Lecture 5TransitionfromGreece toRomeAESTHETICEXPERIENCEANDIDEAS
Weakened by the enlarged scope and scale of warfareduring and immediately after the Peloponnesian War,the independence of ...
Alexander the Great
Note: Should say 4th Century BCE not 5th Century
Comparison of classic-era Greek hoplite versus                                           Macedonian phalangite with sariss...
Macedonian phalanx required level groundbut was very effective.The Roman general Aemilius Paulus wrote that whenhe first s...
Alexander’s conquests spread Greek culture throughoutthe near eastern world.After his death, the so-called Successor kingd...
Shown here are the great libraryand lighthouse at Alexandria (nearmodern day Cairo).Alexandria eventually becameantiquity’...
The library of Alexandriawas but one part ofthe Museum of Alexandria.Museum = study of themusesIt functioned as a sort ofr...
Some of the scholars at Alexandria included:Euclid invented geometryArchimedes calculated pi, discovered hydraulic technol...
At its peak, the Library ofAlexandria may have hadover a half a million itemsin its collection.In 391 CE (700 years after ...
The Hellenistic successor kingdoms wereeventually displaced in the Mediterraneanworld by Rome.Rome’s history proper begins...
Over a three hundred yeartime period, Rome’s powergrew and through a continuousseries of wars with itsneighbours, eventual...
So how did Rome do it?Polybius  (ca. 200–118 BC), a Greek prisoner of wartried to explain Rome’s successes for a Greek aud...
Roman Political SystemTwo eras:Republic (509 – 29 BCE)Empire (29 BCE – 476 CE)
Pax RomanaRome’s height is generally connected to the Flavian andAntonine dynasties. During that time, rather than passing...
Pax RomanaIts peak coincided with the rule of the so-called Five Good Emperors (96 – 180 BCE).Edward Gibbons, the 18th cen...
Roman CultureRoman portraiture: focus on realistic portrayals.Evidence of extreme respect for experience and age.
Heads of Emperors Vespasian and Titus.
Bust of Flavian Woman
Popular hairstyle duringFlavian time period
Not every Roman matronlooked good in the Flavianupdo!
Roman Civic EngineeringRomans were masters at solving practical problems andappear to have had very sophisticated building...
Much of what we know of regularRoman life comes from the buriedremains of Pompeii, buried in 79CE by volcanic eruption.
Visit Pompeii with Google Maps
Very little of Herculaneum has beenuncovered. Herculaneum was buried under20 meters of ash and is now buried as wellby mod...
Lead water pipes in Pompeii
Painted walls in Pompeii
A variety of frescos uncovered in Pompeii
Cave Canem - Beware of Dog – mosaicsPompeii
Images from the so-called Lupanare or Brothel of                                                           Pompeii. Are th...
http://www.lsg.musin.de/geschichte/geschichte/isb/Museum/insula.jpg
Timgad, Algeria, early 2nd century –Typical roman city created from scratch in a conquered province for ex-soldiers.
http://michellemoran.com/CD/Roman-Villa.jpg
Aqueduct in Pont-du-Gard in France
Aqueduct in Sergovia, Spain. Notice it turning a corner. The water channel enters anunderground passage just to the left. ...
Pantheon in Rome. Almost twothousand years after it was built,the Pantheons dome is still theworlds largest unreinforcedco...
Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211-217 C.E.
Coliseum in Rome
Representations of Gladiator games
“Kill him! Lash him! Burn him” Why does he meet the sword in such a cowardly way? Whydoes he strike so feebly? Why doesn’t...
The so-called Bikini Girls, who appear to have amusedthe gladiatorial audience in between events …
Roman ReligionRome’s religion is sometimes referred to as pagan. Theyimported Greek and Etruscan deities, renamed them,and...
Rome’s religion was perhaps best analogous to today’spatriotism. You participated in official religious rituals todemonstr...
On the Nature of ThingsLucretiusOn blackboard in class
Roman ReligionWhile Rome’s educated and cultured elite weresecularized, there was also a slow but growing counter-movement...
Some examples: Mithraism, Orphism, Eleusinians,Dionysianism, Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism,Christianity.
Mithras, the sun god born on Dec 25.
Villa of the Mysteries, PompeiiOne of the richer villas uncovered in Pompeii appears tohave a series of illustrations of a...
Roman ReligionIn conclusion, Romans were very tolerant of differentreligious beliefs as long as the rituals or the beliefs...
ChristianityAfter Jesus of Nazareth’s death around 31 CE, therewere two factions of his followers:Aramaic-speaking Jews fo...
Christianity grew initially almostcompletely amongst the lower classes inRome and in the eastern provinces ofthe Empire.Mu...
Christianity also seemed to gain an early footholdamongst upper-class women.Still, Christianity was very much a fringe rel...
From Pax Romana to …   …the 3rd Century Crisis
Statues of last of the“Good” emperors:Trajan, Hadrian, LuciusVera, Marcus Aurelius,–notice the regal, imperialcalm of the ...
