Lecture 10 
REFORMATION 
AND 
REACTION 
AESTHETIC 
EXPERIENCE 
AND 
IDEAS
Woodcuts illustrating the sale of 
indulgences (paying to reduce time 
spent in purgatory).
The Church believed that one could 
reduce one’s time in Purgatory by 
performing good deeds while alive in 
this world. 
...
“You are Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church … Whatever you 
forbid on earth will be forbidden in heaven and w...
“You are Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church … Whatever you forbid on earth will be 
forbidden in heaven and w...
Dominican Friar Tetzel was the best 
known of the indulgence sellers. 
The Friar's most famous jingle was: 
"As soon as th...
Desiderius Erasmus 
(1466-1536) 
While the Church and its popes were deeply 
enmeshed in political machinations, a movemen...
Criticizing the Church was a dangerous profession. 
Indeed the Church usually attacked any criticisms 
as heresy, an punis...
Paintings of Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Luther was born in Germany, went into Law as a 
young man, and then after an intense spiritual crisis, 
moved into an Augu...
In 1517, Luther (aged 34) posted 95 religious 
statements (Theses) on the door of the Church at 
Wittenberg. 
Key points: ...
Unlike earlier “heretics” who criticized the Church, Luther 
was able to survive because of support from a variety of 
pow...
Safe from heresy trials, Luther : 
1. Translated the Bible into German (first vernacular 
translation) which was then dist...
Luther ‘s Table Time quotes(his followers wrote 
down not only his sermons but his dinner table 
conversation as well): 
“...
After Luther there 
were a variety of 
other reform 
movements 
throughout Europe. 
The most prominent 
of these were ones...
Most of today’s evangelic-style Christian faiths are either 
inspired by or directly descended from Calvin’s religious 
wr...
Aesthetic Responses to 
Reformation
At one level, while Martin Luther and the other 
reformers were working, artists in Italy 
continued to work in the same w...
Raphael (or students) , 
The Baptism of Constantine, 1520 - 1524
Jacopo Pontormo 
Entombment 
1528
Michelangelo, 
Last Judgment 
Sistine Chapel, Vatican, 
Rome. 1534-1541
Parmigianino 
Madonna with Long Neck 
1534
Bronzino 
Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time 
1540-45
Cupid 
Venus 
Time 
Jealousy? 
Syphilis? 
Temptation + 
Consequences? 
Monty 
Python’s Foot 
Folly? 
Pleasure? 
Fraud?
Giambologna 
Rape of the Sabine Women 
1583
The theatrical art characteristic of the mid 16th 
century was perhaps what the Reformers had 
in mind when they began to ...
Catholic Church of the Reformation Era
Calvinists destroying 
images in church 
Example of iconoclasm 
(destroying portrayals of 
the divine)
Dirck van Delen, Iconoclasts in a Church, 1630
Interior of the Choir of St. Bavo in 
Haarlem (1660) by Pieter Janszoon 
Saenredam . 
This Catholic Church was stripped of...
Protestant church architecture, in direct 
constrast to the rich elaborateness of the 
Catholic church, was very much focu...
So why the difference? 
Is there a different message about 
spirituality in these two churches?
Counter-Reformation
Meanwhile, the Catholic Church responded to 
the Protestant Challenge in a variety of ways. 
This is generally referred to...
The Counter Reformation refers to the attempt 
by the Catholic Church to: 
1. Reform itself (e.g., Council of Trent [1545]...
Inquisition
Inquisition Woodcut 
Why are the victims smiling?
Wars of Religion 
[1560s-1648] 
Albrecht Dürer, 
The Knight, Death and the Devil, 
1513.
1.Revolt of the 
Netherlands [also known 
as the 80 Years War, 
1568-1648] 
Protestant nationalists (mainly 
urban merchan...
2. French Wars of 
Religion [1560s-1598]. 
Huguenots (Protestants, 
mainly urban merchants) 
mainly expelled or killed [e....
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, 1572. Perhaps as 
many as 10000 Protestants killed in Paris and other 
cities in France.
