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Original work and design created by 10th grade DSA students as part of the 'Legacy of Imperialism' Project. www.digitalsafari.org

Original work and design created by 10th grade DSA students as part of the 'Legacy of Imperialism' Project. www.digitalsafari.org

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  • 1. la n tP men e lo p De v nt ry Developed by: Cou Karina Velazquez Brenda Bach Rjay Molo Cristian Munoz
  • 2. It is estimated that 11,000 people died from AIDS in Burundi in 2007. Those 11,000 people lost their families, and most of them don’t even know what they died from. Getting medical attention in Burundi is so hard to seek because there aren’t enough doctors to help everyone or they don’t have the transportation to get to the closest hospital. Many Burundians have no idea what HIV/AIDS really is. Some men become rapists because they think raping a young girl will cure them from HIV/AIDS. That’s why our program is here to help and we want to provide Burundians with testing and inform them in how they could prevent or treat AIDS. We will have a mobile clinic driving village to village and staying at each village for 2 weeks. The mobile clinic will start off at Bujumbura Rural. The clinic will be mainly for HIV/AIDS testing, however, our clinic will also offer basic health care. If someone has a serious injury or infection, then they will be patched up and sent to a nearby hospital. We will also give counseling to the people that turn out positive for HIV/AIDS, to let them know how it spreads and how to treat HIV/AIDS. To attract Burundians to our mobile clinics, we will have a Burundian street theatre. It will demostrate what we offer at our clinics and how it’s important to get tested. Burundians will be more aware of what’s hap- pening in their country. In addition, we will offer sex education to secondary schools. Trained volun- teers will explain to the children what HIV/AIDS is and how to be safe. We will ask the children to speak to their family members about the virus and what they have learned from our voulnteers. To raise money for the mobile clinics, we will have a group of Burundian drummers traveling around the world, and performing. This type of tribal dancing, sing- ing and drumming is part of their culture, and repre- sents fertility and regeneration. Our goal is to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, and to lower the number of orphans in Burundi. This clinic will increase the number of jobs and hopefully inspire others to attend college and become doctors to help their com- munity. Burundians will feel more safe, because they’ll know how they could prevent HIV/AIDS. We know our proposal will have a dramatic effect on the people of Burundi and that it will continue on after we leave. Executive Summary: Saving Lives
  • 3. The original inhabitants of Burundi were the Twa, they were pygmy people, hunter-gatherers that were found also in Rwanda and Uganda. During the 15th century, the Tutsis migrated into what is now called Burundi and gained dominance over the Hutus. The tutsis settled in Burundi and established themselves as rulers. The Twa were eventually forced out of Burundi by the Hutus and Tutsis. The Tutsis originally came from Ethiopia and established their native kingdom in Burundi, after the Hutus came from Chad. Tutsis were considered cattle-owners and Hutus were identified as agricultural people. European explorers and missionaries have came across Burundi as early as 1856, but never claimed the terri- tory until 1899, when the Germans made Burundi part of German East Africa. Even though Burundi was colo- nized by Germany, the area was occupied by the Belgians during World War I. In 1923, the League Of Nations assigned Ruanda-Urundi (Rwanda and Burundi) to Belgium. The League Of Nation’s main goals were prevent- ing war, and settling international disputes. The Belgians ruled Ruanda-Urundi using Indirect rule, meaning they let local chiefs or assigned someone to rule the territory but under their commands. The tutsi were given more power from the Beligans. After World War II, Ruanda-Urundi became a trust territory under the United Nations, but still stayed under Beligan rule. In 1962 Ruanda-Burundi split into two countries, Rwanda and Burundi. Burundi got their independence on July 1,1962 and established a constitutional monarchy by Tutsi King Mwanbusta IV. He was determined give the Hutus equal power. That changed after the assassination of the Hutu Prime Minister and created a huge Hutu revolt. King Mwanbusta IV was replaced by his son Prince Ntare IV, and that same year he was removed by a miltary coup lead by Captian Michel Micombero. Michel Micombero wanted to get rid of monarchy and have a republic. The Hutus wanted to revolt but aborted the rebellion in 1972, because of it, hundreds of thou- sands of Burundians left Burundi.These problems still continued until the 1960’s and 1970’s. Burundi History
