Lecture 7cLATE RENAISSANCEINTRO TO WESTERN HUMANITIES
Late/High Renaissance(1500-1600)Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519)Michelangelo (1475 – 1564)Raphael (1483 – 1520)
Verrocchio, Baptism of Christ1470   Leonardo da Vinci’s earliest   known painting is this angel
Leonardo da Vinci.Self-Portrait, after1500.
Leonardo da Vinci,Vitruvian Man,c. 1485-90.
Leonardo da Vinci,Embryo in theWomb, ca. 1510.
Michelangelo,David, 1501-1504.
Michelangelo.Pietà, 1498/9-1500
Michelangelo, Moses, c. 1514
Michelangelo, Ceiling Sistine Chapel, c. 1508-1512Contains nine scenes from the Book of Genesis of which the Creation ofAd...
Creation of Adam
Michelangelo,Last JudgmentSistine Chapel, Vatican,Rome. 1534-1541
Raphael,Madonna of the Meadow, 1505.
Italian politics during the 15th century wereconvoluted, pitting city against city, cityagainst the Papal states, and afte...
The spread of gunpowder weaponsincreased the cost and scale of war. Nolonger was armored cavalry the mostimportant weapon....
Military RevolutionRefers to new military tactics that began in the lateRenaissance, which maximized the utility offirearm...
The Medici Family in FlorenceWas a political dynasty, banking family and later royalhouse. They produced four popes, two q...
Còsimo di Mèdici                   Piero di Medici (the Gouty)
Piero de Medici                                             (The Unfortunate)                                           Po...
Rodrigo Borgias (Pope Alexander VI from1492-1503) appeared to epitomize thecorruption of the Renaissance CatholicChurch.Th...
Machiavelli(1469-1527)
Or as he appears in Assassin’s Creed
Machiavelli was an extraordinarilyinnovative and influential writer.He is a beautiful stylist and youare not educated unle...
“Since my intention is to say somethingthat will prove to be of practical use tothe inquirer, I have thought it proper tor...
“The gulf between how one should liveand how one does live is so wide that aman who neglects what is actually donefor what...
Contrast this to the accepted view aboutethics and politics …
Cicero (106-43 BCE)Roman Senator and writer“Honesty is the best policy foreffective rule.”“Virtu [in politics] consists of...
“For a man whoprofesses goodness at all timeswill come to ruinamong so many who are not good.”
vs
“I judge it to be true that fortune is thearbiter of one half of our actions but thatshe leaves the control of the other h...
“Fortune is a women, and it is necessary,in order to keep her down, to beat herand struggle with her.”
Pope Alexander VI   Pope Julius II   Pope Leo X1492-1503           1503-1513        1513-1521
Italian Wars                                              Papal Alliance      Opponent                                  15...
The old St. Peters Basilica in Rome wasbuilt in the time of Constantine (around 330CE)
The dome is the tallest in the world, and itsdiameter is just a bit smaller than that inFlorence. Dome design by Michelang...
St. Peter’s monstrousscale can best be seenby looking at its immensepiers.
Pope Julius II also commissioned Michelangelo’s painting of the Sistine Chapel as well as the massive Tomb of Julius II wh...
Julius’s successor was Pope LeoX (born Giovanni di Lorenzo deMedic).Like Julius, much of his reign wasfocused on warfare. ...
Woodcuts illustrating the sale of indulgences.
The Church believed that one could reduceone’s time in Purgatory by performing gooddeeds while alive in this world.But wha...
“You are Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church … Whatever you forbid on earth willbe forbidden in heaven and wha...
“You are Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church … Whatever you forbid on earth willbe forbidden in heaven and wha...
Dominican Friar Tetzel was the best known ofthe indulgence sellers.The Friars most famous jingle was:"As soon as the coin ...
Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)While the Church and its popes were deeply enmeshed in politicalmachinations, a movement for...
Criticizing the Church was a dangerous profession. Indeedthe Church usually attacked any criticisms as heresy.However the ...
Paintings of Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Luther was born in Germany, went into Law as a young man,                                                          and the...