3. England under Henry 
VIII made himself 
head of the Church of 
England (eventually 
Anglican church).
4. Conflict with France and 
Spain under Elizabeth I 
[1558-1603], e.g. defeat 
of Spanish Armada.
5. Thirty Years War [1618-1648]
Defenestration of Prague [1618] 
Thirty Years War [1618-1648] began with the Defenestration (throw 
someone out a window) ...
Up until the Second World War, The Thirty Years War, fought 
mainly in German lands, was the most destructive war in 
Euro...
Reduction in Germany's population as a percentage of the whole population.
Aesthetic Responses to 
Counter-Reformation
Caravaggio 
(1571 – 1610)
Caravaggio’s early work was 
notable for its unusual and frank 
realism.
Young Sick Bacchus 
1593
The Cardsharps, 1593
Caravaggio’s painting were 
unsettling because he crashes 
through the safety barrier 
between the viewer and the 
paintin...
The religious paintings of 
Caravaggio represents one of the 
key aesthetic reactions to the 
Protestant revolt.
The church had argued that 
church art was the key way for 
the poor and non-literate to 
experience religion.
Caravaggio’s paintings rejected 
the classical and idealistic 
approach of Renaissance 
religious painting.
His religious paintings are darkly 
dramatic (he is the artist of 
chiaroscuro) and are 
contemporary in that they 
contai...
Judith Beheading Holofernes
The Sacrifice of Isaac
The Calling of 
Saint Matthew
The Martyrdom of 
Saint Matthew
The Martyrdom of 
Saint Peter
Supper at Emmaus
The Entombment of Christ 
1602
Madonna di Loreto 
Like many of Caravaggio's Roman paintings, 
the scene is a moment where everyday people 
encounters the...
Death of Mary 
1601-6
David with the head of 
Goliath.
Artemisia 
Gentileschi 
(1593 – 1652) 
Follower of Caravaggio. 
Raped by a fellow student, she is 
subjected to a long and...
Artemisia Gentileschi 
Judith and her maid, c 1613–14
Artemisia Gentileschi 
Self-portrait as the Allegory of Painting 
(1638)
Music also needed followed the 
precepts of the Council of Trent.
Palestrina (1525-1594) is the first 
composer to have his complete works 
published. 
His music is restrained so that the ...
Missa Papae Marcelli: 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5wVaD2_RmO8 
Palestrina uses polyphony (two or more 
voices of equa...
The other stylistic reaction to 
the Reformation was to 
emphasize religious themes in a 
dramatic way that highlight the ...
This style is usually referred to 
as baroque.
Peter Paul Rubens 
(1577 – 1640)
Self-Portrait 
Peter Paul
Rape of the Daughters of 
Leucippus 
Bernini, 1617
Bernini 
(1598 – 1680)
A son of a Florentine sculptor, 
Bernini, was a master at 
showing drama, tension, and 
movement in stone.
Works created as a young teenager
St. Lawrence on the Flames (created as an older teenager)
Bernini 
David 
1623
Bernini’s David is quite different from Michelangelo’s. Here the focus is on 
movement, energy and raw emotions, it draws ...
Rape of Proserpine 
Bernini 
1623
Apollo and Daphne 
Bernini 
1625
Bust of Cardinal Scipione Borghese 
Bernini 
1630
Bernini also designed the façade of St. Peters in 
Rome and colonnade and plaza in front.
St. Peter’s Façade – note the asymmetry, the non-functionality of many of the elements
Bust of Costanza Buonarelli, 1635
Tower plan, façade St. Peters 
Bernini
The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa 
Bernini 
1647
"I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the iron's point there 
seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to b...
The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa 
Bernini 
1647
Blessed Ludovica Albertoni 
Bernini 
1671
Bust of Francesco I d'Este 
Bernini 
1650-1651
Bernini also designed the Baldacchino, under 
the Dome.