Unlike his predecessors over the previous 100 years,Marcus Aurelius did not appoint his successor based onmerit, but inste...
Commodus was said to have been moreinterested in being a gladiator than anEmperor, and with him began a period ofradical i...
Commodus was eventually assassinated (poisoned,       His second wife Julia Domna was highly learnedthen strangled by his ...
The panel depicts the RomanEmperor Septimus Severus with hisfamily: to the left his wife JuliaDomna, in front of them thei...
Emperor Caracella Severus (murdered hisbrother and co-emperor, ruled 6 years,killed by his soldiers while urinating).Carac...
For the soldiers, a win-win situation emerged. You would get paid abonus for deposing the existing emperor. The new empero...
The 3rd Century CrisisBetween 235 and 284 there were 25 Emperors. Only onedied of natural causes. There were also dozens o...
Emperor Elagabalus (ruled from 218-222) was a teenaged (14at ascension) relative of Septimius Severus. Short rule. Wasassa...
Elagabalus is a controversial figure, who was apparently disliked by hissoldiers for his open homosexuality, his love of f...
Emperor Alexander Severus (ruled from 222-235) was another teenaged (also 14 atascension) relative of Septimius Severuswho...
http://www.utexas.edu/courses/romanciv/end%20and%20legacy/invasions.jpg
The silver content of the main roman                                currency (the denari) declined to zero                ...
During the Crisis of the Third Century, Rome’s vast internaltrade network broke down. Large landowners, no longer able tos...
Emperor Maximinus (first barbarianemperor, ruled for 3 years,murdered); Emperor Gordian I(ruled at same time, dead within2...
Emperor Balbinus (appointed by Senate,tried to bring order, murdered by soldierswithin a few months).Emperor Gordian III, ...
Emperor Trajanus Decius, forced to become emperor by histroops, ruled 2 years, died fighting Goths.Emperor Gallienus, rule...
Emperor Aurelian (270-275) was one of the finestgenerals in Roman history. Successful in reuniting theEmpire. Murdered by ...
Thanks to Auerlian, by late 274, the Roman Empire wasreunited into a single entity, and the frontier troopswere back in pl...
The Crisis had a tremendous effect on the cultural sideas well.In general, there was a rejection of the optimistic andsecu...
Isis Lactans – Isis feeding infant Horus(late 4th c)
Not the Virgin Mary with theChrist child, but Hermesholding the infant Dionysuswith nimbus (halo). Thesemosaics are from t...
Ceiling from Constantine palace in Trier.Circles of light indicate regal importance
Christianity, which was a very minor religious movementin the Empire, became a bit more widespread (but still aminority re...
Diocletian’s Tetrarchy, c. 300 C.E.When Diocletian (ruled from 284 to 305)assumed the rule of the Roman Empire, hedid so w...
The novel idea behind the Tetrarchy was that the empirewould be divided into four quadrants, which were to beruled over by...
Diocletian’s also reformed the economic system whichhad become wildly destabilized during the troubles ofthe third century...
Diocletians reforms fundamentally changed the structureof Roman imperial government and helped stabilize theempire economi...
Constantine the Great(ruled as part of Tetrarchyfrom 306 to 312; as soleEmperor from about 312 to337).Following Diocletian...
Constantine is perhaps best known for being the firstChristian Roman emperor (though he also had his wifeand eldest son ex...
Under Constantine, Rome was divided administrativelyinto western and eastern halves, each with their owncapital.The wester...
Constantinople lies in a very favorablelocation that separates Europe fromAsia, the Mediterranean from the BlackSea. Surro...
Indeed, until the invention of portable field artillery/cannon by theOttoman Turks in the 1400s, Constantinople’s walls we...
After Constantine’s death in 337, there were the usualcivil wars [337-353], followed by Julian (last of thepagan emperors)...
It is believed that these barbarianmovements were caused by themovement of Huns and other steppepeople from the grasslands...
These steppe people appear to have played the key role in                                           fatally destabilizing ...
Rome was sacked first in 410 by the Goths (and then repeatidly over the                                            next 50...
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome

2,017

Published on

Fifth module for GNED 1201 (Aesthetic Experience and Ideas). This one covers the art and culture of first the Hellenistic world, then that of Republican and Imperial Rome. Presentation focuses on the Second Century Crisis and cultural and aesthetic responses to it.

This course is a required general education course for all first-year students at Mount Royal University in Calgary, Canada. My version of the course is structured as a kind of Art History and Culture course. Some of the content overlaps with my other Gen Ed course.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,017
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Alexander the Great
  • Note: Should say 4 th Century BCE not 5 th Century
  • Comparison of classic-era Greek hoplite versus Macadeonian phalangite with sarissa (over 6m/19ft).
  • Macadeonian phalanx required level ground but was very effective. The Roman general Aemilius Paulus wrote that when he first saw the phalanx, it was the most terrifying thing he had ever seen.
  • Alexander’s conquests spread greek culture throughout the near eastern world. After his death, the so-called Successor kingdoms were ruled by a variety of Greek rulers. Shown here are the great library and lighthouse at Alexandria (near modern day Cairo).