  • 4. In 1976, Captian Michel Micombero stepped down and Col. Jean-Baptiste Bagaza took power without blood- In 2001, Buyoya established a 3 year transitional government, with Domitien Ndayizeye as vice president. Nday- shed. Bagaza led a Tutsi-dominated government and urged land and electoral reform also national reconciliaton. izeye was only vice for 18 months, however in May 2003, he earned the title as president. He continued with a A new constitution was published in 1981 and in 1984 Bagaza was elected head of state as a single candidate. transitional government, however his plans including free elections, military reform, and following the social After elections, Bagaza’s human rights records became worse as he ended religious activities and stopped politi- and political measures from the Arusha Accords, failed because of violent actions from the rebels. Ndayizeye cal opposition members. continues to fix problems with the rebels groups in a integration plan which is under Tanzania, Uganda, and South Africa. Bagaza was overthown by Major Pierre Buyoya in 1987. Buyoya got rid of Bagaza’s ideas, including the opposi- tion parties, the 1981 constitution and started the Military Committee for National Salvation. Problems between In 2004, the UN helped Burundi with peacekeeping showing international support. Also to keep peace, in early the Hutus and the Tutsis became worse in 1988, causing violent conflicts and killing 150,000 people. Melchior 2005 the Burundian government determined positions by having an equal amount of ethnicies. Pierre Nkurun- Ndadaye was Burundi’s first Hutu president to be elected in 1993, however he was assassinated by a group of ziza, which was part of a Hutu rebel group became president that same year. By 2006, Burundi had a truce wit Tutsi-dominated armed forces in that same year. The assassination led to civil war which killed thousands of the last rebel group, Forces for National Liberation (FNL). However the the FNL left truce saying their security people. Hundreds of Burundians left by the time the government regained control. was unprotected.In 2007, reconstruction efforts began in Burundi. The UN put peace problems aside and also focused on reconstruction. The government was still having problems with just one group Burundi with Rwanda The presidents of Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zaire all got together and announced they would make a step joined the East African Community, a intergovernmental organization. in trying to negotiate peace in Burundi in 1995. Tanzanian president offered to help Burundi in the issues with peace. In 1996 Buyoya declared himself president without bloodshed. However, fighting between the Hutu mili- Also in late 2007, a FLN group fought in the capital, killing 20 fighters. Burundians began leaving Burundi be- tia and the army continued. Buyoya established a transitional constitution and declared a partnership between cause of the violence. Rebel raids were not only in Burundi but were also in other parts of the country. The rebels the government and the National Assembly. didn’t agree with many of the governments plans, leading to the FLN group attacking government protecting camps. Civilians have also been victims of acts of violence by the FLN group. The group has also recruited child Nelson Mandela was a chosen by the regional leaders as the Facilitator of the Arusha Accord. after Facilitator Ju- soldiers. A judical system in Brunudi needed to be reformed because Genocide, war crimes, and crimes against lius Nyerere’s death. The Arusha Accord was a peace agreement signed by the principal Hutu and Tutsi political humanity remained unpunished. On April 17, 2008 the FNL attacked the capital of Burundi, Bujumbura. The parties. Unfortunately, some political parties like the Forces for the Defense of Democracy (FDD) which was most Burundian army fought back, and the FLN group lost greatly. significant rebel group during the civil war and National Forces of Liberation (FNL) also a rebel group refused to accept the Arusha Accords and the rebellion continued. On May 26, 2008, a new truce between the government and the FLN group was signed. President Nkurunziza and the FLN leader Agathon Rwasa agreed to meet twice to talk out any disputes that might arise. Refugee camps are closing down ‘til this day. With 450,000 refugees returning, property conflicts have emerged. Burundi History
  • 5. 2001 - Nelson Mandela starts the installation of transitional 2005 August - Pierre Nkurun- government in which Hutu and ziza, which was part of a Hutu 1300s - Hutu people begin to Tutsi leaders will be equal. Hutu FDD group, was elected as settle in Burundi. rebel groups refuse to sign president. truce and fighting gets worse. 2008 April - Fighting between 1858 - Explorers from Great Britian, the government forces and FNL Richard Burton and John Speke visit rebel group leaves 100 people Burundi. 2003 July - A rebel assault on at dead. the capital, Bujumbura. About 300 1923 -Belgium agreed to the rebels and 15 government soldiers 1888- Germans take 2009 April - Burundi’s last League of Nations to administer died. Thousands leave their homes over Burundi hutu rebel group, the FNL, Ruanda-Urundi. because of the violence. transforms into a political 1962 - Urundi splits from Ruanda- party that is supervised by Urundi then turns into Burundi African Union. and was given their independence under King Mwambutsa IV. 1981 - A new constitution makes Burundi a one-party state. 