… and St. Peter’s Throne
Fountain of the Four Rivers, Piazza Navona, Rome 
Bernini 
1651
Sant'Agnese Church 
By Francesco Borromini
Sant'Agnese Church 
By Francesco Borromini
Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 
by Francesco Borromini, in Rome
Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 
by Francesco Borromini, in Rome
Pallazo Spada 
By Borromini
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation
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Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation

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Tenth module for GNED 1201 (Aesthetic Experience and Ideas). This one mainly covers the Reformation and Counter-Reformation of the 16th and early 17th Century. It also covers aesthetic responses to the Reformation, especially Caravaggio and Bernini.

This course is a required general education course for all first-year students at Mount Royal University in Calgary, Canada. My version of the course is structured as a kind of Art History and Culture course. Some of the content overlaps with my other Gen Ed course.

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  • Woodcuts illustrating the sale of indulgences.
  • One of the paitnings from "Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry". This shows purified souls in Purgatory showing souls trapped in water, fire, on rocky and grassy land where the are rescued by Angels. Beasts (probably Demons) surround a soul.
  • Inscribed in the great dome of St. Peter’s in Rome is “You are Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church.”
  • Christ Handing the Keys to St Peter by PERUGINO, c. 1481
  • While the Church and its popes were deeply enmeshed in political machinations, a movement for reform of the Church began to build during this same time (1490s-1520s). These reformers wanted a less worldly, more spiritual church, as well as a church focused on the needs of their parishioners (i.e., vernacular translations of Bible and more charity, less building).

    One of the most prominent of these church reformers was Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536). An immensely learned scholar, Erasmus created a new Latin translation (from the Greek) of the New Testament as well as In Praise of Folly [1511] which is a satirical attack on Church corruption, popular superstitions, and traditions. An advocate of reform from within the Church, he engaged in a series of written debates with Martin Luther.

    Quentin Massys, Portrait of Erasmus, 1517
    Hans Holbein (the Younger), Erasmus, 1523
  • Paintings of Martin Luther (1483-1546)

    Luther as Augustinian Monk, by Lucas Cranach the Elder, c.
    Luther by Lucas Cranach the Elder, c. 1529
  • Lucas Cranach (the Elder), Martin Luther, 1526, aged 46
  • Katharina von Bora by Lucas Cranach c. 1526
  • John Calvin, created a theocracy in Geneva in the 1540s
  • Bernini, Baldacchino (canopy) ca. 1624-1633. Bernini, Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, 1642
  • St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, 1572. Perhaps as many as 10000 Protestants killed in Paris and other cities in France.Édouard Debat-Ponsan, Un matin devant la porte du Louvre, huile sur toile (1880)
  • Thirty Years War [1618-1648] began with the Defenestration (throw someone out a window) of Prague. In this case, it was Papal envoys who were defenestrated.
  • Bust of Francesco I d'Este, 1650-1651
  • CostanzaPiccolomini 
  • Francois Lemoyne, Apotheosis of Hercules, ceiling Versailles 1733-36
  • Art and Culture - Module 10 - Reformation and Counter-Reformation

    1. 1. Lecture 10 REFORMATION AND REACTION AESTHETIC EXPERIENCE AND IDEAS
    2. 2. Woodcuts illustrating the sale of indulgences (paying to reduce time spent in purgatory).
    3. 3. The Church believed that one could reduce one’s time in Purgatory by performing good deeds while alive in this world. But what is a good deed? How about working/helping the poor? What about giving money to the Church and telling it to use it to help the poor? What about just giving money to the Church (they know how to best use it, after all, they are God’s representatives on earth)?
    4. 4. “You are Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church … Whatever you forbid on earth will be forbidden in heaven and whatever you permit on earth will be permitted in heaven.” Matthew 16: 18-19. Inscribed in the great dome of St. Peter’s in Rome
    5. 5. “You are Peter and upon this rock I will build my Church … Whatever you forbid on earth will be forbidden in heaven and whatever you permit on earth will be permitted in heaven.” Matthew 16: 18-19. St. Peter receiving the keys. Later Catholic tradition claimed Peter journeyed to Rome and became the first bishop of Rome (i.e., the first Pope).