In 1517, Luther (aged 34) posted 95 Theses on thedoor of the Church at Wittenberg.Key points:5.Scripture should be made av...
Unlike earlier “heretics” who criticized the Church, Luther wasable to survive because of support from a variety of powerf...
Safe from heresy trials, Luther :3.Translated the Bible into German (first vernacular translation)which was then distribut...
Luther quotes:“Young men are plagued by prurience, whichextinguishes as soon as they enter intomatrimony.”“A happy fart ne...
After Luther there were avariety of other reformmovements throughoutEurope.The most prominent ofthese were ones inspiredby...
Calvinists destroyingimages in church
Protestant church architecture, in direct constrast to therich elaborateness of the Catholic church, was very muchfocused ...
Catholic Church of the Reformation Era
"I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the irons point there                                         seemed to be...
Most of today’s evangelic-style Christian faiths are eitherinspired by or directly descended from Calvin’s religiouswritin...
Meanwhile, the Catholic Church responded to theProtestant Challenge in a variety of ways.This is generally referred to as ...
Counter-Reformation
Pope Clement VII   Pope Paul III1523-1534          1534-1549
The Counter Reformation refers to the attempt by theCatholic Church to:3.Reform itself (e.g., Council of Trent [1545] arti...
Inquisition
Inquisition
Wars of Religion    [1560s-1648]Albrecht Dürer,The Knight, Death and theDevil, 1513.
1. Revolt of the Netherlands   [also known as the 80 Years   War, 1568-1648]  Protestant nationalists (mainly  urban merch...
1. French Wars of Religion   [1560s-1598].   Huguenots (Protestants,   mainly urban merchants)   mainly expelled or killed...
St. Bartholomews Day Massacre, 1572. Perhapsas many as 10000 Protestants killed in Paris andother cities in France.
1. England under Henry VIII   made himself head of the   Church of England   (eventually Anglican   church).
1. Conflict with France and Spain   under Elizabeth I [1558-1603],   e.g. defeat of Spanish Armada.
5. Thirty Years War [1618-1648]
Defenestration of Prague [1618]Thirty Years War [1618-1648] began with the Defenestration (throwsomeone out a window) of P...
Up until the Second World War, The Thirty Years War,fought mainly in German lands, was the most destructivewar in European...
Reduction in Germanys population as a percentage of the whole population.
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation
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Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation

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Seventh lecture for GNED 1202 (Texts and Ideas). It is a required general education course for all first-year students at Mount Royal University in Calgary, Canada. My version of the course is structured as a kind of Intro to Western Civilization style course.

The Renaissance lecture has been divided into three parts. This is the third.

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  • Leonardo da Vinci. Self-Portrait, after 1500.
  • Leonardo da Vinci, Vitruvian Man, c. 1485-90.
  • Leonardo da Vinci, Embryo in the Womb, ca. 1510.
  • Michelangelo, David, 1501-1504.
  • Michelangelo. Pietà, 1498/9-1500
  • Michelangelo, Moses, c. 1514
  • Michelangelo, Last Judgment (after cleaning), Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome. 1534-1541
  • Raphael, Madonna of the Meadow, 1505.
  • Raphael, Madonna of the Meadow, 1505.
  • Raphael, Galatea in situ, Grand Salon, Villa Farnesina,
  • Rodrigo Borgias (Pope Alexander VI from 1492-1503) appeared to epitomize the corruption of the Renaissance Catholic Church. There wasn’t a sin that Alexander VI wasn’t willing to sample, whether it be deception, simony, avarice, fornication (he had seven children from his numerous mistresses), treason, violence, murder, even perhaps incest, … His (and his son Cesare Borgia) efforts at creating real political power for his family (and the papacy) was a source of inspiration for Machiavelli. Alexander VI was a great patron of the arts, hiring Michelangelo, Raphael, and others.
  • Machiavelli
  • Or as he appears in Assassin’s Creed
  • Hard to tell from this painting but Julius II was also called the Warrior Pope in that much of his time as Pope was spent engaged in a series of wars and battles against (or allied with) France, Venice, Holy Roman Empire, Florence, Spain, etc.
