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Art and Culture - Module 08 - Renaissance (Mid and Northern)
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Art and Culture - Module 08 - Renaissance (Mid and Northern)

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Eighth module for GNED 1201 (Aesthetic Experience and Ideas). This one mainly covers the Northern Renaissance, and then moves back to Italy to look at the art of the later 15th century. It also has an ...

Eighth module for GNED 1201 (Aesthetic Experience and Ideas). This one mainly covers the Northern Renaissance, and then moves back to Italy to look at the art of the later 15th century. It also has an extended digression on changing representations of the human body over the 15th century.

This course is a required general education course for all first-year students at Mount Royal University in Calgary, Canada. My version of the course is structured as a kind of Art History and Culture course. Some of the content overlaps with my other Gen Ed course.

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  • While this and other Northern Renaissance pieces often do not have the accurate perspective of contemporary Italian works, there is an attention to detail (often requiring a magnifying glass to see) as well as less homage to classical forms.
  • Albrect Durer (1471-1528) self portrait, 1484 [13 yrs old], the youngest self portrait in art history
  • Albrect Durer (1471-1528) self portrait, 1493 [22 yrs old], painted to send to his fiancé (who he had never met)
  • Albrecht Dürer, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, c. 1497-1498. Woodcut, 15 2/5" x 11".
  • Masaccio. The Expulson of Adam and Eve
  • David , by Donatello, c. 1430-1440. First large-scale nude sculpture since antiquity (1000+ years).
  • Botticelli, Birth of Venus, c. 1480
  • Sandro Botticelli, Primavera, c. 1482.
  • Botticelli, Mars and Venus, c. 1475.
  • Girolamo Savonarola (1452 –1498) was an Italian Dominican friar and an influential contributor to the politics of Florence from 1494 until his execution in 1498. He was known for his book burning, destruction of what he considered immoral art, and his vehement preaching against the moral corruption of much of the clergy at the time.
  • David , by Donatello, c. 1430-1440 vs The Penitent Magdalene, by Donatello, c. 1453-55. Change in piety and representational styles between the young artist and the mature artist.
  • Botticelli late works, post Savonarola, demonstrate a very noticeable rejection of the classically-inspired worldview of his earlier works. Shown here: Lamentation over the Dead Christ with Saints (1490) Mystic Nativity (1501)
  • Execution of Savonarola and his Companions in Piazza Della Signoria, Florence, 1498
  • Raphael, Galatea, Rome, c. 1512.
  • Raphael, Galatea, Rome, c. 1512.
  • Villa Farnesina
  • Raphael. The Fornarina, c. 1518.
  • Giorgione, Sleeping Venus, c. 1509.
  • Titian. Venus of Urbino, c. 1538 Dog= fidelity + desire

Art and Culture - Module 08 - Renaissance (Mid and Northern) Art and Culture - Module 08 - Renaissance (Mid and Northern) Presentation Transcript