  • For a 3D virtual tour through ancient Rome, see http://www.romereborn.virginia.edu/gallery-current.php
  • Roman portraiture: focus on realistic portrayals. Evidence of extreme respect for experience and age.
  • Heads of Emperors Vespasian and Titus.
  • Bust of Flavian Woman.
  • Not every Roman matron looked good in the newest Flavian hairstyle!
  • Arial view and location of Pompeii, buried in 79 CE.
  • Very little of Herculaneum has been uncovered. Herculaneum was buried under 20m of ash!
  • Villa of Livia
  • A variety of frescos uncovered in Pompeii
  • Cave Canem - Beware of Dog - mosaics, Pompeii
  • Timgad, Algeria, early 2nd century – typical roman city created from scratch in a conquered province for ex-soldiers.
  • http://www.gadarg.org.uk/frocester.htm
  • Aqueduct in Pont-du-Gard in France
  • Aqueduct in Sergovia, Spain. Notice it turning a corner. The water channel enters an underground passage just to the left. Romans constructed elaborate water systems for their cities and generally had a constant gradient drop of 15 to 30 cm every 100 meters. Most were underground and were about 1m wide by 2m high. Only when they needed to cross a valley or river was an aqueduct constructed.
  • Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211-217 C.E.
  • Bikini Girls from the Piazza Armerina
  • Mystery religions were not in opposition to the state religion. Rather they provided a
  • Statues of Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, Septimius Severus – notice the regal, imperial calm of the portraits
  • Roman portrait of the second-century emperor Commodus in the Vatican Museums. A.D. 180-192. Commodus as Herules.
  • After the assassination of Commodus, there followed a year of civil wars in which the general Septimius Severus emerged victorious. His second wife Julia Domna was highly learned in philosophy.
  • The panel depicts the Roman Emperor Septimus Severus with his family: to the left his wife Julia Domna, in front of them their sons Geta and Caracalla. 
  • Emperor Caracella Severus (murdered his brother and co-emperor, ruled 6 years, killed by his soldiers while urinating). Caracella made a number of vital changes to the empire. In 212 all free men within the Roman Empire became full Roman citizens. He also increased the size of the army by 25% and doubled their pay. He also created an incentive structure (bonus pay to the soldiers who supported him on his ascension to the throne) that was going to help fuel the Third Century Crisis.
  • For the soldiers, a win-win situation emerged. You would get paid a bonus for deposing the existing emperor. The new emperor would need to buy your loyalty to stay in power. Rinse and repeat.
  • Emperor Elagabalus (ruled from 218-222) was a teenaged (14 at ascension) relative of Septimius Severus. Short rule. Was assassinated.
  • Elagabalus is a controversial figure, who was apparently disliked by his soldiers for his open homosexuality, his love of female fashion, and his harem of “husbands” who were expected to dress in female clothes and wigs. The Roses of Heliogabalus (1888) by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
  • Emperor Alexander Severus (ruled from 222-235) was another teenaged (also 14 at ascension) relative of Septimius Severus who also had a rule cut short by assassination.
  • Crisis of the Third Century (235–284 AD) was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression. The Crisis began with the assassination of Emperor Alexander Severus at the hands of his own troops, initiating a fifty-year period in which 20–25 claimants to the title of Emperor, mostly prominent Roman Army generals, assumed imperial power over all or part of the Empire. Nonstop civil wars encouraged barbarian invasions. Smallpox plague in 251-270 also greatly reduced the population of the Empire. Over 5000 people a day supposedly died in Rome itself during its height.
  • By 258–260, the Empire split into three competing states: the Gallic Empire, including the Roman provinces of Gaul, Britannia and Hispania; the Palmyrene Empire, including the eastern provinces of Syria Palaestina and Aegyptus; and the Italian-centered and independent Roman Empire, proper, between them.
  • At the same time, the Empire was challenged by the rise of a competing superpower, the Sassanid Empire.
  • Victory of Sapor (over Emperor Valerian) in 260 CE
  • There were no budget deficits back then. Since coinage was based on gold and silver, the only way to control the economy was to spend less, tax more, find new gold or silver, or put less gold and silver in the coinage. Because there wasn’t an effective taxation system, the massive cost of the army came through devaluing the currency, which eventually led to rampant inflation. During the Crisis of the Third Century Rome’s vast internal trade network broke down. Large landowners, no longer able to successfully export their crops over long distances, began producing food for subsistence and local barter.  The common free people of the Roman cities, meanwhile, began to move out into the countryside in search of food and better protection. Made desperate by economic necessity, many of these former city dwellers, as well as many small farmers, were forced to give up hard-earned basic civil rights in order to receive protection from large land-holders. In doing so, they became a half-free class of Roman citizen known as  coloni . They were tied to the land, and in later Imperial law their status was made hereditary. This provided an early model for serfdom, which would form the basis of medieval feudal society and the medieval peasantry. Rome’s relative large and prosperous middle class more or less disappeared for good. Wealth appears to have become concentrated into the hands of a very few rich families. Roman cities themselves began to change in character. The large, open cities of Classical antiquity slowly gave way to the smaller, walled cities 
  • Emperor Maximinus (first barbarian emperor, assinated Caracella, ruled for 3 years, murdered); Emperor Gordian I (ruled at same time, dead within 20 some days)
  • Emperor Balbinus (appointed by Senate, tried to bring order, murdered by soldiers within a few months). Emperor Gordian III, 13 year old orphan, murdered after defeating the Persians
  • Emperor Trajanus Decius, forced to become emperor by his troops, ruled 2 years, died fighting Goths. Emperor Gallienus, ruled 15 years (a record!), inflicted massive defeats on Persians, recaptured Antioch, won two gigantic victories against invading gothic armies in Greece, defeated the Alemmani who had invaded Italy, murdered by his own bodyguard while fighting breakaway Roman Gallic Empire.
