- hood we wish to serve and renovate that structure to meet our needs. If a suitable building cannot be located we will purchase land and construct our own. In addition, we will be hiring staff, designing and planning curriculum and other school services and purchasing needed furniture and supplies. We will start to spread the word about it, and enroll students, and connect with families. Year 3 – GRAND OPENING! If success, we will continue to start building schools in other citites in Togo. Year 4 – Check up on the schools if everything is working out as planned. Year 5 – Students will then have the education they need and from there, they keep improving and going from grade to grade.