  • Lecture 8MID +NORTHERNRENAISSANCEAESTHETICEXPERIENCEANDIDEAS
  • Northern Renaissance
  • Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece c. 1425While this and other Northern Renaissance pieces often do not have theaccurate perspective of contemporary Italian works, there is an attention todetail (often requiring a magnifying glass to see) as well as less homageto classical forms.
  • Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece, c. 1432
  • Jan van Eyck,Arnolfini Portrait, c. 1434
  • 5cm or 2.2” 10cm or 4”
  • Garden of Eden World Before the Flood Hell Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delight, c. 1510
  • Albrect Durer (1471-1528)Self portrait, 1484 [13 yrs old],the youngest self portrait in arthistory
  • Albrect DurerSelf Portrait 1493[22 yrs old],painted to send to hisfiancé (whom he hadnever met)
  • Albrecht Dürer,Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, c. 1497-1498.Woodcut, 15 2/5" x 11".
  • Gutenberg printing press [1450]
  • In the 15th century, we can also see atransformation in artist’s willingness tomake the human body a focus of attention.
  • Adam, from the leftwing of the GhentAltarpiece - Jan vanEyck, 1425
  • Descent from the Cross,c. 1435-1438
  • Masaccio [1425]The Expulsion of Adam and Eve
  • David, by Donatello, c. 1430-1440. Firstlarge-scale nude sculpture since antiquity(1000+ years).
  • Perhaps no other painting represents the changing natureof the attitude towards to the nude during the ItalianRenaissance than does Botticelli’s Birth of Venus.
  • Botticelli, Birth of Venus, c. 1480
  • Venus’s nudity is front and center and sheis seen right at the moment before beingcovered up.The work is a fusion of classical andChristian ideals.
  • Sandro Botticelli, Primavera, c. 1482.
  • Botticelli, Mars and Venus, c. 1475.
  • Girolamo Savonarola (1452 –1498) wasan Italian Dominican friar and an influential contributor tothe politics of Florence from 1494 until his execution in1498.He was known for his book burning, destruction of what heconsidered immoral art, and his vehement preachingagainst the moral corruption of much of the clergy at thetime.He also argued that the nude image is sinful anddepraved.
  • Some Florentine artists responded toSavaronola’s sermons by transforming theirvisual style and returning to a more pietisticstyle …
  • David, by Donatello, c. 1430-1440 vsThe Penitent Magdalene, by Donatello, c. 1453-
  • Botticelli’s late works, post Savonarola,demonstrate a very noticeable rejection of theclassically-inspired worldview of his earlierworks. He even destroyed a number of hisworks that included nudity.Shown here:Lamentation over the Dead Christ with Saints (1490)Mystic Nativity (1501)
  • Botticelli’s “classical” paintings were onlysaved because they were owned by richpatrons who were unmoved by Savonarola.
  • Execution of Savonarola and hisCompanions in Piazza Della Signoria,Florence, 1498
  • Other artists, especially those hiredby the papal court in Rome (and lateralso by the merchants in Venice),appear to have been unmoved bySavaronola, and we continue to seeclassical-inspired themes and aninterest in representing the humanbody.Raphael, Galatea, Rome, c. 1512.
  • The Triumph of Galatea was paintedby Raphael for the VillaFarnesina in Rome, which was builtfor the Sienese banker AgostinoChigi, one of the richest men of thatage.In the painting, Raphael shows themoment when Galatea, who is in lovewith a shepherd, is beingtransformed into a goddess.Rumor was that the model forGalatea was Chigi’s mistress (andRaphael’s lover) Imperia.
  • Raphael painted a wide range of nudes inthe Villa Farnesina, all focused onmythological, rather than Christian scenes,all with a not-very well disguised fixation onbodily pleasures…
  • Even the fruit seems curiously over-excited …
  • Vasari claims that Raphael would get so excitedas he was painting, that kept leaving to visit hismistress, Margherita Luti.Chigi grew so impatient with the slow progress,that he eventually gave Luti a semi-permanentroom in the Villa so that Raphael wouldn’t haveto leave.
  • Raphael. The Fornarina, c. 1518.The woman is traditionally identifiedwith Margherita Luti, RaphaelsRoman mistress.
  • Giorgione, Sleeping Venus, c. 1509.
  • Titian. Venus of Urbino, c. 1538
  • The painting was commissioned by the Duke of Urbino,possibly to celebrate his 1534 marriage to a much youngerwoman.
  • Unlike the earlier Giorgione work, theTitian in not placed sleeping in amythological landscape, but her eyes areopen in a real room, looking straight atthe viewer.The sheets are ruffled as if somethinghas just happened, but there is invitationin her open pose and gaze.She holds flowers, symbols of love, butone has fallen and lies precarious on theedge of the bed.
  • Some have seen this as an instruction manual for the Duke’sextremely young new wife about how to behave as a sexualbeing, as a loyal wife (thus the dog on the bed), and asmanager of the domestic household (the scene with child inbackground).
  • In his 1880 travelogue A Tramp Abroad, MarkTwain called the Venus of Urbino "the foulest,the vilest, the obscenest picture the worldpossesses".He proposed that "it was painted for a bagnio[bordello], and it was probably refused becauseit was a trifle too strong", adding humorouslythat "in truth, it is a trifle too strong for any placebut a public art gallery".
  • Nonetheless, this style of femalerepresentation became a common idiomduring the next 400 years of Europeanpainting.