  • Emperor Aurelian (270-275) was one of the finest generals in Roman history. Successful in reuniting the Empire. Murdered by his soldiers. By late 274, the Roman Empire was reunited into a single entity, and the frontier troops were back in place. More than a century passed before Rome again lost military ascendancy over its external enemies. However, dozens of formerly thriving cities, especially in the Western Empire, had been ruined, their populations dispersed and, with the breakdown of the economic system, could not be rebuilt. Major cities and towns, even Rome itself, had not needed fortifications for many centuries; many now surrounded themselves with thick walls.
  • Isis Lactans – Isis feeding infant Horus (late 4 th c)
  • Not the Virgin Mary with the Christ child, but Hermes holding the infant Dionysus with nimbus (halo). These mosaics are from the 4th century AD from Nea Paphos, Cyprus http://www.flickr.com/photos/7549203@N04/3328213281/in/set-72157615992433806/
  • Ceiling from Constantinine palace in Trier. Circles of light indicate regal importance
  • Diocletian’s Tetrarchy, c. 300 C.E. When Diocletian (ruled from 284 to 305) assumed the rule of the Roman Empire, he did so with the realization that the empire, with all it's far-flung provinces, was far too vast to be ruled effectively by one man. Accordingly, he formed a system of governing known as the "Tetrarchy", or the rule of Four. The novel idea behind the Tetrarchy was that the empire would be divided into four quadrants, which were to be ruled over by two Augustii, who would be assisted by two Caesars, or "junior emperors". This system was intended to provide an orderly and smooth answer to the question of succession. The two Augustii would be training the two Caesars as their eventual replacements. Upon the retirement of the Augustii, the two Caesars would be elevated to the position of Augustii, and would then pick two new Caesars. Diocletian’s also reformed the economic system which had become wildly destabilized during the troubles of the third century. These included price controls, job classifications, new coinage, broader taxation, etc, which had mixed results. Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure of Roman imperial government and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily, enabling the empire to remain essentially intact for another hundred years despite having seemed near the brink of collapse in Diocletian's youth. He more or less changed the ideological basis of the Empire from a pseudo-Republic in which the emperor, army, and senate shared power to a full autocratic system with the Emperor in complete control.
  • Constantine the Great (ruled as part of Tetrarchy from 306 to 312; as sole Emperor from about 312 to 337) . Following Diocletian’s retirement, there was not the orderly power transition as imagined by the Diocletian Tetrarchy. Instead, another series of brutal civil wars followed by the victory of Constantine . Constantine is perhaps best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor (though he also had his wife and eldest son executed). Emphasized religious uniformity of belief and engaged in dramatic church building program.
  • Under Constantine, Rome was divided administratively into western and eastern halves, each with their own capital. The western half’s capital was Rome. The richer eastern half’s capital was the old small Greek city of Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople, and then massively upgraded and improved. Constantinople grew in power and became the center of the Eastern or Byzantine Roman Empire, which lasted until 1423.
  • Constantinople lies in a very favorable location that separates Europe from Asia, the Mediterranean from the Black Sea. Surrounded by water on three sides, it is also quite defensible. Huge walls allowed the Eastern Roman Empire to survive for over 1000 years.
  • Indeed, until the invention of portable field artillery/cannon by the Ottoman Turks in the 1400s, Constantinople’s walls were impregnable.
  • So while the rest of the Roman Empire was wracked by a series of barbarian invasions in the 400s, Constantinople was untouched.
  • It is believed that these barbarian movements were caused by the movement of Huns and other steppe people from the grasslands of Central Asia. These nomadic raiders relied on their horse mobility and the power of the composite bow (which can be shot from horseback, unlike a normal bow).
  • http://www.utexas.edu/courses/rome/210reasons.html
  • Transcript of "Art and Culture - Module 05 - Hellenism and Rome"

    1. 1. Lecture 5TransitionfromGreece toRomeAESTHETICEXPERIENCEANDIDEAS
    2. 2. Weakened by the enlarged scope and scale of warfareduring and immediately after the Peloponnesian War,the independence of the Greek polis was ended foreverwith the rise of Macedon and the united Greeks defeatby Philip II and his son Alexander the Great in 338 BCE.