  • The old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome was built in the time of Constantine (around 330 CE)
  • The dome is the tallest in the world, and its diameter is just a bit smaller than that in Florence. Dome design by Michelangelo and completed after his death in 1590. It uses a similar design as Brunelleschi's (two shells using herringbone bricks reinforced with steel rods). Since the 1800s, the dome has begun to crack and large chains have been wrapped around it to prevent further spreading.
  • By 1500, church had decided it needed to rebuild its franchise church in Rome. The plan was to create the grandest church in Europe.
  • Its monstrous scale can best be seen by looking at its immense piers.
  • Pope Julius II also commissioned Michelangelo’s painting of the Sistine Chapel as well as the massive Tomb of Julius II which was planned to include over 40 life-sized statues.
  • Julius’s successor was Pope Leo X ( born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medic). Like Julius, much of his reign was focused on warfare. His papacy is associated with the growth in the sale of indulgences (to help fund the on-going Italian Wars, as well as to fund the rebuilding of St. Peter’s) as well as the beginning of the Protestant schism.
  • Woodcuts illustrating the sale of indulgences.
  • One of the paitnings from "Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry". This shows purified souls in Purgatory showing souls trapped in water, fire, on rocky and grassy land where the are rescued by Angels. Beasts (probably Demons) surround a soul.
  • Inscribed in the great dome of St. Peter’s in Rome is “You are Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church.”
  • Christ Handing the Keys to St Peter by PERUGINO, c. 1481
  • While the Church and its popes were deeply enmeshed in political machinations, a movement for reform of the Church began to build during this same time (1490s-1520s). These reformers wanted a less worldly, more spiritual church, as well as a church focused on the needs of their parishioners (i.e., vernacular translations of Bible and more charity, less building). One of the most prominent of these church reformers was Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536). An immensely learned scholar, Erasmus created a new Latin translation (from the Greek) of the New Testament as well as In Praise of Folly [1511] which is a satirical attack on Church corruption, popular superstitions, and traditions. An advocate of reform from within the Church, he engaged in a series of written debates with Martin Luther. Quentin Massys,  Portrait of Erasmus , 1517 Hans Holbein (the Younger),  Erasmus , 1523
  • Paintings of Martin Luther (1483-1546) Luther as Augustinian Monk , by Lucas Cranach the Elder, c. Luther by Lucas Cranach the Elder, c. 1529
  • Lucas Cranach (the Elder),  Martin Luther , 1526, aged 46
  • Katharina von Bora by Lucas Cranach c. 1526
  • John Calvin, created a theocracy in Geneva in the 1540s
  • Calvinists destroying images in church
  • Bernini, Baldacchino (canopy) ca. 1624-1633. Bernini, Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, 1642
  • The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa by Bernini
  • Inquisition.
  • Albrecht Dürer, The Knight, Death and the Devil, 1513.
  • St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, 1572. Perhaps as many as 10000 Protestants killed in Paris and other cities in France. Édouard Debat-Ponsan, Un matin devant la porte du Louvre, huile sur toile (1880)
  • Thirty Years War [1618-1648] began with the Defenestration (throw someone out a window) of Prague. In this case, it was Papal envoys who were defenestrated.
  • Introduction to Western Humanities - 7c - Late Renaissance + Reformation

    1. 1. Lecture 7cLATE RENAISSANCEINTRO TO WESTERN HUMANITIES
    2. 2. Late/High Renaissance(1500-1600)Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519)Michelangelo (1475 – 1564)Raphael (1483 – 1520)
    3. 3. Verrocchio, Baptism of Christ1470 Leonardo da Vinci’s earliest known painting is this angel
    4. 4. Leonardo da Vinci.Self-Portrait, after1500.
    5. 5. Leonardo da Vinci,Vitruvian Man,c. 1485-90.
    6. 6. Leonardo da Vinci,Embryo in theWomb, ca. 1510.
    7. 7. Michelangelo,David, 1501-1504.