1995 - Killing of Hutu refugees leads to renewed ethnic violence in the capi- tal, Bujumbura. 2005 January - The president sets up new national army, with the government forces and all but one Hutu rebel group, the FNL. 1890 - Tutsi of Urundi and neighbouring Ruanda 2004 December - UN and (Rwanda) incorporated into 1993- Tutsi soldiers assassinate government start to take away German East Africa. Ndadaye. Leading to some Frode- weapons from soldiers and bu members killing Tutsis and the former rebels. 2010 January - Thir- 1400s - Tutsi settlers de- army begins reprisals. Burundi is teen soldiers were clared themselves as feudal plunged into an ethnic conflict 2003 November - President arrested for plotting rulers. which takes about 300,000 lives. Ndayizeye and FDD leader a coup to overthrow 2000 - President Buyoya Pierre Nkurunziza sign President Nkurunziza. 1963 - Thousands of Hu- agrees to ceasefire talks agreement to end civil war. tus run away to Rwanda with a leader of Hutu following ethnic violence rebel group, Forces for 2002 -Government and main Defence of Democracy Hutu rebel group FDD sign a (FDD). truce in Tanzania, but fighting starts again a month later. Timeline: 700 Y ears
  • 6. Goal Description Statistics Eradicate poverty Proportion of population below 81% (2005) and hunger $1.25 (PPP) a day (%) Prevalence of malnutrition (% of 39% (2000) children under age 5 underweight) Achieving Primary completion rate (% of 39% (2007) universal relevant age group) primary education Public expenditure per primary 20% (2005) student (% of GDP per capita) Promoting gender Ratio of girls to boys in primary and 50% (2007) equality secondary education (%) Women in nonagricultural sector no data (% of nonagricultural employment) Reducing child Under-five mortality rate (per 1000) 180 (2007) mortality Immunization against measles (% 75% (2007) of children 12 – 23 months) Improving mater- Maternal mortality rate (modeled 1,100 (2005) nal health estimate, per 100,000 live births) Adolescent birth rate (per 1,000 55 (2007) women ages 15 - 19) Combating disease Prevalence of HIV (% of population 2% (2007) ages 15 – 49) Tuberculosis (incidence per 367 (2007) 100,000 people) Ensuring Access to improved water source 71% (2006) environmental (% of population) sustainability Carbon dioxide emissions per 0.03 (2005) Millennium Development Goals: capita (metric tons) Burundi’s Issues
  • 7. Intro Summary There are many issues in Burundi dealing with human rights. These rights include women and children’s issues, and civil liberties. Many of these laws stated aren’t enforced by the government, leading to these issues. The government’s human rights record hasn’t improved, it’s still very poor. Children and women are often raped but never receive the medical help they need and deserve. Government security forces even kill and beat civilians in Burundi. Women Issues The law states that rape is punishable by up to 30 years of prison, but the government doesn’t enforce the rape laws. The government also forbids spousal rape, but instead of 30 years, it’s only 8 days in prison. Many women don’t report rape because of cultural reasons, fear of it happening again, or lack of medical care. Some men leave their wives, after their wives have been raped or beat and kill their wives just to marry younger women. Often women and girls that were raped were ostracized. Police even humiliated raped women and make them pay for their attacker’s jail cell and cook food for them. Some women were required to pay 15,000 Burundian francs to get a certified medical report. Judges don’t take rape as a se- Human Rights: rious issue. Sometimes families or communities force rape women to drop their com- plaints and make a deal with the attacker or his family. Also women are sometimes forced by their own families to marry their attacker. Women’s Issues
  • 8. Children’s Issues Children under five are required to have a birth certifi- cate to obtain free public schooling and free medical care by the government, but almost half of all children aren’t registered at birth. In August 2008, the government announced they would allow unreg- istered children up to the age of five to get a chance to register. School for children is required until the age of 12, the highest level of school most children get to is primary school. In 2008, the Ministry of Human Rights and Gender statistics said there were about 5,000 children on the street in Burundi, many of them are orphans or have HIV/AIDS. Unfortunately, the government couldn’t provide them with medical or economic support. Rape is also an issue for children, minor rape is a widespread problem. 