    3. 3. Alexander the Great
    4. 4. Note: Should say 4th Century BCE not 5th Century
    5. 5. Comparison of classic-era Greek hoplite versus Macedonian phalangite with sarissa (over 6m/19ft).http://myweb.unomaha.edu/~mreames/Alexander/sarissa_jones.html
    6. 6. Macedonian phalanx required level groundbut was very effective.The Roman general Aemilius Paulus wrote that whenhe first saw the phalanx, it was the most terrifyingthing he had ever seen. Comparison to Greek Hoplites
    7. 7. Alexander’s conquests spread Greek culture throughoutthe near eastern world.After his death, the so-called Successor kingdoms wereruled by his generals.This time period generally referred to as theHellenistic Age.
    8. 8. Shown here are the great libraryand lighthouse at Alexandria (nearmodern day Cairo).Alexandria eventually becameantiquity’s academic center,attracting Greek, Egyptian, Persian,Jewish, and Roman scholars.
    9. 9. The library of Alexandriawas but one part ofthe Museum of Alexandria.Museum = study of themusesIt functioned as a sort ofresearch institute.  addition to the library,Inthe Museum included roomsfor the study of astronomy,anatomy, and even a zoo ofexotic animals. “Starting as early as 300 BCE, the Ptolomaic kings who ruled Alexandria had the inspired idea of luring leading scholars, scientists, and poets to their city by offering them life appointments at the Museum, with handsome salaries, tax exemptions, free food and lodging, and the almost limitless resources of the library.”
    10. 10. Some of the scholars at Alexandria included:Euclid invented geometryArchimedes calculated pi, discovered hydraulic technologyEratosthenes calculated earth’s circumference to within 1% accuracyGalen systematized anatomy and pharmacology
    11. 11. At its peak, the Library ofAlexandria may have hadover a half a million itemsin its collection.In 391 CE (700 years after itscreation), the Musuem atAlexandria and its Library weredestroyed soon after the RomanEmperor Theodosius prohibitedpagan (non-Christian) forms ofworship.
    12. 12. The Hellenistic successor kingdoms wereeventually displaced in the Mediterraneanworld by Rome.Rome’s history proper begins when it becamea Republic in 509 BCE. At that time, it was asmall town surrounded by richer, morepopulous peoples.
    13. 13. Over a three hundred yeartime period, Rome’s powergrew and through a continuousseries of wars with itsneighbours, eventuallycontrolled the entire Italianpeninsula.Within another century, Romanpower extended across theMediterranean world.
    14. 14. So how did Rome do it?Polybius  (ca. 200–118 BC), a Greek prisoner of wartried to explain Rome’s successes for a Greek audience.He claimed it was due to:1. Rome’s political system (mixed constitution thatblended aristocratic and democratic elements)2. Roman army
    15. 15. Roman Political SystemTwo eras:Republic (509 – 29 BCE)Empire (29 BCE – 476 CE)
    16. 16. Pax RomanaRome’s height is generally connected to the Flavian andAntonine dynasties. During that time, rather than passingon power to one’s genetic heir, the Emperor wouldadopt the “best” Roman to be his son (and who mayeven have been older than the “father”).This time period is often referred to as the Pax Romana(The Roman Peace), during which trade, engineering,and the arts flourished.
    17. 17. Pax RomanaIts peak coincided with the rule of the so-called Five Good Emperors (96 – 180 BCE).Edward Gibbons, the 18th century historian who pennedDecline and Fall of the Roman Empire, described theperiod as that “in which the condition of the human racewas most happy and prosperous.”
    18. 18. Roman CultureRoman portraiture: focus on realistic portrayals.Evidence of extreme respect for experience and age.
    19. 19. Heads of Emperors Vespasian and Titus.
    20. 20. Bust of Flavian Woman
    21. 21. Popular hairstyle duringFlavian time period
    22. 22. Not every Roman matronlooked good in the Flavianupdo!
    23. 23. Roman Civic EngineeringRomans were masters at solving practical problems andappear to have had very sophisticated building andengineering skills.
    24. 24. Much of what we know of regularRoman life comes from the buriedremains of Pompeii, buried in 79CE by volcanic eruption.
    25. 25. Visit Pompeii with Google Maps
    26. 26. Very little of Herculaneum has beenuncovered. Herculaneum was buried under20 meters of ash and is now buried as wellby modern buildings in Naples.
    27. 27. Lead water pipes in Pompeii
    28. 28. Painted walls in Pompeii
    29. 29. A variety of frescos uncovered in Pompeii
    30. 30. Cave Canem - Beware of Dog – mosaicsPompeii
    31. 31. Images from the so-called Lupanare or Brothel of Pompeii. Are these images, as most have thought, a menu for ordering sexual acts, or …… is the brothel actually a cloak room for a bath house, andthese images are cheeky ways to remind bathers where theyhung their toga while they bathed.
    32. 32. http://www.lsg.musin.de/geschichte/geschichte/isb/Museum/insula.jpg
    33. 33. Timgad, Algeria, early 2nd century –Typical roman city created from scratch in a conquered province for ex-soldiers.