    8. 8. Michelangelo.Pietà, 1498/9-1500
    9. 9. Michelangelo, Moses, c. 1514
    10. 10. Michelangelo, Ceiling Sistine Chapel, c. 1508-1512Contains nine scenes from the Book of Genesis of which the Creation ofAdam is the best known.
    11. 11. Creation of Adam
    12. 12. Michelangelo,Last JudgmentSistine Chapel, Vatican,Rome. 1534-1541
    13. 13. Raphael,Madonna of the Meadow, 1505.
    14. 14. Italian politics during the 15th century wereconvoluted, pitting city against city, cityagainst the Papal states, and after 1494,the French, and after 1498, the Spanish aswell.
    15. 15. The spread of gunpowder weaponsincreased the cost and scale of war. Nolonger was armored cavalry the mostimportant weapon. Instead, mass armiesof infantry became progressively moreimportant.
    16. 16. Military RevolutionRefers to new military tactics that began in the lateRenaissance, which maximized the utility offirearms, which in turn led to a need for more trainedtroops and thus for permanent forces.These changes in turn had major politicalconsequences in the level of administrative supportand the supply of money, men and provisions,producing new financial demands and the creationof new governmental institutions (the nation state).
    17. 17. The Medici Family in FlorenceWas a political dynasty, banking family and later royalhouse. They produced four popes, two queens of France,and were the unofficial rulers of the Republic of Florence.
    18. 18. Còsimo di Mèdici Piero di Medici (the Gouty)
    19. 19. Piero de Medici (The Unfortunate) Pope Leo X Pope Clement VIILorenzo de Medici (The Magnificent)
    20. 20. Rodrigo Borgias (Pope Alexander VI from1492-1503) appeared to epitomize thecorruption of the Renaissance CatholicChurch.There wasn’t a sin that Alexander VI wasn’twilling to sample, whether it be deception,simony, avarice, fornication (he had sevenchildren from his numerous mistresses),treason, violence, murder, even perhapsincest, …His (and his son Cesare Borgia) efforts atcreating real political power for his family(and the papacy) was a source of inspirationfor Machiavelli.Alexander VI was a great patron of the arts,hiring Michelangelo, Raphael, and others.
    21. 21. Machiavelli(1469-1527)
    22. 22. Or as he appears in Assassin’s Creed
    23. 23. Machiavelli was an extraordinarilyinnovative and influential writer.He is a beautiful stylist and youare not educated unless you haveread Machiavelli …
    24. 24. “Since my intention is to say somethingthat will prove to be of practical use tothe inquirer, I have thought it proper torepresent things as they are in real truth,rather than as they are imagined.”
    25. 25. “The gulf between how one should liveand how one does live is so wide that aman who neglects what is actually donefor what should be done learns the way toself destruction.”
    26. 26. Contrast this to the accepted view aboutethics and politics …
    27. 27. Cicero (106-43 BCE)Roman Senator and writer“Honesty is the best policy foreffective rule.”“Virtu [in politics] consists ofalways acting honorably andmorally.”
    28. 28. “For a man whoprofesses goodness at all timeswill come to ruinamong so many who are not good.”
    29. 29. vs
    30. 30. “I judge it to be true that fortune is thearbiter of one half of our actions but thatshe leaves the control of the other half tous.…She shows her force where there isorganized strength to resist her; and shedirects her impact there where sheknows that dikes and embankments arenot constructed to hold her.”
    31. 31. “Fortune is a women, and it is necessary,in order to keep her down, to beat herand struggle with her.”
    32. 32. Pope Alexander VI Pope Julius II Pope Leo X1492-1503 1503-1513 1513-1521
    33. 33. Italian Wars Papal Alliance Opponent 1508-1510 Papal States Venice France Holy Roman Empire Spain 1510-1511 Papal States France VeniceJulius II , “The Warrior Pope “ 1511-1513 Papal States France Venice Holy Roman Empire Spain England 1513-1516 Papal States Venice Holy Roman Empire France Spain Scotland England
    34. 34. The old St. Peters Basilica in Rome wasbuilt in the time of Constantine (around 330CE)
    35. 35. The dome is the tallest in the world, and itsdiameter is just a bit smaller than that inFlorence. Dome design by Michelangelo andcompleted after his death in 1590.It uses a similar design as Brunelleschis (twoshells using herringbone bricks reinforced withsteel rods). Since the 1800s, the dome hasbegun to crack and large chains have beenwrapped around it to prevent further spreading.