65% of reported rapes have been from children under 17. Perpetrators can get up 10 to 30 years in prison for raping a minor. The UN Development Fund for Women reported that perpetra- tors believed raping a minor would be a chance to prevent or cure STD’s and HIV/AIDS. Centre Seruka, a clinic for people for who have been raped, also reported that 15% of the their sexual violence cases are children under five. Most of the people that come to the clinic are females. The average age of victims that come to Centre Seruka is around the age of 11. Some children engage in prostitution to survive. However, the government prohibits prostitution and child pornography. Child labor is another issue in Burundi. The labor code says companies cannot have children working that “I came back from school, I had lunch and was are under 18, but there are exceptions by the getting ready to go out again. My father of- Ministry of Labor. Allowing children to do fered me 150 francs to come to the bedroom light work or work that doesn’t affect their with him. I said I didn’t want to go. But then he health. Light work includes selling news- took me to the bedroom by force and did bad papers, herding cattle or making food. things to me. It was the second time he did it. Only children 12 and older can do “light The first time I didn’t tell anybody. I was afraid. labor“. In rural areas of Burundi, children Human Rights: This time I decided to tell my mum because it under 16 have “heavy manual labor” during hurt really, really badly”. the school year. - young girl from Burundi Children’s Issues
  • 9. Freedom Of Speech & Press The Law doesn’t allow people in Burundi to put anything in the press that is negative about political figures like the president, it is considered a crime and could lead to about six months to five years in prison. Also people can not say insults towards the president. Freedom Of Religion The law allows freedom of religion and the government re- spects this right. However, it is required that every religious group registers with the Ministry of Interior, so the govern- ment knows and can keep track of their activities. Freedom Of Association The constitution states freedom of association, but the government restricts this right. Private organizations and political parties have to register. FNL (Forces Nationales de Liberation) and MSD (Movement for Solidarity and Democracy) have recently and successfully registered. Human Rights: Civil Liberties
  • 10. Environmental Status Burundi is located in east central Africa, near one of the great lakes called Lake Tanganyika. In general Burundi has a tropical high- land climate. The terrain has some plains, hills and many mountains, with a drop into a plateau in the east. There are many environmental issues in Burundi including deforestation due to uncontrolled tree cutting for fuel, which is threaten- ing wildlife. Soil erosion is another issue for Burundi due to the acidification (which is lowering of soil and water pH because of rain). Burundi’s water supply quality is very low and in poor condition. For many years, there was no clean drinking water available in certain towns. Urban, rural and village communities do not have access to clean and safe water. The hygiene situation is very critical due the the water supply systems all over Burundi. Only 23% of the population have facilities with functional water supply. Burundi is 43% farming land, and in that farming land only 15% goes to the market in production. The family farm plot has an average of two acres. Many natural resources are located in Burundi such as nickel, uranium, coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum (numerous species of grasses), bananas, manioc (tapioca), beef, milk, and hides (animal skin). The marketing, pricing and grading for coffee and tea are mostly exported only with approval while the rest can be exported on a regular basis. All of the products are suffering due to the soil erosion, poor agriculture practice, lack of fer- tilizer, shortened fallow periods, and irregular rainfall. Environmental Status: Declining Resources
  • 11. Burundi Map
  • 12. One of Burundi’s biggest issues is HIV/AIDS. 110,000 people are living with HIV/AIDS, 53,000 of them are women and 15,000 are children and orphans. Burundi declared a national emergency regarding HIV/AIDS in 1999. In 2001 the estimate went up to an alarming 7.5%. A strong resistance against HIV/AIDS was starting to spread by a committee called the National AIDS Control in 2002. In 2003, Burundi estimated that the number of cases of HIV/AIDS rounded up to 6%. Non-governmental organizations grouped together and created a Burundian alliance for AIDS control. The number of orphans in Burundi is about half a million and most of the reason why is because their parents died from AIDS. Out of 230,000 orphans, 30% of them have HIV/ AIDS. So far, 6% of the population in rural areas in Burundi have HIV/AIDS and is still in- creasing today. Infection rates for girls ages 15-19 are four times greater than for boys of the same age. Teachers in Burundi are raising awareness about HIV and AIDS and they’re teach- ing kids how it happens and how to ready themselves, but it seems that it isn’t enough. In conclusion, the rate of HIV/AIDS is really high and is slowly rising, and it needs to be stopped! Innocent people are diagnosed with this disease, many families have lost a number of loved ones because of this disease. So many in- spired organizations have come together to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS all around the world. Most people don’t understand how depressing this disease is until their country or family is diagnosed with HIV/ AIDS. Description of Need: The HIV/AIDS Epidemic