    34. 34. http://michellemoran.com/CD/Roman-Villa.jpg
    35. 35. Aqueduct in Pont-du-Gard in France
    36. 36. Aqueduct in Sergovia, Spain. Notice it turning a corner. The water channel enters anunderground passage just to the left. Romans constructed elaborate water systems for theircities and generally had a constant gradient drop of 15 to 30 cm every 100 meters. Most wereunderground and were about 1m wide by 2m high. Only when they needed to cross a valley orriver was an aqueduct constructed.
    37. 37. Pantheon in Rome. Almost twothousand years after it was built,the Pantheons dome is still theworlds largest unreinforcedconcrete dome
    38. 38. Baths of Caracalla, Rome, c. 211-217 C.E.
    39. 39. Coliseum in Rome
    40. 40. Representations of Gladiator games
    41. 41. “Kill him! Lash him! Burn him” Why does he meet the sword in such a cowardly way? Whydoes he strike so feebly? Why doesn’t he die well? Whip him on his wounds!” Seneca, Roman philosopher, author of Letters on Morality
    42. 42. The so-called Bikini Girls, who appear to have amusedthe gladiatorial audience in between events …
    43. 43. Roman ReligionRome’s religion is sometimes referred to as pagan. Theyimported Greek and Etruscan deities, renamed them,and assimilated them into their own beliefs.Like with the Greeks, Roman religion was orientedaround rituals, such as animal sacrifices, and seemed tolack any type of eschatology (life after death).Roman religion appears to have been more like acontract: quid pro quo [I give you, you give me]
    44. 44. Rome’s religion was perhaps best analogous to today’spatriotism. You participated in official religious rituals todemonstrate your support of the state.Indeed, it appears that most of the Roman educatedelite during the height of Rome’s pax romana werepretty much completely secular.“Just when the gods had ceased to be, and the Christ had not yetcome, there was a unique moment in history, between Cicero andMarcus Aurelius, when man stood alone.” -- Gustave Flaubert
    45. 45. On the Nature of ThingsLucretiusOn blackboard in class
    46. 46. Roman ReligionWhile Rome’s educated and cultured elite weresecularized, there was also a slow but growing counter-movement that embraced so-called MysteryCults/Religions.These cults were transplants from the eastern edge ofthe Empire.They provided a personal spirituality focused aroundmonotheism, mysterious rituals, including rebirth viabaptism in blood or water, salvation, eternallife/damnation, and a personal relationship with thatsingle divinity.
    47. 47. Some examples: Mithraism, Orphism, Eleusinians,Dionysianism, Zoroastrianism, Manicheanism,Christianity.
    48. 48. Mithras, the sun god born on Dec 25.
    49. 49. Villa of the Mysteries, PompeiiOne of the richer villas uncovered in Pompeii appears tohave a series of illustrations of a ritual in one of thesemystery religions.They seem part of a ritual ceremony aimed at preparingprivileged, protected girls for the psychologicaltransition to life as married women. 
    50. 50. Roman ReligionIn conclusion, Romans were very tolerant of differentreligious beliefs as long as the rituals or the beliefsdidn’t interfere with one’s loyalty to the State.
    51. 51. ChristianityAfter Jesus of Nazareth’s death around 31 CE, therewere two factions of his followers:Aramaic-speaking Jews focused around Jerusalem. Leadby James, Jesus’s brother. “Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were offended at him.” Mark 6:3 More focused on transforming Judaism.Hellenized, Greek-speaking Christians and Jews. Lead byPaul, who eventually travelled to Rome. More focused on converting and spreading the faith.
    52. 52. Christianity grew initially almostcompletely amongst the lower classes inRome and in the eastern provinces ofthe Empire.Much of our knowledge of early Christianity in Romeis found in the subterranean burial chambers wherethe poor seemed to have favoured as a place ofworship.
    53. 53. Christianity also seemed to gain an early footholdamongst upper-class women.Still, Christianity was very much a fringe religion.Perhaps 5% of the Roman population across the entireextent of the Empire was Christian by 200 CE.
    54. 54. From Pax Romana to … …the 3rd Century Crisis
    55. 55. Statues of last of the“Good” emperors:Trajan, Hadrian, LuciusVera, Marcus Aurelius,–notice the regal, imperialcalm of the portraits
    56. 56. Unlike his predecessors over the previous 100 years,Marcus Aurelius did not appoint his successor based onmerit, but instead appointed his son Commodus, adisastrous choice, who ruled from 180 – 192 CE.
    57. 57. Commodus was said to have been moreinterested in being a gladiator than anEmperor, and with him began a period ofradical imperial instability and badgovernment.He renamed Rome to Colonia Commodiana (City of Commodus),renamed the 12 months of the year to his 12 different names,declared himself the sole god in Roman religion, etcCommodus was the villain in the movie Gladiator, and isone of those rare villains who appear to have actuallybeen significantly nastier in real life than in theirHollywood portrayal!