    36. 36. St. Peter’s monstrousscale can best be seenby looking at its immensepiers.
    37. 37. Pope Julius II also commissioned Michelangelo’s painting of the Sistine Chapel as well as the massive Tomb of Julius II which was planned toinclude over 40 life-sized statues.
    38. 38. Julius’s successor was Pope LeoX (born Giovanni di Lorenzo deMedic).Like Julius, much of his reign wasfocused on warfare. His papacy isassociated with the growth in thesale of indulgences (to help fundthe on-going Italian Wars, as wellas to fund the rebuilding of St.Peter’s) as well as the beginning ofthe Protestant schism.
    39. 39. Woodcuts illustrating the sale of indulgences.
    40. 40. The Church believed that one could reduceone’s time in Purgatory by performing gooddeeds while alive in this world.But what is a good deed?How about working/helping the poor?What about giving money to the Church andtelling it to use it to help the poor?What about just giving money to the Church(they know how to best use it, after all, theyare God’s representatives on earth)?
    41. 41. “You are Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church … Whatever you forbid on earth willbe forbidden in heaven and whatever you permit on earth will be permitted in heaven.” Matthew 16: 18-19.Inscribed in the great dome of St. Peter’s in Rome
    42. 42. “You are Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church … Whatever you forbid on earth willbe forbidden in heaven and whatever you permit on earth will be permitted in heaven.” Matthew 16: 18-19.St. Peter receiving the keys. Later Catholic tradition claimed Peter journeyed to Rome andbecame the first bishop of Rome (i.e., the first Pope).
    43. 43. Dominican Friar Tetzel was the best known ofthe indulgence sellers.The Friars most famous jingle was:"As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, a soul from Purgatory upward springs."
    44. 44. Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)While the Church and its popes were deeply enmeshed in politicalmachinations, a movement for reform of the Church began to buildduring this same time (1490s-1520s). These reformers wanted a lessworldly, more spiritual church, as well as a church focused on theneeds of their parishioners (i.e., vernacular translations of Bible andmore charity/less building of magnificent buildings/art).
    45. 45. Criticizing the Church was a dangerous profession. Indeedthe Church usually attacked any criticisms as heresy.However the Church relied on secular power for theprosecution of heresy.But what would happen if secular power decided not toprosecute the Church’s enemies, and indeed decided tosupport those enemies/critics?
    46. 46. Paintings of Martin Luther (1483-1546)
    47. 47. Luther was born in Germany, went into Law as a young man, and then after an intense spiritual crisis, moved into an Augustinian monastery. He was obsessed with his soul’s salvation and through his careful reading of Augustine and the Book of Romans in the Bible, became convinced that salvation is only achievable through God’s grace. That is, human works/actions play no role in salvation. Thus, for Luther, the practice of indulgences was highly wrong. First, it indicated a church focused obsessively on worldly concerns (money and power). Second, it indicated that salvation could be purchased (i.e., God responded to money or was “forced” to let people into heaven due to their deeds).Lucas Cranach (the Elder), Martin Luther, 1526, aged 46
    48. 48. In 1517, Luther (aged 34) posted 95 Theses on thedoor of the Church at Wittenberg.Key points:5.Scripture should be made available to all (i.e., invernacular)6.No need for hierarchical cadre of scripturalprofessionals (there could be a priesthood of allbelievers)7.Any religious dogma without scriptural evidenceshould be rejected (e.g., priests, popes, purgatory,saints, virgin mary, writings of the early church fathers,monasteries)8.Salvation comes from god’s grace, not throughhuman works9.Secular power is what guarantees peace on earth(not the church)
    49. 49. Unlike earlier “heretics” who criticized the Church, Luther wasable to survive because of support from a variety of powerfulGerman princes. The Pope did excommunicate Luther in 1520,and was eventually summoned to the German Holy RomanEmperor to answer charges of heresy.Luther’s famous declaration (“Here I stand. I can do no other.”)lead to him being declared a heretic, but wasn’t prosecutedbecause he was protected by the Elector of Saxony.