    6. 6. Dominican Friar Tetzel was the best known of the indulgence sellers. The Friar's most famous jingle was: "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, a soul from Purgatory upward springs."
    7. 7. Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) While the Church and its popes were deeply enmeshed in political machinations, a movement for reform of the Church began to build during this same time (1490s-1520s). These reformers wanted a less worldly, more spiritual church, as well as a church focused on the needs of their parishioners (i.e., vernacular translations of Bible and more charity/less building of magnificent buildings/art).
    8. 8. Criticizing the Church was a dangerous profession. Indeed the Church usually attacked any criticisms as heresy, an punished heresy with painful death. However the Church relied on secular power for the prosecution of heresy. But what would happen if secular power decided not to prosecute the Church’s enemies, and indeed decided to support those enemies/critics?
    9. 9. Paintings of Martin Luther (1483-1546)
    10. 10. Luther was born in Germany, went into Law as a young man, and then after an intense spiritual crisis, moved into an Augustinian monastery. He was obsessed with his soul’s salvation and through his careful reading of Augustine and the Book of Romans in the Bible, became convinced that salvation is only achievable through God’s grace. That is, human works/actions play no role in salvation. Thus, for Luther, the practice of indulgences was highly wrong. First, it indicated a church focused obsessively on worldly concerns (money and power). Second, it indicated that salvation could be purchased (i.e., God responded to money or was “forced” to let people into heaven due to their Lucas Cranach (the Elder), Martin Luther, 1526, aged 46 deeds).
    11. 11. In 1517, Luther (aged 34) posted 95 religious statements (Theses) on the door of the Church at Wittenberg. Key points: 1.Scripture should be made available to all (i.e., in vernacular) 2.No need for hierarchical cadre of scriptural professionals (there could be a priesthood of all believers) 3.Any religious dogma without scriptural evidence should be rejected (e.g., priests, popes, purgatory, saints, virgin mary, writings of the early church fathers, monasteries) 4.Salvation comes from god’s grace, not through human works 5.Secular power is what guarantees peace on earth (not the church)
    12. 12. Unlike earlier “heretics” who criticized the Church, Luther was able to survive because of support from a variety of powerful German princes. The Pope did excommunicate Luther in 1520, and was eventually summoned to the German Holy Roman Emperor to answer charges of heresy. Luther’s famous declaration (“Here I stand. I can do no other.”) lead to him being declared a heretic, but wasn’t prosecuted because he was protected by the Elector of Saxony.
    13. 13. Safe from heresy trials, Luther : 1. Translated the Bible into German (first vernacular translation) which was then distributed via printing press 2. Published his sermons in German which were then distributed via printing press. 3. Transformed church practices in Saxony, which then spread to other areas of Germany (and then to other areas in Europe). This was eventually codified into the doctrines of the Lutheran faith, the first Protestant Church. 4. Married the former nun Katharina von Bora.
    14. 14. Luther ‘s Table Time quotes(his followers wrote down not only his sermons but his dinner table conversation as well): “Young men are plagued by lust, which extinguishes as soon as they enter into matrimony.” “A happy fart never comes from a miserable ass.” “Whoever smells it, out of him it crept.” “Whoever drinks beer, he is quick to sleep; whoever sleeps long, does not sin; whoever does not sin, enters Heaven! Thus, let us drink beer!” “If God has no sense of humor, I don't want to go to Heaven.”
    15. 15. After Luther there were a variety of other reform movements throughout Europe. The most prominent of these were ones inspired by John Calvin (1509-1564). Calvin eventually created a type of total theocracy in the Swiss city of Geneva.
    16. 16. Most of today’s evangelic-style Christian faiths are either inspired by or directly descended from Calvin’s religious writings.
    17. 17. Aesthetic Responses to Reformation
    18. 18. At one level, while Martin Luther and the other reformers were working, artists in Italy continued to work in the same way. The late Michelangelo’s style(and those who immediately came after) is sometimes referred to as Mannerism, which is characterized by elongated forms, precariously balanced poses, a collapsed perspective, irrational settings, complexity and theatrical lighting.