    58. 58. Commodus was eventually assassinated (poisoned, His second wife Julia Domna was highly learnedthen strangled by his wrestling partner). There in philosophy.followed the Year of Five Emperors and civil war inwhich the general Septimius Severus emergedvictorious.
    59. 59. The panel depicts the RomanEmperor Septimus Severus with hisfamily: to the left his wife JuliaDomna, in front of them theirsons Geta and Caracalla. The face of Geta was presumablyerased after Caracalla murderedhis brother.
    60. 60. Emperor Caracella Severus (murdered hisbrother and co-emperor, ruled 6 years,killed by his soldiers while urinating).Caracella made a number of vitalchanges to the empire. In 212 all freemen within the Roman Empire becamefull Roman citizens. He also increasedthe size of the army by 25% and doubledtheir pay. He also created an incentivestructure (bonus pay to the soldiers whosupported him on his ascension to thethrone) that was going to help fuel theThird Century Crisis.
    61. 61. For the soldiers, a win-win situation emerged. You would get paid abonus for deposing the existing emperor. The new emperor would needto buy your loyalty to stay in power. Rinse and repeat.
    62. 62. The 3rd Century CrisisBetween 235 and 284 there were 25 Emperors. Only onedied of natural causes. There were also dozens of otherswho were acclaimed Emperor by their soldiers but whodied before reaching Rome.It was 50 years of unbelievable anarchy: constant civilwar, complete economic collapse, plague, barbarianinvasions, war with a rival superpower (Sassanids), andthe breakup of parts of the Empire into separate states.
    63. 63. Emperor Elagabalus (ruled from 218-222) was a teenaged (14at ascension) relative of Septimius Severus. Short rule. Wasassassinated.
    64. 64. Elagabalus is a controversial figure, who was apparently disliked by hissoldiers for his open homosexuality, his love of female fashion, and hisharem of “husbands” who were expected to dress in female clothes andwigs.The Roses of Heliogabalus (1888) by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
    65. 65. Emperor Alexander Severus (ruled from 222-235) was another teenaged (also 14 atascension) relative of Septimius Severuswho also had a rule cut short byassassination.
    66. 66. http://www.utexas.edu/courses/romanciv/end%20and%20legacy/invasions.jpg
    67. 67. The silver content of the main roman currency (the denari) declined to zero during the crisis There were no budget deficits in Roman times. Since coinage was based on gold and silver, the only way to control the economy was to spend less, tax more, find new gold or silver, or put less gold and silver in the coinage. Because there wasn’t an effective taxation system, the massive cost of the army came through devaluing theSilver denari under Mainly copper denari currency, which eventually ledCaracella (217 CE) (270 CE) to rampant inflation.
    68. 68. During the Crisis of the Third Century, Rome’s vast internaltrade network broke down. Large landowners, no longer able tosuccessfully export their crops over long distances, beganproducing food for subsistence and local barter. The common free people of the Roman cities, meanwhile, beganto move out into the countryside in search of food and betterprotection. Made desperate by economic necessity, many ofthese former city dwellers, as well as many small farmers, wereforced to give up hard-earned basic civil rights in order toreceive protection from large land-holders. In doing so, theybecame a half-free class of Roman citizen known as coloni. Theywere tied to the land, and in later Imperial law their status wasmade hereditary. This provided an early model for serfdom,which would form the basis of medieval feudal society and themedieval peasantry.Rome’s relatively large and prosperous middle class more or lessdisappeared for good. Wealth appears to have becomeconcentrated into the hands of a very few rich families.Roman cities themselves began to change in character. Thelarge, open cities of Classical antiquity slowly gave way to thesmaller, walled cities.
    69. 69. Emperor Maximinus (first barbarianemperor, ruled for 3 years,murdered); Emperor Gordian I(ruled at same time, dead within20 days)
    70. 70. Emperor Balbinus (appointed by Senate,tried to bring order, murdered by soldierswithin a few months).Emperor Gordian III, 13 year old orphan,murdered after leading his army anddefeating the Persians.
    71. 71. Emperor Trajanus Decius, forced to become emperor by histroops, ruled 2 years, died fighting Goths.Emperor Gallienus, ruled 8 years (a record!), inflicted massivedefeats on Persians, won two gigantic victories against invadinggothic armies in Greece, and defeated the Alemmani who hadinvaded Italy. Murdered by his own bodyguard while fightingbreakaway Roman Gallic Empire.
    72. 72. Emperor Aurelian (270-275) was one of the finestgenerals in Roman history. Successful in reuniting theEmpire. Murdered by his soldiers. Emperor Claudius Gothicus, ruled 2 years, died of smallpox plague.
    73. 73. Thanks to Auerlian, by late 274, the Roman Empire wasreunited into a single entity, and the frontier troopswere back in place.More than a century passed before Rome again lostmilitary ascendancy over its external enemies.However, dozens of formerly thriving cities, especially inthe Western Empire, had been ruined, their populationsdispersed and, with the breakdown of the economicsystem, could not be rebuilt.Major cities and towns, even Rome itself, had notneeded fortifications for many centuries; many nowsurrounded themselves with thick walls.