    50. 50. Safe from heresy trials, Luther :3.Translated the Bible into German (first vernacular translation)which was then distributed via printing press4.Published his sermons in German which were then distributedvia printing press.5.Transformed church practices in Saxony, which then spread toother areas of Germany (and then to other areas in Europe). Thiswas eventually codified into the doctrines of the Lutheran faith,the first Protestant Church.6.Married the former nun Katharina von Bora.
    51. 51. Luther quotes:“Young men are plagued by prurience, whichextinguishes as soon as they enter intomatrimony.”“A happy fart never comes from a miserable ass.”“Whoever smells it, out of him it crept.”“Whoever brawls with filth, whether he wins orloses, leaves covered in shit.”“The world is like a drunken peasant; if one helpshim into the saddle on one side, he will fall off onthe other side.”“If God has no sense of humor, I dont want to go toHeaven.”
    52. 52. After Luther there were avariety of other reformmovements throughoutEurope.The most prominent ofthese were ones inspiredby John Calvin(1509-1564).Calvin eventually createda type of total theocracyin the Swiss city ofGeneva.
    53. 53. Calvinists destroyingimages in church
    54. 54. Protestant church architecture, in direct constrast to therich elaborateness of the Catholic church, was very muchfocused on spartan simplicity.
    55. 55. Catholic Church of the Reformation Era
    56. 56. "I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the irons point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it. The soul is satisfied now with nothing less than God. The pain is not bodily, but spiritual; though the body has its share in it. It is a caressing of love so sweet which now takes place between the soul and God, that I pray God of His goodness to make him experience it”The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa by Bernini
    57. 57. Most of today’s evangelic-style Christian faiths are eitherinspired by or directly descended from Calvin’s religiouswritings.
    58. 58. Meanwhile, the Catholic Church responded to theProtestant Challenge in a variety of ways.This is generally referred to as the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
    59. 59. Counter-Reformation
    60. 60. Pope Clement VII Pope Paul III1523-1534 1534-1549
    61. 61. The Counter Reformation refers to the attempt by theCatholic Church to:3.Reform itself (e.g., Council of Trent [1545] articulatedthe main beliefs of Catholicism [still in force], Jesuits)4.Eliminate Protestant heresy by encouraging monarchsof Catholic lands to defeat or invade lands ruled byProtestant monarchs.5.More effort in eliminating heresy within Catholic lands(e.g., office of inquisition)
    62. 62. Inquisition
    63. 63. Inquisition
    64. 64. Wars of Religion [1560s-1648]Albrecht Dürer,The Knight, Death and theDevil, 1513.
    65. 65. 1. Revolt of the Netherlands [also known as the 80 Years War, 1568-1648] Protestant nationalists (mainly urban merchants) in the Netherlands rebelled against Catholic Spain. Eventually result: Netherlands Independence
    66. 66. 1. French Wars of Religion [1560s-1598]. Huguenots (Protestants, mainly urban merchants) mainly expelled or killed [e.g., St. Bartholomews Day Massacre, 1572]
    67. 67. St. Bartholomews Day Massacre, 1572. Perhapsas many as 10000 Protestants killed in Paris andother cities in France.
    68. 68. 1. England under Henry VIII made himself head of the Church of England (eventually Anglican church).
    69. 69. 1. Conflict with France and Spain under Elizabeth I [1558-1603], e.g. defeat of Spanish Armada.
    70. 70. 5. Thirty Years War [1618-1648]
    71. 71. Defenestration of Prague [1618]Thirty Years War [1618-1648] began with the Defenestration (throwsomeone out a window) of Prague. In this case, it was Papal envoyswho were defenestrated.
    72. 72. Up until the Second World War, The Thirty Years War,fought mainly in German lands, was the most destructivewar in European history.
    73. 73. Reduction in Germanys population as a percentage of the whole population.

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