    19. 19. Raphael (or students) , The Baptism of Constantine, 1520 - 1524
    20. 20. Jacopo Pontormo Entombment 1528
    21. 21. Michelangelo, Last Judgment Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome. 1534-1541
    22. 22. Parmigianino Madonna with Long Neck 1534
    23. 23. Bronzino Venus, Cupid, Folly and Time 1540-45
    24. 24. Cupid Venus Time Jealousy? Syphilis? Temptation + Consequences? Monty Python’s Foot Folly? Pleasure? Fraud?
    25. 25. Giambologna Rape of the Sabine Women 1583
    26. 26. The theatrical art characteristic of the mid 16th century was perhaps what the Reformers had in mind when they began to preach against the rich expensive art of the Catholic Church.
    27. 27. Catholic Church of the Reformation Era
    28. 28. Calvinists destroying images in church Example of iconoclasm (destroying portrayals of the divine)
    29. 29. Dirck van Delen, Iconoclasts in a Church, 1630
    30. 30. Interior of the Choir of St. Bavo in Haarlem (1660) by Pieter Janszoon Saenredam . This Catholic Church was stripped of ornamentation and converted to Protestant use.
    31. 31. Protestant church architecture, in direct constrast to the rich elaborateness of the Catholic church, was very much focused on spartan simplicity.
    32. 32. So why the difference? Is there a different message about spirituality in these two churches?
    33. 33. Counter-Reformation
    34. 34. Meanwhile, the Catholic Church responded to the Protestant Challenge in a variety of ways. This is generally referred to as the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
    35. 35. The Counter Reformation refers to the attempt by the Catholic Church to: 1. Reform itself (e.g., Council of Trent [1545] articulated the main beliefs of Catholicism [still in force], Jesuits) 2. Eliminate Protestant heresy by encouraging monarchs of Catholic lands to defeat or invade lands ruled by Protestant monarchs. 3. More effort in eliminating heresy within Catholic lands (e.g., office of inquisition)
    36. 36. Inquisition
    37. 37. Inquisition Woodcut Why are the victims smiling?
    38. 38. Wars of Religion [1560s-1648] Albrecht Dürer, The Knight, Death and the Devil, 1513.
    39. 39. 1.Revolt of the Netherlands [also known as the 80 Years War, 1568-1648] Protestant nationalists (mainly urban merchants) in the Netherlands rebelled against Catholic Spain. Eventually result: Netherlands Independence
    40. 40. 2. French Wars of Religion [1560s-1598]. Huguenots (Protestants, mainly urban merchants) mainly expelled or killed [e.g., St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, 1572]
    41. 41. St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, 1572. Perhaps as many as 10000 Protestants killed in Paris and other cities in France.
    42. 42. 3. England under Henry VIII made himself head of the Church of England (eventually Anglican church).
    43. 43. 4. Conflict with France and Spain under Elizabeth I [1558-1603], e.g. defeat of Spanish Armada.
    44. 44. 5. Thirty Years War [1618-1648]
    45. 45. Defenestration of Prague [1618] Thirty Years War [1618-1648] began with the Defenestration (throw someone out a window) of Prague. In this case, it was Papal envoys who were defenestrated.
    46. 46. Up until the Second World War, The Thirty Years War, fought mainly in German lands, was the most destructive war in European history.
    47. 47. Reduction in Germany's population as a percentage of the whole population.
    48. 48. Aesthetic Responses to Counter-Reformation
    49. 49. Caravaggio (1571 – 1610)
    50. 50. Caravaggio’s early work was notable for its unusual and frank realism.
    51. 51. Young Sick Bacchus 1593
    52. 52. The Cardsharps, 1593
    53. 53. Caravaggio’s painting were unsettling because he crashes through the safety barrier between the viewer and the painting.
    54. 54. The religious paintings of Caravaggio represents one of the key aesthetic reactions to the Protestant revolt.
    55. 55. The church had argued that church art was the key way for the poor and non-literate to experience religion.
    56. 56. Caravaggio’s paintings rejected the classical and idealistic approach of Renaissance religious painting.