  • 13. The Mobile Clinic Solution HIV/AIDS Testing and Treatment Due to the lack of educational resources and access to health care in Testing will be available for everyone. We will encourage people to be Burundi people are suffering. We propose to help by offering HIV/AIDS tested through our efforts in street theater and our school-based work- testing and educational resources. Mobile clinics will travel from village shops. DNA PCR, an antigen test that looks directly for the HIV virus, will to village staying in each place for a period of 2 weeks. We will start in be the test we use to discover the virus. If the virus is found, we’ll im- Bujumbura Rural, which is close to captial and has many refugees from mediately supply them with an antiretroviral drug and set them up for Tanzania. Our mobile clinics will offer HIV/AIDS testing, antiretroviral counseling and referral to other health care services. drug (medical treatment to prevent the HIV virus from damaging the immune system), free condoms, and counseling services including, HIV/ Counseling Services AIDS education. Our approach to education will include street theater to Counseling services will include mental health, health care, and finan- get our message out to entire communities, as well as workshops to be cial support. Our health care services will teach our patients about their delivered to secondary school students. health, how to take better care of themselves and why they need to take better care of themselves. We’ll thoroughly explain how to use a condom Fundraising and how is HIV/AIDS is spread. To raise money for our country and to raise awareness, we will have Bu- rundian drummers perform all over the world for a full year. First Aid and Basic Health Care People who come in with an injury can be cleaned and patched up then The Clinics sent to the nearest hospital available, if necessary. Our clinics will consist of retrofitted buses with examination and treat- ment areas built in. At each stop we will also assemble a tent outside the Street Theater bus which will serve as reception, first aid, health education and coun- To get our message out about HIV/AIDS, we will host a traditional Burun- seling services area. The clinics will stay in a single location for approxi- dian street theater show. The play will show how the virus is spreading mately 2 weeks before moving to the next village. Each mobile clinic will through out the world and how to get tested and treated. The show will consist of 15 volunteer doctors, nurses, counselors and assistants. be educational and entertaining while simultaneously building interest in our mobile clinics. School Based Workshops To get kids in secondary school to understand the virus, we will have vol- unteers talk and explain sex education. We will persuade children to talk Project Proposal: BMC
  • 14. This project will impact Burundi in a great number of ways because it just won’t help them out with HIV/AIDS Year 1 - To raise money we will have Burundian drummers perform all over the world, taking donations. problems, it’ll change their lives drastically. Many Burundians aren’t educated about their health nor about getting treatment. Most children are orphans and lose their parents because of HIV/AIDS. However, send- ing volunteers and informing Burundians will have them, especially parents, immediately want to get tested Year 2 - Buy all the supplies and get ready to go to Burundi. Find volunteers in Burundi to perform street before it’s too late. theater. One big impact that can change their lives in an instant, is education. Sending vounteers to speak about HIV/ AIDS at schools will make a remarkable difference. Talking to the youth might even inspire them to go to col- Year 3 - Starting with street theater performances in different villages and start our testing the following lege and become doctors. There will be more people in school who can become doctors, which will also help day. the economy due to the increase in jobs. Doctors will need nurses or people to do HIV/AIDS testing, opening the chance of other jobs. As a result many more Burundians will be able to support their families. Year 4 - Look for Burundian volunteers to learn about health so they can become assistants for the clinics. There are many positive things added to this impact, however there some negative impacts as well. For We will also have our doctors and nurses go to secondary schools to teach about health and sex example there are many misconceptions, such as having sex with a virgin can cure AIDS. Some disagreement education. will come from older generations, that will end up rebelling and continue believing the myths and may resist using condoms. However we are here to make a difference. Year 5- We’ll leave Burundi in the middle of the year and we’ll regularly check up on the country until they’re Lastly, this program will lower the death rate in Burundi. People will be more aware of the virus and start to able to stand on their on feet. use condoms. They will start to talk to their children about being safe, making families stronger. The people who are positive for HIV/AIDS, will be treated and will be told how to prevent spreading the disease. Impact Analysis: Project Implementation: Making a Difference Our Goals