    74. 74. The Crisis had a tremendous effect on the cultural sideas well.In general, there was a rejection of the optimistic andsecular orientation of classical civilization and a new-found concern for religious and other-worldly ideals.Personal religious experiences and salvation via acompassionate god became increasingly important.
    75. 75. Isis Lactans – Isis feeding infant Horus(late 4th c)
    76. 76. Not the Virgin Mary with theChrist child, but Hermesholding the infant Dionysuswith nimbus (halo). Thesemosaics are from the 4thcentury AD from Nea Paphos,Cyprus
    77. 77. Ceiling from Constantine palace in Trier.Circles of light indicate regal importance
    78. 78. Christianity, which was a very minor religious movementin the Empire, became a bit more widespread (but still aminority religion, perhaps no more than 10% ofpopulation).Similar developments can be traced in philosophy, wherePlotinus (205-270) emphasized mans striving for unionwith god and made Neoplatonism the dominantintellectual force among the educated.
    79. 79. Diocletian’s Tetrarchy, c. 300 C.E.When Diocletian (ruled from 284 to 305)assumed the rule of the Roman Empire, hedid so with the realization that the empire,with all its far-flung provinces, was far toovast to be ruled effectively by one man.Accordingly, he formed a system of governingknown as the "Tetrarchy", or the rule of Four.
    80. 80. The novel idea behind the Tetrarchy was that the empirewould be divided into four quadrants, which were to beruled over by two Augustii, who would be assisted by twoCaesars, or "junior emperors".This system was intended to provide an orderly andsmooth answer to the question of succession.The two Augustii would be training the two Caesars as their eventualreplacements. Upon the retirement of the Augustii, the two Caesarswould be elevated to the position of Augustii, and would then pick twonew Caesars.
    81. 81. Diocletian’s also reformed the economic system whichhad become wildly destabilized during the troubles ofthe third century. These included price controls, jobclassifications, new coinage, broader taxation, etc,which had mixed results.
    82. 82. Diocletians reforms fundamentally changed the structureof Roman imperial government and helped stabilize theempire economically and militarily, enabling the empireto remain essentially intact for another hundred yearsdespite having seemed near the brink of collapse inDiocletians youth.He more or less changed the ideological basis of theEmpire from a pseudo-Republic in which the emperor,army, and senate shared power to a full autocraticsystem with the Emperor in complete control.He also tried to institute a new official monotheisticState religion (worship of the Sun).
    83. 83. Constantine the Great(ruled as part of Tetrarchyfrom 306 to 312; as soleEmperor from about 312 to337).Following Diocletian’sretirement, there was notthe orderly power transitionas imagined by theDiocletian Tetrarchy.Instead, there was anotherseries of brutal civil warsfollowed by the victory ofConstantine.
    84. 84. Constantine is perhaps best known for being the firstChristian Roman emperor (though he also had his wifeand eldest son executed).Emphasized religious uniformity of belief and engaged indramatic church building program.The official Christian Bible and doctrine of the CatholicChurch were codified during Constantine’s reign.Added Christian belief requirements to army andgovernment positions.
    85. 85. Under Constantine, Rome was divided administrativelyinto western and eastern halves, each with their owncapital.The western half’s capital was Rome.The richer eastern half’s capital was the old small Greekcity of Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople,and then massively upgraded and improved.Constantinople grew in power and became the center ofthe Eastern or Byzantine Roman Empire, which lasteduntil 1423.
    86. 86. Constantinople lies in a very favorablelocation that separates Europe fromAsia, the Mediterranean from the BlackSea. Surrounded by water on threesides, it is also quite defensible. Hugewalls allowed the Eastern RomanEmpire to survive for over 1000 years.
    87. 87. Indeed, until the invention of portable field artillery/cannon by theOttoman Turks in the 1400s, Constantinople’s walls were impregnable.
    88. 88. After Constantine’s death in 337, there were the usualcivil wars [337-353], followed by Julian (last of thepagan emperors), Valens, and Theodosius.Theodosius (379-395) made paganism and other non-Christian religions illegal.At the same time, Rome was subjected to significantwaves of barbarian invasions, which ultimately over-ranmost of the Roman Empire, especially in the West.
    89. 89. It is believed that these barbarianmovements were caused by themovement of Huns and other steppepeople from the grasslands of CentralAsia. These nomadic raiders relied ontheir horse mobility and the power ofthe composite bow (which can beshot from horseback, unlike a normalbow).
    90. 90. These steppe people appear to have played the key role in fatally destabilizing not only the Roman Empire, but similar unified empires in China, India, and Persia.http://www.flickr.com/photos/todorkamenov/209397447/sizes/o/
    91. 91. Rome was sacked first in 410 by the Goths (and then repeatidly over the next 50 years by others). Eventually, the Western part of the Empire was replaced with various “Barbarian Kingdoms”. The prosperous and stable world of antiquity was gone.http://explorethemed.com/FallRome.asp?c=1

    ×