    57. 57. His religious paintings are darkly dramatic (he is the artist of chiaroscuro) and are contemporary in that they contain settings and people from 16th Century Rome. Many of his works are enduring masterpieces of Western art …
    58. 58. Judith Beheading Holofernes
    59. 59. The Sacrifice of Isaac
    60. 60. The Calling of Saint Matthew
    61. 61. The Martyrdom of Saint Matthew
    62. 62. The Martyrdom of Saint Peter
    63. 63. Supper at Emmaus
    64. 64. The Entombment of Christ 1602
    65. 65. Madonna di Loreto Like many of Caravaggio's Roman paintings, the scene is a moment where everyday people encounters the divine, whose appearance is also not unlike that of a common man (or woman).
    66. 66. Death of Mary 1601-6
    67. 67. David with the head of Goliath.
    68. 68. Artemisia Gentileschi (1593 – 1652) Follower of Caravaggio. Raped by a fellow student, she is subjected to a long and humiliating trial, in which she is able to sue (and then imprison) her assaulter. Judith Slaying Holofernes, c 1611–12
    69. 69. Artemisia Gentileschi Judith and her maid, c 1613–14
    70. 70. Artemisia Gentileschi Self-portrait as the Allegory of Painting (1638)
    71. 71. Music also needed followed the precepts of the Council of Trent.
    72. 72. Palestrina (1525-1594) is the first composer to have his complete works published. His music is restrained so that the sung words can be clearly understood.
    73. 73. Missa Papae Marcelli: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5wVaD2_RmO8 Palestrina uses polyphony (two or more voices of equal importance) but is able to not only make the sung words intelligible, but glorifies them as well, thereby achieving the goals of the Council of Trent.
    74. 74. The other stylistic reaction to the Reformation was to emphasize religious themes in a dramatic way that highlight the power, history, and majesty of the Catholic Church.
    75. 75. This style is usually referred to as baroque.
    76. 76. Peter Paul Rubens (1577 – 1640)
    77. 77. Self-Portrait Peter Paul
    78. 78. Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus Bernini, 1617
    79. 79. Bernini (1598 – 1680)
    80. 80. A son of a Florentine sculptor, Bernini, was a master at showing drama, tension, and movement in stone.
    81. 81. Works created as a young teenager
    82. 82. St. Lawrence on the Flames (created as an older teenager)
    83. 83. Bernini David 1623
    84. 84. Bernini’s David is quite different from Michelangelo’s. Here the focus is on movement, energy and raw emotions, it draws the viewer into the historical story.
    85. 85. Rape of Proserpine Bernini 1623
    86. 86. Apollo and Daphne Bernini 1625
    87. 87. Bust of Cardinal Scipione Borghese Bernini 1630
    88. 88. Bernini also designed the façade of St. Peters in Rome and colonnade and plaza in front.
    89. 89. St. Peter’s Façade – note the asymmetry, the non-functionality of many of the elements
    90. 90. Bust of Costanza Buonarelli, 1635
    91. 91. Tower plan, façade St. Peters Bernini
    92. 92. The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa Bernini 1647
    93. 93. "I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the iron's point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it. The soul is satisfied now with nothing less than God. The pain is not bodily, but spiritual; though the body has its share in it. It is a caressing of love so sweet which now takes place between the soul and God, that I pray God of His goodness to make him experience it” The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa by Bernini
    94. 94. The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa Bernini 1647
    95. 95. Blessed Ludovica Albertoni Bernini 1671
    96. 96. Bust of Francesco I d'Este Bernini 1650-1651
    97. 97. Bernini also designed the Baldacchino, under the Dome.
    98. 98. … and St. Peter’s Throne
    99. 99. Fountain of the Four Rivers, Piazza Navona, Rome Bernini 1651
    100. 100. Sant'Agnese Church By Francesco Borromini
    101. 101. Sant'Agnese Church By Francesco Borromini
    102. 102. Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, by Francesco Borromini, in Rome
    103. 103. Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, by Francesco Borromini, in Rome
    104. 104. Pallazo Spada By Borromini

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